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Displacement and energetic variables from Catapult (CAT), GPExe (GPE) and StatSport (STS) devices for each drill.

Displacement and energetic variables from Catapult (CAT), GPExe (GPE) and StatSport (STS) devices for each drill.

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Article
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This study compared the outputs of three different commercially-available GPS player-tracking devices for a range of commonly used displacement and energetic variables in activities replicating team sport movements. Professional male soccer players (n = 7), simultaneously wore three GPS devices (Catapult OptimEye S5, GPExe Pro 1, StatSport ViperPod...

Citations

... [47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56] There are many studies that examine the various parameters offered by the S5 model of the Catapult brand. 13,[57][58][59][60][61][62] The validity and reliability of the Catapult s 5 GPS unit for measuring the total distance covered, max velocity, deceleration max, and acceleration max has been tested. 60,63,64 These studies 60,63,64 present findings similar to ours. ...
Article
This research aimed to examine the validity and reliability of GPS units located in different positions. Nine recreational soccer players (age: 23.18 6 2.21 years; height: 176 6 7.65 cm; and body mass: 71.13 6 4.67 kg) participated voluntarily in the current study. Athletes were tested through the team sports simulation cycle (TSSC) protocol. This protocol consisted of a total of 1200 m. Each lap consisted of a distance of 150 m, and the athletes were asked to perform eight laps. Two GPS units (OptimEye S5; Catapult Innovations, Scoresby, Victoria) were used for each athlete during the TSSC protocol. The first unit was positioned in the scapula location, and the other GPS unit was positioned in the center of mass (COM) location, and simultaneous data were recorded. A paired-samples t-test was used to determine the difference between the meter values measured in the field and the devices. The main finding of this research was that the player load parameters, which are derived from the accelerometer in GPS units, changes with the player's position (total player load scapula 2 total player Load COM p4 0.001, Cohen'd 22.449). There was no statistical difference between the other parameters (total distance covered, max velocity, deceleration max and acceleration max) examined in the study. CV% and SWC values showing the reliability of total distance covered scapula (CV% = 1.41; SWC = 0.28), total distance covered COM (CV% = 3.64; SWC = 0.73), total player load scapula (CV% = 2.29; SWC = 0.46), total player load COM (CV% = 1.83; SWC = 0.37), deceleration max scapula (CV% = 3.51; SWC = 0.70), deceleration max COM (CV% = 2.78; SWC = 0.56), Acceleration max scapula (CV% = 3.85; SWC = 0.77), and acceleration max COM (CV% = 2.74; SWC = 0.55) were within acceptable limits (CV% 5). The reliability of GPS units in different locations was investigated by CV% SWC analysis. It was found that all values in the scapula and COM locations were measured validly and reliably, but the total player load measurements were statistically different in the scapula and COM.
... • Algoritmos de procesamiento de la información: Comúnmente las empresas desarrolladoras de dispositivos tecnológicos incluyen algoritmos para la identificación de datos de peor calidad para corregirlos mediante interpolación, suavizado o eliminación de la información (Malone et al., 2017). Este aspecto puede ser de ayuda para realizar una rápida evaluación del entrenamiento y la competición, pero puede ser contraproducente debido a que cada empresa emplea sus propios algoritmos y la comparación entre tecnologías no puede ser posible (Terziotti, Sim & Polglaze, 2018). Este aspecto también ocurre con diferentes versiones de dispositivos de la misma marca comercial, por lo que tras cada actualización es necesario evaluar el dispositivo utilizado para determinar la precisión en la medida (Kempton, Sullivan, Bilsborough, Cordy & Coutts, 2015) (Malone et al., 2017). ...
Thesis
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La acelerometría es un método de cuantificación de la carga externa que está teniendo una aplicación exponencial gracias a su integración en dispositivos electrónicos para el análisis del rendimiento en deportes colectivos. La carga externa ha sido comúnmente cuantificada a través del desplazamiento (distancia y velocidad), no teniendo en cuenta su efecto a nivel neuromuscular. Por ello, el objetivo principal de la presente Tesis Doctoral es el análisis de la carga externa que soportan múltiples ubicaciones anatómicas de forma simultánea en los desplazamientos deportivos, específicamente en baloncesto. Para ello, se realiza una revisión sistemática detectando que diferentes aspectos técnicos requieren una evaluación previa al registro así como que los acelerómetros miden la aceleración del segmento al que están unidos. Para subsanar ambos aspectos, se realiza un análisis de la precisión y fiabilidad del sensor, se identifican los índices de carga y frecuencia de muestreo adecuados, así como se diseña y valida un protocolo de registro multi-ubicación y una batería de evaluaciones que representa los desplazamientos más comunes en los deportes de invasión. Finalmente, se realiza la evaluación multi-ubicación de la carga externa en test de laboratorio y test de campo para evaluar el efecto de la velocidad, sexo y tipo de desplazamiento, así como establecer perfiles de rendimiento individual. A partir de estos resultados, los entrenadores podrán identificar la carga externa específica de cada estructura musculoesquelética para diseñar programas individualizados de acondicionamiento físico, prevención de lesiones y recuperación adaptados a los grupos musculares con mayor carga externa. Accelerometry is a method for quantifying external load that is having an exponential application thanks to its integration in electronic performance and tracking systems in team sports. External load has been commonly quantified through displacement (distance and speed), not considering its effect at the neuromuscular level. Therefore, the main objective of this Doctoral Thesis is the analysis of the external load supported by multiple anatomical locations simultaneously in sports movements, specifically in basketball. To do this, a systematic review is carried out, detecting those different technical aspects that require an evaluation prior to registration, as well as that the accelerometers measure the acceleration of the segment to which they are attached. To correct both aspects, an analysis of the precision and reliability of the sensor was performed, the appropriate load index and sampling frequency were identified, as well as a multi-location registration protocol and a battery of evaluations that represent the most common displacements in invasion sports were designed and validated. Finally, the multi-location evaluation of the external load was performed in laboratory and field tests to evaluate the effect of speed, sex and type of movement, as well as to establish individual performance profiles. From these results, trainers will be able to identify the specific external load of each musculoskeletal structure to design individualized programs for physical conditioning, injury prevention and recovery adapted to the muscle groups with the highest external load.
