Different outcomes distribution grouped by main categories.

Different outcomes distribution grouped by main categories.

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Previous research has suggested that activities such as community gardens could offer a wide range of health benefits. The aim of the article is to systematically review the available literature to analyse the magnitude of the phenomenon, the geographical distribution, and the main characteristics in terms of health outcomes and target populations....

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... interest is shown in children and youth and more than one on ten is addressed to the elderly. Finally, more than 10% of the studies investigated mixed groups, with 6 studies focusing on adults and children (most of the time mothers) and just 3 focus on youth and adults (Figure 3b Figure 4 shows the distribution of different outcomes measured in each study. Almost 25% of the studies used "general health" as the main outcome when investigating the benefits of community gardens. ...

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... As mentioned, sustainable urban culture, which is expressed by permaculture, contributes both to self-sufficiency through various techniques (The Permaculture Kitchen Garden, 2021) and the protection of health. Although quantitative data are limited, several studies with qualitative data have shown that urban gardening can offer a wide range of benefits (Lampert, 2021) for physical, mental, social health and can be a strategy for promoting public health (Gregis et al., 2021). The significant contribution of co-cultivation with aromatic and medicinal plants in a vegetable garden has gained renewed interest in developed countries (Sánchez et al., 2020) and is increasingly recognized by the elderly population (Van den Berg et al., 2010). ...
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C. jejuni and C. coli have the greatest zoonotic potential. In humans, they cause campylobacteriosis with symptoms of food poisoning. Epidemics are mostly related to the consumption of non-chlorinated water and contaminated chicken food and in the spring-summer season. Since 2005, according to the European Food Safety Agency and the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control, campylobacteriosis has been considered the leading alimentary intoxication. A review of the literature was published in Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar, electronically available scientific journals, books, textbooks, proceedings books and reports EFSA/ ECDC, FAO/ WHO. Only literature in English, Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian is included. As a measure to prevent campylobacteriosis, sanitation is recommended in the primary production of chicken meat, and the use of probiotics in meat as biological preservatives is being investigated.
... As mentioned, sustainable urban culture, which is expressed by permaculture, contributes both to self-sufficiency through various techniques (The Permaculture Kitchen Garden, 2021) and the protection of health. Although quantitative data are limited, several studies with qualitative data have shown that urban gardening can offer a wide range of benefits (Lampert, 2021) for physical, mental, social health and can be a strategy for promoting public health (Gregis et al., 2021). The significant contribution of co-cultivation with aromatic and medicinal plants in a vegetable garden has gained renewed interest in developed countries (Sánchez et al., 2020) and is increasingly recognized by the elderly population (Van den Berg et al., 2010). ...
... The analysis is consistent with prior research about how social involvement is an important ingredient in explaining the connection between CG and improved wellbeing. There is a growing understanding that the enhanced social ties and collective efficacy and the knowledge sharing occurring during CG may reduce stress and anxiety, and improve mood, self-esteem, and satisfaction (Gregis et al., 2021;Litt et al., 2015;Teig et al., 2009). These findings support evidence that community gardeners find empowerment through the cultivation of relatedness with others Firth et al., 2011). ...
Article
We compare interviews with 30 new community gardeners in Denver, Colorado and Montpellier, France, using Self-Determination Theory, a general theory of motivation, to determine how new community gardeners may or may not have felt motivated based on psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Relatedness as a motivational feature carried through the interview data at both sites. Participants’ success or failure to relate to other gardeners was a major influence for how autonomous and competent as a community gardener they expressed feeling. As the evidence grows that community gardening is beneficial for health and wellbeing, our findings are critical to understanding how community gardening could serve as a health promotion strategy. With the presence of ongoing, friendly support from others, more individuals may adhere to this socially connective, nature-based practice.
