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Differences between closed and open innovation models

Differences between closed and open innovation models

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Purpose – The paper, covering the actual argument of open innovation, aims to answer two main research questions, namely: “Which open innovation approach is adopted by the companies belonging to the ICTs industry?” and “Which types of collaborations are carried out by the companies and which are the dynamics that characterize it?”. Design/methodol...

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... main differences between the closed and the open innovation model are clearly depicted and summarized in Figure 1. The open innovation concept encompasses different dimensions, and most of the studies on this matter agree in identifying two main dimensions: the inbound dimension, defined as "the practice of leveraging the discoveries of others and entails the opening up to, and establishment of relationships with, external organizations" (Chesbrough, 2006;Chiaroni et al., 2011), and the outbound dimension, that is "rather Adoption of open innovation than relying entirely on internal paths to market, companies can look for external organizations with business models that are better suited to commercialize a given technology". ...

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... The second largest basic theme is open innovation, which contain topics such as innovation performance, collaboration, and innovation process. The research under this theme appeared in 2011 and grew exponentially thereafter, ranging from open innovation adoption (Bigliardi et al., 2012;Schroll and Mild, 2011) to the determinants of open innovation (Barjak and Heimsch, 2021;Ystr€ om et al., 2015), the manifestation of open innovation in startups and SMEs (Aleksi c et al., 2022;Idrissi Fakhreddine and Castonguay, 2019;Spender et al., 2017;Usman and Vanhaverbeke, 2017), the value of collaboration (Caldas et al., 2019;Doloreux and Lord-Tarte, 2013;O'Connor et al., 2021), and the outcomes of open innovation (Franco et al., 2022;Frank et al., 2022), including innovation performance (Farzaneh et al., 2021;Lazzarotti et al., 2017;Zhong et al., 2022). The majority of research under this theme is situated in the European context and case studies appeared to be a prominent research approach to study open innovation. ...
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Purpose Innovation goes beyond creation, concentrating on enhancement, which is essential for advancement. Since 1998, the European Journal of Innovation Management ( EJIM ) has been a leading forum dedicated to thought leadership and research on the advances in innovation management. Given that EJIM has run over two decades, the time is now opportune to reflect on the journal's contributions to innovation management. Thus, this paper aims to retrospectively review the productivity, impact and knowledge of innovation management research in EJIM . Design/methodology/approach This paper adopts a bibliometric methodology to engage in a retrospective review of EJIM . The bibliographic data of 757 papers published in EJIM from 1998 to 2021 were retrieved from Scopus and analyzed using performance analysis and science mapping techniques. Findings The productivity (publication) and impact (citation) of innovation management research curated by EJIM have grown prolifically over time. Though EJIM operates with a European title, the journal receives and publishes contributions worldwide (e.g. Asia, Europe, North America, South America and Oceania). Noteworthily, the knowledge of innovation management research in EJIM can be divided into four categories: basic themes (general), which comprise innovation, open innovation, new product development and product and process innovation; motor themes (well-developed), which consist of organizational culture and innovation and leadership and creativity; niche themes (very specialized), which include dynamic capabilities and business model innovation; and emerging or declining themes (weakly developed or marginalized), which is made up of research and development (R&D) and green innovation. Originality/value This paper offers a seminal retrospection of EJIM and the journal's productivity, impact and contribution to innovation management.