... In part, this is due to the anaerobic energy production, resulting in lactate accumulation and oxidation, which is not accounted for in aerobic energy production and therefore difficult to measure [13]. Further, different manufacturers may operate with disparate algorithms when processing data, potentially resulting in dissimilar output of EEE [14,15]. ...
... However, the metabolic power equation bases its calculations on velocity and accelerations; thus, the inability of tracking devices to accurately estimate this will influence the total estimated EEE. Previous research has found interindividual differences between devices utilizing metabolic power, although displacement measures were relatively similar, indicating disparities in the filtering of the GPS data [15]. Nonetheless, acceptable validity and reliability for GPS devices of 10 and 18 Hz, as used in this study, have been reported [38]. ...
Article
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The purpose of the study was to assess the accuracy of commonly used GPS/accelerometer-based tracking devices in the estimation of exercise energy expenditure (EEE) during high-intensity intermittent exercise. A total of 13 female soccer players competing at the highest level in Norway (age 20.5 ± 4.3 years; height 168.4 ± 5.1 cm; weight 64.1 ± 5.3 kg; fat free mass 49.7 ± 4.2 kg) completed a single visit test protocol on an artificial grass surface. The test course consisted of walking, jogging, high-speed running, and sprinting, mimicking the physical requirements in soccer. Three commonly used tracking devices were compared against indirect calorimetry as the criterion measure to determine their accuracy in estimating the total energy expenditure. The anaerobic energy consumption (i.e., excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, EPOC) and resting time were examined as adjustment factors possibly improving accuracy. All three devices significantly underestimated the total energy consumption, as compared to the criterion measure (p = 0.022, p = 0.002, p = 0.017; absolute ICC = 0.39, 0.24 and 0.30, respectively), and showed a systematic pattern with increasing underestimation for higher energy consumption. Excluding EPOC from EEE reduced the bias substantially (all p’s becoming non-significant; absolute ICC = 0.49, 0.54 and 0.49, respectively); however, bias was still present for all tracking devices. All GPS trackers were biased by showing a general tendency to underestimate the exercise energy consumption during high intensity intermittent exercising, which in addition showed a systematic pattern by over- or underestimation during lower or higher exercising intensity. Adjusting for EPOC reduced the bias and provided a more acceptable accuracy. For a more correct EEE estimation further calibration of these devices by the manufacturers is strongly advised by possibly addressing biases caused by EPOC.
... Global positioning system-technology has proven to be a valid and reliable tool for daily monitoring of the training load and match load on professional soccer players (20,21,28). Although the accuracy of GPEXE Pro is diminished in actions involving higher speeds or changes of direction (37); its reliability and validity have been tested and verified recently (17). The players were fitted with these devices 15 minutes before the activity to avoid possible errors or delays for the GPS9 activation. ...
Article
This study aimed to analyze the locomotion activity of elite-level soccer players throughout the weekly microcycle by playing position, and compare the training-load (TL) behavior in relation to match-play in absolute and relative (meters or events per minute) terms. Training and match data were collected from 30 professional soccer players belonging to a Spanish First Division team during the 2015/2016 season using global positioning technology (152 training sessions and 38 matches). Overall, the results showed a decrease of TL metrics when competition approached (p , 0.05). However, a progressive decrease was not found for all metrics. Two-way analysis of variance test revealed that workload was affected by the interaction between microcycle-day and season period showing medium or large effect size (n2p >.0.15) for all positions and metrics. Considering the TL in relation to the match-load, opposite load behavior was found in absolute and relative terms by position; whereas, central-defenders, external-defenders, and forwards covered 21, 25 and 26% more absolute medium-speed running distance (MSRD), respectively; central-defenders covered 14% (8.6–13.4 m·min21), external-defenders 10% (7.5–13.9 m·min21), and forwards 7% (8.4–15.7 m·min21) more relative-MSRD 4 days before match than match-day. The accelerations-metric also showed higher relative values 4, 3, and 2 days before the match. Because the objective of the training is to prepare players to withstand the competition demands, analyzing the position-specific TL concerning to match demands represents an advantageous strategy for training periodization. In addition, this study highlights the importance of taking into account the time spent of developing the different efforts to properly define the position-specific physical demands.
