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-Different parts that compose the coconut fruit (Photo: Fernando Cintra).

-Different parts that compose the coconut fruit (Photo: Fernando Cintra).

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Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) is one of the most important tropical species used by man, known as “tree of life”. In recent decades, with the expansion of coconut growing areas, limitations such as the occurrence of pests, uniformity of crops, adaptation to different ecosystems and others have affected the production and longevity of coconut tre...

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Context 1
... seed, surrounded by the endocarp, consists of a thin layer of brown color -the integument -located between the endocarp and the solid albumen (Figure 1). The latter is a fleshy, white and very oily layer, forming a large cavity containing an opalescent liquid or liquid albumen. ...
Context 2
... BGD coconut, the presence of 27.8 mg L -1 of Fe 2 SO 4 .7H 2 O provides efficient germination of zygotic embryos and formation of normal seedlings. In studies with Yellow Malayan Dwarf (YMD) and Brazilian tall coconut palm (BT), Fe 2 SO 4 .7H 2 O concentration of 13.9 mg L -1 in the Y3 germination medium was sufficient to favor the formation of shoots and roots (BARIN, LÉDO, 2011). The addition of gibberellic acid in the range from 0.5 to 2 μM in the culture medium induces higher germination percentage and better shoot development for BT and BGD varieties (BARIN;LÉDO, 2011;SANTOS et al., 2012). ...
Context 3
... term micropropagation refers to techniques for in vitro vegetative propagation of plants using small explants as stem tips, nodal segments and zygotic embryos, according to the Glossary of Plant Tissue Culture (CARVALHO et al., 2011). One of the processes of plant micropropagation through somatic embryogenesis involves the in vitro formation of bipolar structures (somatic embryos) from somatic cells under specific culture conditions. ...
Context 4
... coconut mite A. guerreronis was first reported in 1965, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and described at the same year by Keifer, in samples from Mexico. A decade later, it was found on the Eastern Coast of West Africa where producers and residents of some countries have claimed to be aware, for many decades, of similar damages in coconut trees before being scientifically described (HOWARD, 2001). ...

