Differences between individualist and collectivist cultures
To investigate how maternal culture (ie, individualist versus collectivist) influences soothing techniques and infant distress.
Archival data were analyzed using a subsample of 80 motherinfant dyads selected from a larger database of infant pain expression.
Mothers belonging to the individualist group used more affection behaviours when attempting...
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze Neonatal Intensive Care Unit nurses' behaviors while soothing newborns with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Methods: An observational study was used to assess nurses'soothing behaviors. Data were collected from September, 2012 to March, 2013 using an audio-video recording system. Participants were eight babies and 12 nurses caring for those babies. After obtaining parental permission, the overall process of each episode from nurses'engagement in soothing to the end of soothing was recorded. Then a researcher interviewed each participating nurse. Data from 18 episodes were transcribed as verbal and nonverbal nursing behaviors and then categorized by two researchers. Results: There were 177 observed soothing behaviors which were classified with the five sensory-based categories (tactile, oral, visual, auditory, vestibular). Most frequently observed soothing behavior was 'Gently talking' followed by 'Removing irritant', and 'Providing non-nutritive sucking'. Nurses' perceived soothing behaviors were similar to the observed soothing behaviors except for 'Gently talking'. Conclusion: Nurses used diverse and mixed soothing behaviors as well as recognizing those behaviors as essential nursing skills. Nurses' soothing behaviors identified in this study can be used to comfort babies and to enhance their developmental potential in accordance with individual characterstics or cues.
... Soothing a baby by rocking is probably a human universal which, however, has not been investigated in this respect. A recent study comparing cultural effects on rocking a baby for soothing showed more similarities than differences between different cultures (Vinall et al., 2011). There is some research on the effects of rocking in the medical literature. ...
The functions of dance and music in human evolution are a mystery. Current research on the evolution of music has mainly focused on its melodic attribute which would have evolved alongside (proto-)language. Instead, we propose an alternative conceptual framework which focuses on the co-evolution of rhythm and dance (R&D) as intertwined aspects of a multimodal phenomenon characterized by the unity of action and perception. Reviewing the current literature from this viewpoint we propose the hypothesis that R&D have co-evolved long before other musical attributes and (proto-)language. Our view is supported by increasing experimental evidence particularly in infants and children: beat is perceived and anticipated already by newborns and rhythm perception depends on body movement. Infants and toddlers spontaneously move to a rhythm irrespective of their cultural background. The impulse to dance may have been prepared by the susceptibility of infants to be soothed by rocking. Conceivable evolutionary functions of R&D include sexual attraction and transmission of mating signals. Social functions include bonding, synchronization of many individuals, appeasement of hostile individuals, and pre- and extra-verbal communication enabling embodied individual and collective memorizing. In many cultures R&D are used for entering trance, a base for shamanism and early religions. Individual benefits of R&D include improvement of body coordination, as well as painkilling, anti-depressive, and anti-boredom effects. Rhythm most likely paved the way for human speech as supported by studies confirming the overlaps between cognitive and neural resources recruited for language and rhythm. In addition, dance encompasses visual and gestural communication. In future studies attention should be paid to which attribute of music is focused on and that the close mutual relation between R&D is taken into account. The possible evolutionary functions of dance deserve more attention.
... The previous literature on culture and infant immunization pain has defined culture according to country of origin, 15,27 cultural perspective, 32 and acculturation. 23 In the broader culture literature, Berry 1 purports that one must go beyond knowing what one's culture is and understand the strength of an individual's identification with both their mainstream and heritage cultures. ...
... 4 Only one study has examined the relationship between maternal heritage culture (individualist versus collectivist), discrete caregiver soothing behaviours, and infant immunization pain behaviours. 32 The researchers found that infant pain-related distress did not differ as a function of maternal culture. 32 However, mothers from an individualist culture used a greater number of affection-related soothing behaviours over 1 minute following infants' immunizations compared to mothers from a collectivist culture. ...
... 32 The researchers found that infant pain-related distress did not differ as a function of maternal culture. 32 However, mothers from an individualist culture used a greater number of affection-related soothing behaviours over 1 minute following infants' immunizations compared to mothers from a collectivist culture. Logically, if there is a relationship between caregiver culture and soothing behaviours, 32 and a relationship between caregiver soothing behaviours and infant needle-pain, 5 it seems reasonable to pursue the hypothesis that the mechanism by which caregiver culture impacts infant needle pain is via soothing behaviours. ...