... We do that by identifying the managerial issues stemming from Open Innovation and positively enhance competitive performance; Multiple case study methodology is adopted; the results indicates a positive relation between different ( Chesbrough, 2003, Chiaroni et al., 2011, Bogers et al., 2018 ( Chesbrough and Appleyard, 2007, Van Alstyne et al., 2016, Kumar et al., 2015, Koch and Windsperger, 2017 . Rohrbeck et al., 2009, Zhang and Zeng, 2009, Ghezzi et al., 2016, Lukac et al., 2012, Mihailovic, 2019, Wang et al., 2016 ( Gassmann and Enkel, 2004, Saebi and Foss, 2015, Rohrbeck et al., 2009 ( Saebi andFoss, 2015, Chesbrough, 2007 ) ‫من‬ ‫مجموعة‬ ‫كزت‬ ‫ر‬ ‫كما‬ ، ‫التنافسية‬ ‫الميزة‬ ‫لتحقيق‬ ‫كأداة‬ ‫االعمال‬ ‫نموذج‬ ‫على‬ ‫المفتوح‬ ‫االبتكار‬ ‫ادبيات‬ ( Teece, 2010, Ghezzi et al., 2016 ‫المفتوحة‬ ‫االعمال‬ ‫لنماذج‬ ‫اإليجابي‬ ‫الدور‬ ‫على‬ ‫أكدت‬ ‫و‬ ، ( Ghezzi et al., 2020, Matějíček and Marešová, 2020, Weiblen, 2014 ‫في‬ ‫النقال‬ ‫متعاملي‬ ‫لدى‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫وتأكد‬ ، ‫األخرى‬ ‫اسات‬ ‫الدر‬ ‫بعض‬ ‫مثل‬ ( Mihailovic, 2019, Yamasaki andCarlos, 2014, Atallaoui, ( Bogers et al., 2019, Cao, 2009, Cheng et al., 2016, Lichtenthaler, 2008 ‫في‬ ‫األساسيات‬ ‫من‬ ‫الديناميكية‬ ‫اتهم‬ ‫قدر‬ ‫تطوير‬ ‫يعد‬ ‫حيث‬ ‫النقال‬ ‫الهاتف‬ ‫متعاملي‬ ‫على‬ ‫االمر‬ ‫وينطبق‬ ، ‫خدماتهم‬ ‫في‬ ‫االبتكار‬ ‫إدارة‬ ( Wang et al., 2016, Hahn, 2015, Ghezzi et al., 2015 ‫؛‬ ( Rohrbeck et al., 2009, Senior, 2019, Xiaoren et al., 2014, Xie and Wang, 2020, Fasnacht, 2018 ( Chesbrough, 2011, Johnson et al., 2008, Casadesus and Ricart, 2010, Furseth and Cuthbertson, 2013 Barney and Clark, 2007, Wernerfelt, 1984, Barney, 1991 Bogers et al., 2019, Cao, 2009, Cheng et al., 2016, Lichtenthaler, 2008 ( Lukac et al., 2012, Rohrbeck et al., 2009, Bigliardi et al., 2012, Hahn, 2015, Ghezzi et al., 2016, Zhang and Zeng, 2009 ...
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ملخص أظهرت العديد من الدراسات فعالية استراتيجيات الابتكار المفتوح حيث ركزت بشكل كبير على آثار الاستعانة بمصادر خارجية في الحصول على المعرفة الابتكارية، التعاون مع مؤسسات الطرف الثالث والتسويق الخارجي للتكنولوجيا؛ كما ركّز العديد من الكتاب على نموذج الاعمال كأداة تحليل لقياس مدى تحقيق الممارسات والآثار المختلفة لفلسفة الابتكار المفتوح في المؤسسات، وتتناول العديد من الادبيات الأنظمة البيئية والقدرات الديناميكية في إطار مناقشة تبني الابتكار المفتوح. من هذا المنطلق تحاول هذه الاطروحة أن تدرس العلاقة بين استراتيجيات الابتكار المفتوح وتحسين الأداء التنافسي، يتم ذلك بتحديد القضايا الإدارية الرئيسية النابعة من ممارسات وتطبيقات الابتكار المفتوح التي تساهم في تحسين الأداء التنافسي، تم الاعتماد على منهج دراسة حالة متعددة، وضحت النتائج وجود تأثير إيجابي لأنشطة الابتكار المفتوح على الأداء التنافسي، كما أظهرت تأثيرات إيجابية لاستراتيجية حجر الزاوية وللأنماط الابتكار المفتوح البيئية على نموذج الاعمال المفتوح، ودور معدّل للقدرات الديناميكية في هذه العلاقة. ABSTRACT Various studies have shown the effectiveness of Open Innovation strategies; basically they focused on the impact of outsourcing innovation knowledge, collaborations with third parties and external commercialization of technology. Other scholars emphasize on Business Model as an analyze tool to achieve different open innovation practices and implications, literature discusses ecosystems and dynamic capabilities in the context of adopting Open Innovation strategies. This study tries to assess the relationship between Open Innovation strategies and the competitive performance. We do that by identifying the managerial issues stemming from Open Innovation and positively enhance competitive performance; Multiple case study methodology is adopted; the results indicates a positive relation between different Open Innovation strategies, and the competitive performance, and also by the open Business Model, The keystone strategy and the open innovation ecosystem modes appear to have a positive impact on the open business model, dynamic capabilities positively moderates the relation.