Citations

... The growth and biomass accumulation of tissue culture plants is driven by the assimilation of carbohydrates, nitrogen, phosphate, magnesium, calcium, and other ions. The Y3 medium was specifically developed for coconut tissue culture [18] and is now widely used for most coconut work [64,65]. Within this medium, a high concentration of sucrose (usually > 4%) is used as the main carbohydrate source [64]. ...
... The use of gelling agents and the precise positioning of explants on the medium surface are also not necessary when a liquid medium is used [70]. However, the application of a temporary immersion system, where the explants are immersed in a liquid medium for a specific time and duration per day, may improve growth of germinating somatic embryos, providing the benefits of both solid and liquid medium systems [65], and dramatically increasing the SE-generated plantlet rate for coconut. A liquid medium was used to produce viable cell suspension cultures in coconut; however, they were unable to progress to the next stage because it is challenging to produce friable embryogenic calli for SE initiation [47,71]. ...
... To achieve this, plantlets in vitro are usually exposed to the atmosphere of the culture room, then moved in a time-orderly fashion into a humidity chamber (e.g., a plastic tent or wooden box humidity chamber). Such treatments improved survival of both SE and embryo culture-derived plantlets when compared to a misting chamber [65,87]. A mini growth chamber has been used in the ex vitro rooting and acclimatization of Kopyor coconut seedlings. ...
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Coconut [Cocos nucifera L.] is often called “the tree of life” because of its many uses in the food, beverage, medicinal, and cosmetic industries. Currently, more than 50% of the palms grown throughout the world are senile and need to be replanted immediately to ensure production levels meet the present and increasing demand for coconut products. Mass replanting will not be possible using traditional propagation methods from seed. Recent studies have indicated that in vitro cloning via somatic embryogenesis is the most promising alternative for the large-scale production of new coconut palms. This paper provides a review on the status and prospects for the application of somatic embryogenesis to mass clonal propagation of coconut.
... Coconut possesses extremely high edible and economic value among tropical fruit trees, for instance, coconut with rich nutrition can not only be tasted as fresh fruit, but also defined as a natural beverage. Additionally, mature coconut pulp is still an important raw material for oil extraction in production and processing, and processed products of coconut leaves, roots, stems, as well as coconut shells are also well received and favored [4]. Besides, coconut with high ornamental value [5] can also be widely used as street tree and garden landscaping, which becomes an iconic landscape plant in the tropics. ...
Article
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Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a tropical evergreen crop with high economic value. Low temperature is one of the main environmental factors that limit coconut productivity. Therefore, it is necessary and significant to research the growth trend and physiological changes of coconuts under a low temperature environment. In this study, the physiological response of 20 coconut germplasm resources is presented in an integrated perspective to provide a holistic view of the behavior of coconut trees facing cold stress under four temperature conditions (25 °C, 15 °C, 10 °C, 5 °C). It was shown that low temperature would lead to the increase of relative electrical conductivity, MDA content, soluble protein content, and proline content. In addition, the activities of defense enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT, APX) were increased to resist the cold environment. In a comprehensive analysis, it was revealed that coconut germplasms with high cold resistance, such as C2, C7, and C10 as well as POD activity, proline content, and soluble protein content, were defined as representatives for coconut cold resistance evaluation. Through the exploration of osmotic adjustment substances and defense enzymes, the breeding and quality improvement of cold-resistant coconut varieties could be promoted. As a result, understanding the physiological response and tolerance mechanisms of coconuts to low temperature stress was essential, as this perception may serve as the foundation for coconut resistance evaluation, cultivation, and breeding.
... An excellent example of the application of the zygotic embryo culture technique for the large-scale production of coconut palm seedlings is that used by the Makapuno Laboratory Network in the Philippines. From a protocol established in the 1960s by De Guzman and Del Rosario (1964) due to the low seed germination of the 'Makapuno' variety in the field, a large-scale multiplication program was established in 1992 and is currently composed of six satellite laboratories (Lédo et al. 2019). The 'Makapuno' cultivar embryo culture protocol was improved in 2003, aiming to reduce costs by reducing the sucrose and activated carbon concentrations and the non-addition of myo-inositol and the plant growth regulators naphthalene acetic acid and benzylaminopurine (Areza-Ubaldo et al. 2003). ...
Chapter
Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) belongs to the Arecaceae, one of the most distinctive plant families emblematic of the tropics. Commonly known as the “tree of life,” the coconut palm is considered one of the most important tropical crops in the world, providing protection, food, and healing. In recent decades, with the expansion of coconut‐growing areas, biotic and abiotic factors, such as phytosanitary problems, the occurrence of pests and diseases, uniformity of crops, adaptation to different ecosystems, and others, have affected the production and longevity of coconut trees. In addition, unstable markets have also affected production. Biotechnology techniques have contributed to the advances in coconut production and conservation, including in vitro propagation methods, and large‐scale mass propagation using bioreactors. Micropropagation offers advantages, such as high multiplication rates, utilization of small explants, and the potential for the production of clean plant material, free of diseases, as well as rapid multiplication of disease‐resistant varieties. Cryopreservation allows for safe and long‐term germplasm conservation. This review aims to provide an overview of the current status and major advances in micropropagation and cryopreservation techniques of coconut palm.
... To mature, coconut fruits takes 11 to 14 months; and to produce seedling at a rate of 1 plant per seed, 7 to 9 months (Harries 2012). Using tissue culture methods, however, one embryo can become hundreds of uniform and disease-free seedlings at 270 d after culture (Lédo et al. 2019). ...
... Almost every part of C. nucifera has been used as explants in tissue culture (Lédo et al. 2019). Among plant parts tested, callus formation and embryogenic capacity were better when zygotic tissues and plumules were used (Abustan et al. 2016;Ronda 2016;Chan et al. 1998) since juvenile tissues have numerous meristematic points, which make them more receptive to in vitro treatments (Bonga 1982). ...
... Tissue culture requires technical skills and laboratory or analytical-grade materials and equipment, which makes the method expensive (Lédo et al. 2019;Wijerathna 2015). In developing countries such as the Philippines, resources are not readily available if not expensive; hence, low-cost options for micropropagation must be considered (Datta et al. 2017). ...
Chapter
After a short presentation of the technical and legal challenges linked to coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm collecting, this chapter discusses how emerging ethnological and historical approaches have influenced these collecting activities. Then it discloses (i) the various collecting strategies with emphasis on the collection of germplasm showing tolerance to pests and diseases, (ii) varieties with special traits such as the Compact Dwarfs, and (iii) the contribution of geographical and molecular approaches to germplasm identification. In connection with the launching of the recent strategy of the International Coconut Genetic Resources Network (COGENT), an attempt is made to estimate what germplasm will need to be collected in the next decade and the expected outcomes in terms of the number of varieties and populations conserved ex situ. It is suggested that global coordination is needed to limit duplication in the COGENT’s ex situ germplasm collections. Also, special attention needs to be paid to strengthen the involvement of farmers and other stakeholders in the collecting activities.
Chapter
Coconut farming is sometimes constrained by low productivity and poor returns on investment. Breeding for desirable traits and higher productivity is one of the most efficient options to overcome these challenges. This chapter discusses the strategies presently applied toward the production of desirable coconut varieties using conventional breeding and the possible applications of modern biotechnological tools to overcome some biological constraints. The analysis presented hereunder shows that most conventional coconut breeding programs are currently facing both material and methodological impasses. The budgets and experimental areas allocated to these programs often remain insufficient to reach substantial genetic progress. The improvement of hybrids is neglected and often methodologically limited. The integration of new biotechnologies will help improve the situation. In vitro culture of various coconut tissues and explants gives promising results in embryo rescue, somatic embryogenesis, and doubled haploid production. Molecular marker technology has been applied to describe the genetic diversity of conserved accessions and to genome mapping for marker-assisted selection. The coconut genome was recently published enabling genomics and bioinformatics research. Certain groups have reported their attempts on genetic transformation studies. Development of strategies through capacity building and promotion of research collaboration is required to strengthen coconut breeding. The authors recommend an international team to audit major genetic improvement programs with special attention to funding issues for the various breeding operations and to the balance between field trials and use of new technologies.
Article
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The evaluation and identification of germplasm resources is an indispensable step in the breeding processes and have important roles in the selection and improvement of new varieties. This research intended to characterize coconut germplasm to determine the quantitative, qualitative, and morphological traits of the stem, leaf, and inflorescence and the fruit characteristics. Sixteen morphological and qualitative traits of 17 coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm resources from Hainan, China, were investigated to determine the characteristics and advantages of multiple germplasm lines to create the foundation for the cultivation and breeding of coconuts. The results of the correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis indicate a correlation between coconut germplasm factors and their contribution to coconut traits. The results revealed that stem girth at 0.2 m was the most obvious trait, along with the fruit flavor, edible rate, fat content, hole spacing, single fruit weight, and number of female flowers, which reflect most of the information regarding coconut traits and contribute to its value. The PCA and cluster analysis indicated that two high-yield and superior-quality sweet water dwarf coconut germplasms, named ‘15-19’ and ‘15-17’, were suitable for cultivation and production in Hainan, China. The results of this study act a far-reaching influence on the collection and utilization of coconut resources and have an impact on the development and progress of the coconut industry in China.