Adding to the literature examining direct relationships between culture and infant immunization pain, this article proposes the quality of caregiver behaviors as a mechanism by which culture affects infant acute pain expression at 12 months of age. Results support the proposed mechanism and inform our understanding of the role of caregiver culture in the infant pain context.
... propriate infant! and! caregiver! behaviors.! For! example,! infants! from! individualist! cultures! have! been! found! to! be! more! emotionally expressive! than! infants! from! collectivist! cultures! which! may! impact! how! a! caregiver! believes! they! should! react! to! an! infant that! is! showing! verbal! or! physical! signs! of! distress! (Vinall,! Pillai! Riddell,! &! Greenberg,! 2011).! There! are! many! benefits! to increasing! our! knowledge! of! the! impact! of! different! types! of! parent! touch! on! infants! emotional! regulation! across! cultural groups,! including! individualizing! calming! approaches! as! well! as! ways! to! enhance! attachment! and! bonding! between! families living! in! varying! parts! of! ...
Objectives The importance of mother-child interaction in early infancy on child development has been well documented. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using the Still Face Paradigm to measure mother interactive style, infant affect and emotional regulation in a rural Ecuador setting. Methods Infant's emotional regulation and the quality of mother's interaction were measured with the Still Face Paradigm at 4 months of age (±15 days). Twenty-four infants and their mothers were assessed in their home. Mother interactive style was coded for attention seeking and contingent responding. Emotional regulation was described by change in infant affect between Still Face episodes. Results A significant difference was found for infant affect between the five Still Face episodes (F1,118 = 9.185, p = 0.003). A significant negative correlation was found for infant affect between episode 3 and 2 with attention seeking mother interactive style during episode 3 (rho = -0.44, p = 0.03), indicating that mothers using more contingent-responding interactions had infants with more positive affect. Conversely, a significant positive association was found for infant affect between episode 3 and 2 and contingent responding mother interactive style during episode 3 (rho = 0.46, p = 0.02), indicating that mothers who used more attention seeking play had infants who showed less positive affect. Conclusion for Practice Study results demonstrate feasibility in using the Still Face Paradigm in working populations residing in a rural region in Ecuadorian highlands and may be feasible in other similar populations in Latin America, and as a successful approach to measuring maternal-child interactions within a field-based epidemiological study design.
1. Determine whether stress in preterm infants, measured with salivary cortisol, decreases after five days of Kangaroo Care (KC) compared to five days of Standard Care (SC). 2. To determine whether kangaroo care provides sustainable pain relief beyond the period of skin-to-skin holding.
Preterm infants (n = 38) born at 27-30 weeks gestational age were randomized to either the KC or the SC group and received the allocated intervention starting on day of life (DOL) five and continuing for five days. Salivary cortisol was collected on DOL five and again on DOL ten. Differences were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and t tests. Pain during nasal suctioning over five days was assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP).
1. Adequate saliva samples for salivary cortisol were collected for 13 KC infants and 11 SC infants. There was no main effect of group (p = 0.49), but there was a significant main effect of age (DOL five versus DOL ten), with salivary cortisol levels decreasing in both groups (p = 0.02). 2. Pain scores for both groups (n = 38) indicted mild to moderate pain during suctioning, with no significant difference in pain scores between groups.
1. KC did not affect salivary cortisol levels in preterm neonates, but levels in both the KC and SC groups decreased over time from DOL five to ten. Salivary cortisol may vary with age of infant. 2. Infants experience pain during routine suctioning and may require pain management.
