Figure 4 - uploaded by Subuh Anggoro
Content may be subject to copyright.
Different forms of Telepresence Robots (Retrieved from:

Different forms of Telepresence Robots (Retrieved from:

Source publication
Full-text available
This day, increasing attention demonstrated in developing innovative tools for improved teaching and learning of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) for environmental sustainability made robotics not only an outstanding tool for hands-on learning but of general topics in educational institutions. Robotics help learners transmut...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... microphones to enable people interacting with the robot to hear its operator and the operator can also view what the robot looks at and hear from [29]. A telepresence robot is differentiated based the way it operates; while some contain built-in video and audio features, others require a phone or tablet to be attached to the robot as indicated in Fig. 4. Different forms of Telepresence Robots (Retrieved from: ...


... Today, promoting the 21st -century skills is the main focus in world of education in many countries including Malaysia as these are the skills required in digital era to be incorporated in the curriculum. According to Talib, Aliyu, Aliyu, Maimun, Malik, Anggoro, and Ali (2020), 21st-century skill is characterized by the emergence of supercomputers, robotics, automation vehicles, genetic edits, and neurotechnology developments that enable humans to optimize brain function. Malaysian education system needs to make changes in line with the digital transformation to remain globally competitive, as the teachers have the responsibility for the improvement of academic and student achievement in the classroom (Maulana, Helms-Lorenz, & van de Grift, 2015) Hence, a prospective teacher needs to have the expectation of a strong teaching skill (Sawchuk, 2013). ...