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Dimensions of regions. 

Dimensions of regions. 

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The revival of interest in regions contrasts with a lack of systematic study of them. Usually regions are not studied to understand regions, but to understand how the regional influences specific processes. These studies focus on a specific topic in a particular type of region. However useful these thematic case studies into the role of the regiona...

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... relation with other classifications ± La Èpple's spatial matrix and these dimensions of regions differ on two points. It combines La Èpple's social interpretation of space with the more objective social relations. Further- more, contrary to La Èpple's matrix these three dimensions are not mutually exclusive. Many different types of regions and approaches to regional research can be positioned in this three dimensional space. They are not packed in a point, but occupy a more hazy cloud sometimes spreading into different directions. Depicting the differences between different students of the regional as occupying differ- ent clouds in a three-dimensional space visualises the complementarity of the different approaches. It acknowledges the important differences in how regions are studied, but shows that they are connected. That the more relevant approaches are not so easily charac- terised by one dimension shows not its in- adequacy, but underlines its implicit message that for a true understanding of the regional we need to use all three dimensions. 2 depicts for the above discussed classification of different types of regions their location in the three dimensional space of Figure 1. Figure 2 ...
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... are not only the activity arenas of actors, or analytical tools to understand spatial formations better. Regions are more. They also regulate. While actors form their own specific activity region from below, the State imposes from above a standardised regional division for the uniform control over its terri- tory. Political regions are important collective regulators of individual activities. Regions become hard social facts through their political institutionalisation (Paasi 1986). The political dimension is therefore crucial for regional geography. Regions can be only adequately studied when all three different dimensions are con- sidered. Figure 1 depicts these three dimen- sions of regions. These dimensions of regions built on existing classification of different kind of regions and different aspects of regions (Arnold 1998;Blotevogel 1996;Brunet & Dollfus 1990;Claval 1998, pp. 42±46;Curry 1996;Kra Ètke 1999;La Èpple 1992;Paasi 1986Paasi , 1996Weichhart 1996). The distinction be- tween analytical and social regions especially is frequently made. This is roughly the differ- ence between the formation dimension and the other two dimensions in Figure 1. The division between political and social economic regions is also common. Nevertheless, the apparent absence of cultural and perception regions needs some explanation. When these gain importance, for example with the ethnic cleansing in Kosovo, they score heavily on all three dimensions of regions. Their explicit absence thus paradoxically marks their cen- trality in regional geography. The cultural regions score heavily on the formation and social dimensions. When they become the basis for organisation, they move towards the front of Figure ...
Context 3
... are not only the activity arenas of actors, or analytical tools to understand spatial formations better. Regions are more. They also regulate. While actors form their own specific activity region from below, the State imposes from above a standardised regional division for the uniform control over its terri- tory. Political regions are important collective regulators of individual activities. Regions become hard social facts through their political institutionalisation (Paasi 1986). The political dimension is therefore crucial for regional geography. Regions can be only adequately studied when all three different dimensions are con- sidered. Figure 1 depicts these three dimen- sions of regions. These dimensions of regions built on existing classification of different kind of regions and different aspects of regions (Arnold 1998;Blotevogel 1996;Brunet & Dollfus 1990;Claval 1998, pp. 42±46;Curry 1996;Kra Ètke 1999;La Èpple 1992;Paasi 1986Paasi , 1996Weichhart 1996). The distinction be- tween analytical and social regions especially is frequently made. This is roughly the differ- ence between the formation dimension and the other two dimensions in Figure 1. The division between political and social economic regions is also common. Nevertheless, the apparent absence of cultural and perception regions needs some explanation. When these gain importance, for example with the ethnic cleansing in Kosovo, they score heavily on all three dimensions of regions. Their explicit absence thus paradoxically marks their cen- trality in regional geography. The cultural regions score heavily on the formation and social dimensions. When they become the basis for organisation, they move towards the front of Figure ...
Context 4
... are not only the activity arenas of actors, or analytical tools to understand spatial formations better. Regions are more. They also regulate. While actors form their own specific activity region from below, the State imposes from above a standardised regional division for the uniform control over its terri- tory. Political regions are important collective regulators of individual activities. Regions become hard social facts through their political institutionalisation (Paasi 1986). The political dimension is therefore crucial for regional geography. Regions can be only adequately studied when all three different dimensions are con- sidered. Figure 1 depicts these three dimen- sions of regions. These dimensions of regions built on existing classification of different kind of regions and different aspects of regions (Arnold 1998;Blotevogel 1996;Brunet & Dollfus 1990;Claval 1998, pp. 42±46;Curry 1996;Kra Ètke 1999;La Èpple 1992;Paasi 1986Paasi , 1996Weichhart 1996). The distinction be- tween analytical and social regions especially is frequently made. This is roughly the differ- ence between the formation dimension and the other two dimensions in Figure 1. The division between political and social economic regions is also common. Nevertheless, the apparent absence of cultural and perception regions needs some explanation. When these gain importance, for example with the ethnic cleansing in Kosovo, they score heavily on all three dimensions of regions. Their explicit absence thus paradoxically marks their cen- trality in regional geography. The cultural regions score heavily on the formation and social dimensions. When they become the basis for organisation, they move towards the front of Figure ...