... At the same time, the need for community-level initiatives that emphasize emotional, tangible, and informational forms of support, cannot be overstated (e.g., Campbell-Grossman et al., 2005). As COVID-19 restrictions begin to ease, community spatial interventions (e.g., community gardens or Walk and Talk groups; Gregis et al., 2021;Muir & McGrath, 2018), can be platforms for knowledge sharing, friendship development, and the exchange of social support-relational activities central to parental well-being (e.g., Armstrong et al., 2005;Balaji et al., 2007), but ones that have been compromised by the pandemic. Moreover, when it comes to helping sole (and partnered) mothers weather the COVID-19 storm (particularly until such a time when pandemic-related restrictions are more fully lifted), web-based or email interventions incorporating social support, and health and parenting information, may be very useful (Brage Hudson et al., 2008;Campbell-Grossman et al., 2005James Riegler et al., 2020). ...
Article
Sole employed mothers and their families face numerous challenges. Yet, the unprecedented circumstances of the COVID‐19 pandemic may be adding additional risk to the already precarious day‐to‐day reality of this population. Thus, we examine the implications of this crisis for the mental health and job‐related well‐being of both sole and partnered working mothers. Participants were 206 mothers who continued to work during the pandemic. A moderated mediation model was analyzed. Work‐family conflict (WFC) during the pandemic differentially related to mothers’ parenting stress, based on romantic partnership status; when mothers were sole parents, the relationship between WFC and parenting stress was exacerbated. Moreover, this stress mediated the relationship between WFC and both poor mental health and decreased work engagement for sole employed mothers. Findings broaden our understanding of the implications of the COVID‐19 pandemic for sole and partnered employed mothers, and how this crisis may be increasing disparities between working sole‐parent and dual‐partner families.
Article
    Black and low-income neighborhoods tend to have higher concentrations of fast-food restaurants and low produce supply stores. Limited access to and consumption of nutrient-rich foods is associated with poor health outcomes. Given the realities of food access, many members within the Black communities grow food as a strategy of resistance to food apartheid, and for the healing and self-determination that agriculture offers. In this paper, we unpack the history of Black people, agriculture, and land in the United States. In addition to our brief historical review, we conduct a descriptive epidemiologic study of community food-growing spaces, food access, and neighborhood racial composition in present day Philadelphia. We leverage one of the few existing datasets that systematically documents all community food growing locations throughout a major US city. By applying spatial regression techniques, we use conditional autoregressive models to determine if there are spatial associations between Black neighborhoods, poverty, food access and urban agriculture in Philadelphia. Fully adjusted spatial models showed significant associations between Black neighborhoods and urban agriculture (RR: 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.59) and poverty and urban agriculture (RR: 1.27, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.46). The association between low food access and the presence of urban agriculture was generally increased across neighborhoods with a higher proportion of Black residents. These results show that Philadelphia neighborhoods with higher populations of Black people and neighborhoods with lower incomes, on average, tend to have more community gardens and urban farms. While the garden data is non-temporal and non-causal, one possible explanation for these findings, in alignment with what Philadelphia growers have claimed, is that urban agriculture may be a manifestation of collective agency and community resistance in Black and low-income communities, particularly in neighborhoods with low food access.
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    Despite extensive literature on the socio-cultural services of urban open spaces, the role of food-producing spaces has not received sufficient attention. This hampers advocacy for preserving and growing urban agricultural activities, often dismissed on justifications that their contributions to overall food supply are negligible. To understand how the social benefits of urban agriculture have been measured, we conducted a systematic review of 272 peer-reviewed publications, which drew on insights from urban agriculture sites in 57 different countries. Through content analysis, we investigated socio-cultural benefits in four spheres: engaged and cohesive communities, health and well-being, economic opportunities, and education. The analysis revealed growth in research on the social impacts of gardens and farms, with most studies measuring the effects on community cohesion and engagement, followed by increased availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables associated with reduced food insecurity and better health. Fewer studies assessed the impact of urban farming on educational and economic outcomes. Quantifying the multiple ways in which urban agriculture provides benefits to people will empower planners and the private sector to justify future investments. These findings are also informative for research theorizing cities as socio-ecological systems and broader efforts to measure the benefits of urban agriculture, in its many forms.