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Dietary sources of cysteine 

Dietary sources of cysteine 

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Hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Individuals with hypertension are at an increased risk for stroke, heart disease and kidney failure. Essential hypertension results from a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. One such lifestyle factor is diet, and its role in the control of blood pressure has come under...

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Hypertension is a major health problem worldwide. Individuals with hypertension are at an increased risk for stroke, heart disease, and kidney failure. Although the etiology of essential hypertension has a genetic component, lifestyle factors such as diet play an important role. Insulin resistance is a common feature of hypertension in both humans...

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... Previous reports have unveiled the potential of cysteine delivery agents such as homocysteine, methionine, N-acetylcysteine and L-cysteine in boosting GSH production [12][13][14] and enhancing the efficiency of the antioxidant system. However, there have been challenges associated with the delivery of the molecules in the biological system [15,16]. ...
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Diets rich in fats and fructose are associated with the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Therefore, we investigated the effect of D-ribose-L-cysteine (DRLC) in high-fructose high-fat (HFHF) diet-fed rats. Twenty rats (n = 5), divided into four groups, were simultaneously exposed to HFHF and/or DRLC (250 mg/kg) orally during the 8 weeks of the study. Results showed that HFHF precipitated pro-inflammation and selective disruption of the oxidative stress markers. There were significant decreases in the level of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), hepatic SOD and GPX. Significant increases in serum levels of uric acid (UA), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP) and hepatic Xanthine oxidase (XO) were observed in the HFHF compared to the control. In the HFHF + DRLC group, oxidative stress was mitigated due to differences in serum levels of SOD, GPX, TAC, TNF-α, liver SOD, and XO relative to control. The administration of DRLC alone caused significant reductions in malondial-dehyde, UA and CRP and a significant increase in SOD compared to the control. DRLC prevents hepatic and systemic oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory events in HFHF diet-fed rats.
... On the contrary, H 2 S has been implied in activating proinflammatory response [107,108], and its higher level could cause inflammation in the gut [99]. Interestingly, A. muciniphila has been proposed to use the H 2 S for the production of cysteine [43], and cysteine is well-known for its anti-hypertensive effect [109], thereby it could control BP regulation. In addition, when there is an activation of the inflammatory response, the relation between A. muciniphila and H 2 S might turn on pathologic response rather than the protective response, because both entities have been found to have a differential role. ...
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Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) is present in the human gut microbiota from infancy and gradually increases in adulthood. The potential impact of the abundance of A. muciniphila has been studied in major cardiovascular diseases including elevated blood pressure or hypertension (HTN). HTN is a major factor in premature death worldwide , and approximately 1.28 billion adults aged 30-79 years have hypertension. A. muciniphila is being considered a next-generation probiotic and though numerous studies had highlighted the positive role of A. muciniphila in lowering/controlling the HTN, however, few studies had highlighted the negative impact of increased abundance of A. muciniphila in the management of HTN. Thus, in the review, we aimed to discuss the current facts, evidence, and controversy about the role of A. muciniphila in the pathophysiology of HTN and its potential effect on HTN manage-ment/regulation, which could be beneficial in identifying the drug target for the management of HTN.
... N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) can be naturally found as diet supplement, not only in fruits and vegetables but also in grains, fish, meat, dairy and egg products [144]. NAC presents various properties such as anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities related to the enhancement of Gluthathion-S-Transferase activity, the stabilization of proteins structures, mucolytic activity and others [145]. ...
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... Glutamate inhibits oxidative stress and lowers BP by inducing glutathione synthesis [135,140]. Cysteine exerts its antihypertensive effects by regulating oxidative stress, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, NO production, and glutathione synthesis [141]. Furthermore, low-protein diets during pregnancy have been shown to be consistent with increased susceptibility in offspring to hypertensive disorders [142]. ...
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... While more evidence is needed regarding cysteine [10,11,225,226], the renal tubular metabolism has recently emerged as a contributor to the long-term regulation of blood pressure (reviewed in Reference [80]). This metabolic perspective is co-substantiated by the impact on blood pressure that has been attributed to SGLT2 inhibitors [227], HIF stabilizers [228], gut-microbiota driven-metabolites (reviewed in References [227,229,230]) or to genome-wide association studies of environment-related metabolic pathways with high expression in kidney tubule, including the MAP [39] and the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) circuitry [11,230,231]. ...
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In this review encouraged by original data, we first provided in vivo evidence that the kidney, comparative to the liver or brain, is an organ particularly rich in cysteine. In the kidney, the total availability of cysteine was higher in cortex tissue than in the medulla and distributed in free reduced, free oxidized and protein-bound fractions (in descending order). Next, we provided a comprehensive integrated review on the evidence that supports the reliance on cysteine of the kidney beyond cysteine antioxidant properties, highlighting the relevance of cysteine and its renal metabolism in the control of cysteine excess in the body as a pivotal source of metabolites to kidney biomass and bioenergetics and a promoter of adaptive responses to stressors. This view might translate into novel perspectives on the mechanisms of kidney function and blood pressure regulation and on clinical implications of the cysteine-related thiolome as a tool in precision medicine.
... While more evidence is needed regarding cysteine [10,11,225,226], the renal tubular metabolism has recently emerged as a contributor to the long-term regulation of blood pressure (reviewed in Reference [80]). This metabolic perspective is co-substantiated by the impact on blood pressure that has been attributed to SGLT2 inhibitors [227], HIF stabilizers [228], gut-microbiota driven-metabolites (reviewed in References [227,229,230]) or to genome-wide association studies of environment-related metabolic pathways with high expression in kidney tubule, including the MAP [39] and the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) circuitry [11,230,231]. ...