Citations

... A region is the arena of social processes; territories of control; and spatial formations interacting at different scales (Terlouw, 2001). The region works as a system, with flows and movements across the mosaic. ...
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... Nowadays regional studies have known as a vital part of geographical disciplines. The study of the essence of regio referred to the fundamental works of many geographers (Mumford 1938;Bradshaw 1988;Terlouw 2001;Paasi 2003;Howell 2013;Betioli Contel 2015;Jones 2019). ...
Chapter
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... It is also relevant to highlight the importance of finding common sources and methods with other disciplines such as soil geography, soil sciences, biology, biogeography or geomorphology among others, thus adding considerable value to the wealth of the different interdisciplinary studies (Rodrigo-Comino, Senciales, Cerdà, & Brevik, 2018). In geographic science, a change in the scale of work is an indispensable tool to address assignments over large territories, thus helping to extrapolate data from microscales to larger ones (Meentemeyer, 1989;Sayer, 1989;Terlouw, 2001). It should be noted that as we increase the scale, the variety of soil types also increases (Behrens et al., 2005;Grunwald, 2010;Zeraatpisheh et al., 2020). ...
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... In the first quintile, with a range from 0.882 to 0.727, there are 21 states with a very high endowment of semi-material capacities (SMCI þþ), which are considered by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) as 'advanced economies', by the World Bank (WB) as 'high income countries' and by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) as 'very high development countries': all of which refers to the cores states (Sombart 1946, 10-11;Wallerstein 2011, 21;Taylor and Flint 2011, 20); In the second quintile, with a range of 0.727 to 0.571, there are 31 states with a high amount of semi-material capacities (SMCI þ), which are considered by the IMF as 'emerging and developing economies', by the WB as 'middle income countries' and by the UNDP as 'high development countries': most of them have been studied as semiperipheral states (Wallerstein 1976;Frank 1979;Arrighi and Drangel 1986;Chase-Dunn 1988;Terlouw 2001;Morales 2020), although recently it has been identified in a similar structural position as the so-called Semi-core States (Resnick 1989, 266;Skumsrud 2016;Morales 2019b); In the third, fourth and fifth quintiles serious problems are observed, because there are a large number of countries (120 in total) with very heterogeneous endowments of semi-material capacities: excluding, on one hand, India and South Africa, which are two important Regional Powers and, on the other hand, Croatia, Latvia, Thailand and Bulgaria, which have been classified as Secondary Regional States 8 . The remaining 42 countries that are in the third quintile (from 0.570 to 0.414) have been little studied; furthermore, the 47 countries located in the fourth quintile (from 0.413 to 0.259) as well as the 31 countries that are located in the fifth quintile (from 0.258 to 0.102), all of them are ignored and practically non-existent for any study regarding national power. ...
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... (esim. Paasi 1986;Rosenberg 2019;Teerlouw 2001.) Paikkaan syntyvien yhteisöjen muodostumiseen tarvitaan yhteisiä tarinoita ja kertomuksia eli narratiiveja, joihin liittyy esimerkiksi elementtejä alueen historiasta. ...
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... Indeed, the characteristics and roles of the semiperiphery in the world system were primarily exposed by Immanuel Wallerstein in some essays and, later, developed more rigorously in his work The Modern World-system (Wallerstein, 1974(Wallerstein, , 1976(Wallerstein, , 2011a(Wallerstein, , 2011b. This enterprise has been complemented, debated and fed back by other authors who have endowed the notion of semiperiphery with a much broader theoretical scope than originally planned (Arrighi & Drangel, 1986;Chase-Dunn, 1988;Frank, 1979;Terlouw, 2001Terlouw, , 2002. ...