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Whilst there are well-established bodies of knowledge about enterprise support and the role of entrepreneurial learning for SMEs (Small and medium-sized enterprises) in general and a growing body of evidence relating to environmental capabilities, green/eco-innovation, sustainable supply chains and green skills for SMEs in particular, there is little empirical and peer reviewed literature that address approaches to enterprise support specifically focussed on the needs of the growing number of pro-environmental SMEs. This study undertakes a contextualised review of diverse knowledge domains to identify the key features of enterprise support for pro-environmental SMEs. In doing so, the paper plots the knowledge journey of experienced academic programme providers, from the initial design of an enterprise support programme for pro-environmental SMEs, through a thematic review of academic, grey and other related literature and finally presents a propositional and normative conceptual framework that proposes eight key features of enterprise support for pro-environmental SMEs. The resulting ‘framework for action’ aims to offer a practical tool for providers of pro-environmental enterprise support to review and improve their own provision, an analytical frame for other researchers in this field and a benchmark for SMEs seeking guidance on their pathway to net-zero business performance.
... Open innovation is divided into two parts: inbound open innovation and outbound open innovation [2,58]. Inbound open innovation is realized by exploring the sources of innovation such as information and new technology from external parties, e.g., customer, supplier, competitor, government, consultant, university, or research organization [25]. ...
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The current business environment requires every organization or company to achieve optimal performance and maintain it. Innovation capability and open innovation practices play a critical role in improving organizational performance. However, their role in improving Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)’s performance, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, still needs to be identified further. Thus, this study conducts empirical research elaborating intrinsic factors of innovation capability, as well as the influence of open innovation on organizational efforts, i.e., how SMEs achieve optimal performance during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this research model, 206 respondents were gathered and given a reearch questionnaire. The respondents are the owner of batik SMEs located in several regions in Indonesia. PLS-SEM is used to test the data, and the result of this study shows that all hypotheses developed in this study are accepted, i.e., SMEs’ innovation capability and open innovation practices significantly influence financial and operational performance. The results show that in batik SMEs, the ability to innovate and open innovation, especially open entry innovation, can facilitate greater organizational performance. Therefore, batik SMEs woud benefit from initiatives and opportunities that improve their abilities in open innovation.
... In addition, open innovation has been adopted in more and more industries in the past years (e.g., [18], [26]- [29]). However, we can rarely understand open innovation in many emerging high-tech industries like nanotechnology industry. ...
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This study aims to analyze the role of stakeholders who support the open innovation transition in SMEs. This is important because the innovation process has shifted from closed innovation to open innovation which requires good management of organizational capabilities, especially in managing stakeholders and resources owned by the organization. However, in the current pandemic situation, SMEs have challenges in adopting and implementing these open innovations. In this study, a conceptual research model was compiled and produced which elaborated several previous references, and then tested empirically on respondents, namely in SMEs in Indonesia. The responses involved in this study were 218 SMEs, but the complete response are 206 respondents. Data testing was carried out using the Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) statistical method. The results of hypothesis testing indicate that there are four variables that significantly strengthen the effect of closed innovation on open innovation, namely financial capability, network, knowledge management system, and organizational culture (p < 0.01). The moderating variable with the most dominant influence is financial ability (β = 0.915, p < 0.01). Based on the results of this study, SMEs that have high financial capabilities or have advantages in terms of funding and financial management can make the transition from closed innovation to open innovation better or independently. There is one moderating variable that is not proven to be significant, namely technology. These findings can then be used to formulate appropriate policies to support the adoption of open innovation in the context of developing the ability of SMEs to survive during the pandemic.
