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Distended mammary glands with galactostasis in a bitch that just weaned. Such glands are predisposed to develop retention mastitis.

Distended mammary glands with galactostasis in a bitch that just weaned. Such glands are predisposed to develop retention mastitis.

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Canine mastitis represents a major threat for both pups and nursing bitch. If left untreated, it can complicate with neonatal death, sepsis, and mastitis gangrenosa; for this reason quick and accurate diagnosis and treatment initiation are crucial health restoration. Even though mastitis is considered to be an emergency, most of the time it is over...

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... galactostasis cases, there is no sign of infection, but the glandular tissue tends to get distended (Figures 5 and 6), warm, and painful. Small litters and absence of puppies will promote the buildup of a high pressure of milk into the undrained mammary glands, which will allow for the milk pH to become alkaline but will not change the milk chloride levels. ...

Citations

... It has a wide variety of forms, from non-septic galactostasis to septic, acute, gangrenous, or chronic inflammation, causing from subclinical to severe systemic illness (39). The diagnosis of mastitis is based on medical history, clinical examination, and additional laboratory assays like milk pH, cytology, and serum/milk CRP evaluation (38). ...
... The milk pH was evaluated with litmus paper (E. Merk, Darmstadt, Germany) (38,43). ...
... In the present case, the diagnosis of mastitis was confirmed by milk analysis (pH, cytology, CRP, and microbiology) in agreement with previous reports (1,12,25,32,38,41,43). On the other hand, no systemic alterations were observed on physical or laboratory examinations except for a mild leukocytosis due to eosinophilia. ...
Article
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Allonursing is typical in mammals, especially in the polytocous taxa with large litters. One of the immediate benefits of allonursing is milk evacuation of distended mammary glands, especially in females who lost their offspring, predisposing them to mastitis. Mastitis represents the inflammation of the mammary gland and in carnivores it can affect a section of the gland or the entire mammary tissue (13). Therefore, it is considered an emergency (2, 15) since if left untreated mastitis can suffer local and systemic complications like mammary gangrene, septicemia, or neonatal mortality. This case report presents a mastitis episode in an allomothering mongrel bitch after starting to allonurse a one-day-old jaguar cub and her single puppy. Laboratory assays showed the presence of mild leukocytosis, folded milk C-reactive protein (CRP; 5.1 μg/mL) levels, an alkaline milk pH reaction (pH > 7), increased cell counts, phagocytosis, and presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis in the cultured milk samples.
... level (Dzięcioł et al., 2006;Vasiu, Dąbrowski, et al., 2017;Vasiu et al., 2020). ...
... Milk analysis: an acidic pH reaction (<6.5), with a slightly folded milk CRP level (1.7 μg/ml; Vasiu, Dąbrowski, et al., 2017;Vasiu et al., 2020), and increased numbers of cellular debris, alongside few somatic cells, scattered neutrophils, inactivated macrophages and epithelial cells are present on milk smears (Vasiu, Tăbăran, et al., 2018). ...
... Under bacterial infections, milk pH becomes more alkaline (>7.4; Vasiu, Dąbrowski, et al., 2017;Vasiu et al., 2020) in which case, beta-lactam antibiotics may be preferred, since they are effective and safe for both the neonates and the bitch (Barsanti, 2012;Root Kustritz, 2010). On the other hand, some antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, doxycycline, tetracycline or fluoroquinolones appear in reasonable concentrations in the milk regardless of its pH (Grundy, 2018;Martí, 2009). ...
Article
Mastitis is a common reproductive disorder in bitches, reaching a prevalence of 0.71%. Mastitis has a wide range of forms, from asymptomatic to severe gangrenous mastitis that can lead to septic shock and death of the bitch and nurslings. However, most of the time it is overlooked, undiagnosed or mistreated. The present systematic review was performed to revise and summarize the existing knowledge related to this disorder, including diagnosis, treatment and prevention.