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... In this respect, the strong assumption that the boundaries of regions can be identified in space is not irrelevant at all. This is not in opposition to views which see regions as more or less temporary social constructions (see for instance, Murphy, 1991;Taylor, 1991;Terlouw, 2001). Even in this respect, Paasi (1991) sees, as part of their social construction (Terlouw, 2001), four shapes of regions (territorial, symbolic, institutional and functional), some of them being closer to the concept of a region as an objectively existing reality. ...
... This is not in opposition to views which see regions as more or less temporary social constructions (see for instance, Murphy, 1991;Taylor, 1991;Terlouw, 2001). Even in this respect, Paasi (1991) sees, as part of their social construction (Terlouw, 2001), four shapes of regions (territorial, symbolic, institutional and functional), some of them being closer to the concept of a region as an objectively existing reality. ...
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... " (Paasi 2002: 139). The symbolic shape of the regional process (Paasi 2002; Terlouw 2001), including regional names, stereotypes and symbolic places, is very much based on the region's territorial shape (i.e. its physical properties, such as land relief, land use, its boundaries and their historical changes). Further on, a region could be more and more institutionalised by formalized practices and regional institutions (Frisvoll The regional iconography consists usually of some typical items like flags, coats of arms and, more recently, also involving logos. ...
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... Giddens (1984, 122) notes that social processes are not abstract; instead, they are connected to a specific place. Thus, it is recognized that regions are arenas for social processes (Terlouw 2001). Trigilia (2001) concurs, arguing that the concept of social capital has become important in understanding entrepreneurial environments. ...
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page/terms-and-conditions This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. This research paper generates new insights into renewal processes that may occur in peripheral regions. Key findings are presented from an explorative study on a regionally clustered automotive-testing industry, located in northern Sweden. The findings suggest that despite theoretically unfavourable conditions it is possible to progress regional industry after a peripheral setting's socio-economic relapses. Moreover, this research shows how, notwithstanding the importance of profitable service offerings, an entrepreneurial environment can be encouraged within a peripheral region and subsequent renewal achieved by advancing local networks, improving internationalization and enhancing local infrastructures related to a service-based regional industry. Consequently this research offers us a glimpse into a pioneering service-based renewal case which, in essence, differs from previously reported entrepreneurship scholarship.
... The concept of RIS is mainly developed on a framework comprising different theories and approaches on institutions, systems and evolutionary economics where new regionalist literature and the idea of territorial innovation models highlight the importance of localized innovative activities in generating agglomeration -the intention is to assess the knowledge generation of the specific processes and their influences within a given regional economic system (Uyarra, 2007;Terlouw, 2001). RIS are justified by the belief that the regional scale of analysis is fundamental to understand the dynamics of agents' innovative behaviour given that it is at the regional level that economic interactions leading to innovative capabilities and performance occur, even in a globalized scenario (Scott, 2006;Vellinga, 2000). ...
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Following an increasing body of literature that has been generated regarding the role played by Knowledge Intensive Services in economic systems, our approach focuses on KIS international orientation (FDI) according to the attractiveness we expect Regional Innovation Systems might have in these flows. Results suggest that technological variables participate rather marginally in the process of FDI attraction. As this situation unfolds more relevantly in the case of Outward investment than Inward, we can therefore expect that Spanish investment abroad is more oriented towards asset and knowledge seeking than the inflow of investments in services and in KIS in Spanish regions. © Universidad Alberto Hurtado, Facultad de Economía y Negocios.