... Similar to the differences described for locomotor movement rates between top and bottom teams in FIFA Women's World Cup (Bradley and Scott, 2020) there are likely variations in the tempo of play across NCAA Division I that could subsequently impact energetic demands of these matches. Furthermore, the implementation of the metabolic power methodology could be modified by commercially available GPS systems (Williams et al., 2019) in order to have a proprietary competitive advantage, which could have also influenced the reported outcomes between studies (Terziotti et al., 2018). Additionally, when converting the relative energetic demands from these studies into calorie expenditure (520-770 kcal) (Wells et al., 2015;Williams et al., 2019), they are substantially lower than values obtained using heart rate derived equivalents (∼1,100-1,400 kcal) (Jagim et al., 2020;McFadden et al., 2020), thus it does not appear the outcomes from various methods can be used interchangeably. ...
Article
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Female soccer players are exposed to specific physical demands during matches, which vary according to the standard of play. Existing studies have largely focused on quantifying the distances covered for professional and international level players. This approach is limited in scope regarding the broader aspects around physical demands and is detached from development pathway models. An understanding of the demands across all standards will provide valuable insights about appropriate player development and help ensure physical readiness for the demands of the sport. The aim of this perspective paper is to describe the physical demands experienced during women's soccer matches across the developmental spectrum. A combination of evidence from the literature and data from the author's research (JDV) is presented. Specifically highlighted are the trends for locomotor distances, acceleration and deceleration frequency, and metabolic power metrics for youth (≤U17), college (NCAA/U20), professional (domestic) and international standards of women's soccer. In addition, the changes in match demands between levels of play are used to help illustrate gaps that must be overcome in order to successfully achieve physical readiness to compete at higher levels. The evidence demonstrates the importance of training appropriate attributes to prepare female soccer players who are striving to play at progressively higher standards.
... Global positioning satellite systems (GPEXE Pro® 18.18 Hz, Udine, Italy) were used to collect the data for this study. The reliability and validity of these devices has been tested and verified recently [25,26] and GPS has been shown appropriate tools for load monitoring in soccer [22,27]. The players were fitted with these devices 15 min before the activity to avoid possible errors or delays with GPS' activations. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to analyze the locomotion and metabolic responses of professional players in the top three competitive standards of Spanish soccer (First, Second and Second ‘B’ division) during the four weeks before and after dismissal the coach. Training and match load data were analyzed separately (n=1189 events) by coach (dismissed coach and the new coach) and Wilcoxon-test was performed to compare data between coaches. In training, players covered longer distance in all speed ranges >14 km•h⁻¹ with the coach dismissed; medium (14-18 km•h⁻¹), high (18-21 km•h⁻¹), very-high (21-24 km•h⁻¹) and sprint running distance (>24 km•h⁻¹) (d=0.53, 0.46, 0.58 and 0.54; respectively) on first division; and equivalent distance index and accelerations events (d=0.63 and 0.50; respectively) on second division. Lower differences were found in matches, in which the dismissed coach showed higher equivalent distance index, accelerations and decelerations events (d=0.69, 0.68 and 0.61; respectively) compared to the new coach in the second division. Therefore, the players covered longer high-intensity distance with the dismissed coach than the new coach in training, whilst a similar performance was found in the competition. These results suggest that the coach turnover at mid-season did no increase the players’ physical performance either in training or in competition.
Article
The goal of this study was to determine the effect of unit placement on signal integrity and measurement output obtained during reliability trials for global positioning system (GPS) devices. Two of the same model GPS units were worn in four separate unit configurations (Piggyback, Above-Below, Front-Back and Lateral) during 4 × 2 lap repeats of a team sport simulation circuit. Differences in signal integrity indicators (# satellites, horizontal dilution of precision (HDoP), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal strength (SS)), total distance covered in each lap, and distance covered above and below 3 m·s ⁻¹ , were compared between the two units. The results showed that for signal integrity measures, differences between units were negligible for Above-Below and Lateral, but comparatively high for Piggyback and Front-Back. For distance measures, values were similar between units for Above-Below, however, discrepancies occurred in both total distance and speed distribution for the other configurations. This study concluded that the Above-Below unit configuration yielded the smallest differences between units for signal integrity and measurement output. Therefore, the Above-Below configuration is recommended for future GPS reliability investigations.
Article
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The ability of the “metabolic power” model to assess the demands of team-sport activity has been the subject of some interest— and much controversy—in team-sport research. Because the cost of acceleration depends on the initial speed and the costs of acceleration and deceleration are not “equal and opposite,” changes in speed must be accounted for when evaluating variablespeed locomotion. The purpose of this commentary is to address some of the misconceptions regarding “metabolic power,” acknowledge its limitations, and highlight some of the benefits that energetic analysis offers over alternative approaches to quantifying the demands of team sports.