Distributed system control paradigms applied to a street lighting environment. The point is where the control nodes are located and the scope of these nodes' connections.
Intelligent control of public lighting is nowadays one of the most challenging issues in smart city deployment. Lighting optimization entails a compromise between comfort, safety, and power consumption, affecting both vehicles and pedestrians. Smart solutions must estimate their characteristics to trade-off users’ needs and energy requirements. Thi...
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... DCS can cover from a small number of nodes up to a significant amount. We show different distributed system control paradigms applied to a street lighting environment in Figure 4. ...
... Among the fields of application of distributed intelligence, mobility environments, both in cities and on roads, are one of the most widely used. Environments can apply intelligence in everyday aspects such as optimising traffic or managing the power consumption of road lighting . Using embedded systems with distributed intelligence to coordinate non-daily aspects, such as accident prevention, detection or management, is also a challenge. ...
In the current context of the Internet of Things, embedded devices can have some intelligence and distribute both data and processed information. This article presents the paradigm shift from a hierarchical pyramid to an inverted pyramid that is the basis for edge, fog, and cloud-based architectures. To support the new paradigm, the article presents a distributed modular architecture. The devices are made up of essential elements, called control nodes, which can communicate to enhance their functionality without sending raw data to the cloud. To validate the architecture, identical control nodes equipped with a distance sensor have been implemented. Each module can read the distance to each vehicle and process these data to provide the vehicle’s speed and length. In addition, the article describes how connecting two or more CNs, forming an intelligent device, can increase the accuracy of the parameters measured. Results show that it is possible to reduce the processing load up to 22% in the case of sharing processed information instead of raw data. In addition, when the control nodes collaborate at the edge level, the relative error obtained when measuring the speed and length of a vehicle is reduced by one percentage point.
In the following paper a proposal was made for a remote management system for public lighting belonging to Empresa Eléctrica C.A., analyzing the different technologies for remote control and monitoring of equipment, with the purpose of defining the most appropriate one in terms of its advantages, installation, and cost of the necessary equipment. The company has currently opted for the installation of LED lamps on Av. de los Alcaldes and Av. Aurelio Jaramillo, improving the photometric parameters with respect to the old technologies, but they still have a high energy consumption due to the operating time of the luminaires. An analysis and comparison of MINOS UMPI, OWLET, ELO and SimplySnap technologies was carried out to define the most appropriate one in consideration with the requirements of the equipment already installed, therefore a field study was carried out to verify the state of the public lighting and the transformer stations. In addition to comparing the cost of current energy consumption with the cost of energy consumption of the system with remote management. In turn, a technical-economic study of the proposal and a simulation of the lighting aspects under the current ARCONEL-CONELEC 006-20 regulations. Design a lighting system with telemanagement and radiofrequency wave communication between the operation teams through a Wi-Fi network with the monitoring equipment. Analyze the photometric effect through simulation with the Dialux program, verifying if the values obtained are in accordance with the regulations in force in the country, in addition, the technical study in the transformation stations determining their chargeability with the current and proposed system. The data obtained in the comparison of equipment allowed to determine the VAN and the IRR of the proposal obtained the following values (988.71$ and 8.29%) in a period of 10 years.KeywordsEnergy consumptionEnergy efficiencyLed luminairePublic lightingRemote management
In recent years, light pollution has become a very serious problem, and many nighttime traffic accidents are caused by rapid changes in the intensity of car headlights. As the rapid change of external light intensity can reduce people's ability to observe objects, cause human discomfort, and even damage the naked eye. Therefore, trying to achieve the brightness switching of car headlights by means of breathing lights is an important way to reduce traffic accidents. In this paper, we use microcontroller as the main control device and PWM technology to design a set of headlight state switching by breathing. Finally, the safety and security of night travelers are improved and the traffic accident rate is reduced.KeywordsMicrocontrollerPWMBreathing lightHumanized designAutomotive lighting