This study analyzes the embodiment of stranger–child interaction in the cultural context of German middle-class families and Cameroonian Nso farming families. We videotaped 22 encounters between a female stranger and a 1-year-old child in both cultural contexts and developed a coding manual to microanalytically assess differences on the part of the stranger and the child during the first minute of their interaction. We demonstrate that the stranger and the child apply an interaction style that respects the cultural agenda of their cultural context: The German stranger shows a responsive-sensitive interaction style and considers the child’s mother’s reaction, whereas the Cameroonian stranger displays a directive interaction style without monitoring the child’s mother. Likewise, German children take initiatives during the interaction; Cameroonian children follow the suggestions of the stranger. Because stranger–child encounters are incorporated in the paradigm of the strange situation, our data challenge the cross-cultural validity of this procedure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
Toddlers experience stress and express distress during routine paediatric examinations with immunisation. Adjustment to this situation is important, as distress and pain are interrelated. A negative experience of immunisation of their child, moreover, is often mentioned by parents as a reason for refusing routine vaccinations. This paper focuses on the motivation by the mother to inform her child of the immunisation to come and on the associations between information, maternal behaviour, and toddler distress during the examination. Research took place in a private paediatrician practice. The sample comprised 41 mother–child dyads (24 girls, 17 boys; mean age 22.7 months, standard deviation 4.7 months). Mothers were interviewed about the information they gave to the child before the examination. Their answers were coded for motives using content analysis. The entire examination was then video-recorded and the films coded for maternal verbal behaviour (stress-promoting and coping-promoting comments) and toddlers’ expressed distress. The information given varied, with 10 toddlers (24%) receiving no information, 10 (24%) being informed of the visit to the doctor and 21 (52%) being also informed about the immunisation. Motives for informing the child consisted mainly of “anticipatory” (to not surprise the child) and “relational” (to communicate openly) arguments; motives for not informing were mainly based on “rational” (the child is too young) arguments. Analyses show that information was not directly associated with child distress. Stress-promoting comments of the mother were associated with child distress, but only if the child was informed. Maternal behaviour during the examination and information may thus mediate the effect of the maternal motivation on the child's distress. Taking into account not only what the mother does during the examination, but also what she intends to do may help practitioners coach mothers to help their child.
Touch between mother and infant plays an important role in development starting from birth. Cross-cultural differences surrounding rearing practices have an influence on parent-infant interaction, including types of touch used and the development of emotional regulation. This study was designed to investigate maternal touch and infant emotional regulation in infant-mother dyads from Ecuador (n=25) and Hispanic dyads from the United States (US) (n=26). Mothers and their 4-month-old full-term infants participated in the Still Face Paradigm. Second-by-second coding of maternal touch and infant affect was completed. Overall the analyses showed that Ecuadorian mothers used more nurturing and accompaniment touch and less attention seeking touch than US Hispanic mothers during the pre-stressor (baseline) episode. Lagged multilevel models were used to investigate the effect of the different types of touch on infant emotional regulation in the groups for the episodes. The data suggest that playful touch had a significant increase in infant affect, whereas accompaniment and attention-seeking touch had a significant decrease in infant affect. Overall, this study provides support for the role of touch in mother-infant synchronicity in relation to infant's emotional regulation. Identifying touch that is more calming is important to foster emotional regulation in infancy, which can have important implications for development.
There is a scarcity of work examining the relationship between culture and pain-related caregiver behaviors. Moreover, no pediatric pain studies have examined the relationship between caregiver cultural values and pain-related caregiver behaviors, specifically, if this process is mediated by caregiver parenting styles and moderated by eco-social context. Based on cross-cultural developmental theories, this study hypothesized that eco-social context would moderate the relationship between cultural values, parenting styles, and pain-related caregiver behaviors; and that parenting styles mediate the effect of cultural values on pain-related caregiver behaviors. A cross-cultural survey design was employed using a convenience sample of 547 caregivers of 6-12-year-olds living in Canada (n = 183), Iceland (n = 184), and Thailand (n = 180). Multigroup structural equation modeling showed that eco-social context did not affect which cultural model of parenting the caregiver adopted. Parenting styles mediated the relationship between cultural values and pain-related caregiver behavior. Vertical/horizontal individualism, collectivism, and authoritative and authoritarian-parenting styles positively predicted solicitousness. Vertical individualism and authoritarian-parenting style positively predicted discouraging behavior, whereas other predictors did not. The findings support the sociocommunication model of children's pain by showing that cultural context does affect parents' behaviors. They also corroborate with others' claims of solicitousness universality in a pediatric pain context. However, solicitousness may have different cultural meanings among individuals, and may be used in conjunction with discouraging behavior. The findings from this study have implications for theory development about culture and pediatric pain, but do not provide specific clinical recommendations.