... "Partnerships and alignments, both downstream and upstream, became paramount for cross-fertilization and synergy" [Traitler et al., 2011]. Many industrial sectors have adhered to OI strategies and practices such as the bio-pharmaceutical [Bianchi et al., 2011], food [Sarkar, Costa, 2008], automotive [Marin et al., 2018;Ili et al., 2010], chemical [Sieg et al., 2010], and ICT [Bigliardi et al., 2012] among others. As firms learn, mature, and adapt to OI practices in general, the next step is to organize themselves into a broader and more diverse group of actors throughout the various stages of their innovation process [Bogers et al., 2017], evolving into what has been called more recently 'innovation ecosystems' [Rohrbeck et al., 2009], or, depending on the perspective, 'business ecosystems' [Gomes et al., 2018]. ...
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The creation of effective innovation ecosystems (IES) at the national or sectoral level remains a difficult and not always feasible task. Basing on evidence from the Brazilian automotive industry, a case of unused opportunities for building a strong IES is considered. This is due to the insensitivity of such ecosystems to new complicated configurations and the formats of non-traditional interaction that they suggest - a “new ecology of competition”, etc. The internal context of companies in relation to the practice of open innovation has been studied. Despite joint projects with close value chain partners, carmakers are showing a closed attitude to external collaboration, unlike players in industries such as aerospace or information and communications technology that gained growth and major transformation by building a broader IES. Only a high demand from the government for creating a strong IES can change the situation.
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India has witnessed large number of telecom subscribers with their growing expectations in recent years. This is encouraging telecom operators in India to create innovative service offerings at a faster pace. Number of new value-added services (VASs) has been offered by the operators to attract and retain their subscribers with the involvement of users. Hence, objective of this article is to understand how telecom operators are creating service innovations to exploit new technological capabilities with the involvement of user. Three cases of technology-based service (TBS) innovation (mobile VASs) are studied in-depth to discover activities involved in the process. Findings suggest 46 activities and 16 subprocesses for TBS innovation. Our article proposes three strategies for telecom operators to opt for during service evolution phases depending on their unique assets with the involvement of users. Our article provides valuable insights for telecom operators to effectively design, develop, and implement new services with user involvement. In the process, we make three main contributions to the body of knowledge.
... Relationships and networking with external parties are supporting factors in implementing open innovation [29], [32], [37]. [15], [26], [37], [48], [49], [50], [51], [55] Inbound OI, Outbound OI and Couple OI [27], [29], [30], [32], [45] Inbound OI [33], [39], [40], [43], [46], [52], [53], [54], [56] 2) Small and Medium Enterprises ...
... SMEs need the involvement of stakeholders and other external parties in implementing open innovation, for example: funding assistance from the government, NGOs, training from educational institutions, among others. [13], [14], [30], [33], [35], [37], [45], [46] Inbound OI, Outbound OI and Couple OI [40] innovation is more likely to be applied in large-scale companies as will be explained below. ...
... There are differences in the implementation or activities of Inbound OI in those carried out at large-scale companies and SMEs. In large-scale companies, OI inbound can be in the form of cooperation through the R&D division, research collaboration between institutions, technology transfer, license purchases, patent purchases, copyright purchases, and involving the role of consultants [26], [31], [33]. OI inbound activities at SMEs can be carried out through government participation or assistance through regulations, voice of customers, NGO assistance, independent research institutes, CSR activities from larger companies, and assistance from suppliers [31], [34], [35]. ...
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Open innovation involves external parties of the organization in innovation activities within the organization, resulting in the flow of knowledge and information internally and externally (inbound and outbound). Given the advantages of having external support in the internal innovation process, organizations are starting to adopt the open innovation model to help them achieve and sustain innovation. The parties involved in open innovation are suppliers, consumers, competitors, and society. Such involvement will increase the organization’s ability to achieve better performance. This study aims to provide a more updated, comprehensive, and clearer picture of the importance of organizational readiness to innovate, especially through open innovation. This study also seeks to present a more comprehensive identification of the impact of open innovation on company performance by using a systematic literature study. The systematic literature review conducted in this study can serve as a basis for future research that discusses policy strategies to improve organizational performance through the implementation of open innovation. Based on a systematic literature review, 33 main articles were obtained in accordance with the research objectives including different types of open innovation manifestations and specific open innovation practices implemented by organizations.