... Decreased urinary taurine excretion in young SHR that is evident during the developmental phase of hypertension may be due to decreased endogenous taurine synthesis, and could underlie the etiology of hypertension in SHR [4]. Taurine supplementation has been shown to improve prehypertension vascular function and prevent strokes [38,[39][40][41]. ...
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Ficus deltoidea var angustifolia (FD-A) reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) but the mechanism remains unknown. Changes in urine metabolites following FD-A treatment in SHR were, therefore, examined to identify the mechanism of its antihypertensive action. Male SHR were given either FD-A (1000 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) or losartan (10 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) or 0.5 mL of ethanolic-water (control) daily for 4 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured every week and urine spectra data acquisition, on urine collected after four weeks of treatment, were compared using multivariate data analysis. SBP in FD-A and losartan treated rats was significantly lower than that in the controls after four weeks of treatment. Urine spectra analysis revealed 24 potential biomarkers with variable importance projections (VIP) above 0.5. These included creatine, hippurate, benzoate, trimethylamine N-oxide, taurine, dimethylamine, homocysteine, allantoin, methylamine, n-phenylacetylglycine, guanidinoacetate, creatinine, lactate, glucarate, kynurenine, ethanolamine, betaine, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glycine, lysine, glutamine, 2-hydroxyphenylacetate, 3-indoxylsulfate and sarcosine. From the profile of these metabolites, it seems that FD-A affects urinary levels of metabolites like taurine, hypotaurine, glycine, serine, threonine, alanine, aspartate and glutamine. Alterations in these and the pathways involved in their metabolism might underlie the molecular mechanism of its antihypertensive action.
... The synthesis of GSH is regulated by cysteine availability and GSH/GSSG feedback inhibition 131 . Cysteine, delivered as its stable analog N-acetyl cysteine, has antihypertensive effects in humans and animal models and may work directly or through its storage form GSH to decrease oxidative stress 132 . Levels of glycine and glutamate in the renal medulla are lower in SS rats compared with SS.13 [BN 82 . ...
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Hypertension is a leading risk factor for disease burden worldwide. The kidneys, which have a high specific metabolic rate, play an essential role in the long-term regulation of arterial blood pressure. In this review, we discuss the emerging role of renal metabolism in the development of hypertension. Renal energy and substrate metabolism is characterized by several important and, in some cases, unique features. Recent advances suggest that alterations of renal metabolism may result from genetic abnormalities or serve initially as a physiological response to environmental stressors to support tubular transport, which may ultimately affect regulatory pathways and lead to unfavorable cellular and pathophysiological consequences that contribute to the development of hypertension.
... [178,179] Glutamic acid, arginine and cysteine control the concentrations of nitric oxide, a vasoconstrictor agent. [180][181][182] Related to the vitamin content in chaya leaves, Obichi et al. [183] reported that chaya contains various vitamins, such as A, B 3 , B 6 , E and C. It has been observed that the consumption of vitamin C reduces the risk of thromboembolic diseases, because it works as a cofactor of several reactions enzyme catalyzed, including the hydroxylation of the proline and lysine amino acids, essential for collagen synthesis. [184] Also, vitamin C has antioxidant properties, which can prevent oxidation of LDL and regulate the concentration of nitric oxide in blood vessels. ...
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Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. The most common underlying pathologies of cardiovascular disorders are thromboembolic diseases. The antithrombotic therapy prevents the formation of thrombi or dissolves the previously constituted ones. However, it presents a high rate of accidents such as gastric bleeding and cerebrovascular embolisms. Thus, the use of herbal medicine has become a viable option for the treatment of such diseases. Reports of traditional Mayan and Nigerian medicine indicate that the Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Mill.) I.M. Johnst, knowed as Chaya by Mayas in Yucatán, is used as a blood thinner. Currently, there are limited scientific reports that support the antithrombotic activity of the chaya, among which its cardioprotective, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic effect has been reported. However, the exact mechanism by which the chaya exerts these effects is not yet known. Due to the ethnobotanical reports of traditional medicine and existing scientific studies, it is possible to suggest that chaya extracts exert a biological effect on various platelet, coagulant and fibrinolytic enzymes of the blood hemostatic system. This review will analyze the content of secondary metabolites present in Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Mill.) I.M. Johnst leaf extracts, in order to propose the possible antithrombotic mechanisms of chaya.
... Cysteine is found naturally in meat, fish, grains, dairy, soybean, and egg products [3]. As a nutritional supplement, NAC is found in small amounts naturally in some fruits and vegetables [4]. ...
... Various mechanisms of DNA repair/protection [7] as seen in animal studies and human cell studies. 3 Scavenges free radicals Scavenging property via the redox potential of thiols [8] as demonstrated in cell culture. 4 Anti-inflammatory property Reduces proinflammatory cytokines [9] as seen in animal studies. ...
... Cysteine-rich diets such as the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet improve insulin resistance, decrease oxidative stress, lower advanced glycation end products, increase the storage form of glutathione, and modulate nitric oxide and other vasoactive molecules, thus lowering blood pressure [3]. However, NAC as add-on therapy in nondiabetic patients with chronic kidney disease who were on renin-angiotensin system blockade medication had no effect on blood pressure [78]. ...
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Objective: To review the clinical usefulness of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as treatment or adjunctive therapy in a number of medical conditions. Use in Tylenol overdose, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive lung disease has been well documented, but there is emerging evidence many other conditions would benefit from this safe, simple, and inexpensive intervention. Quality of Evidence. PubMed, several books, and conference proceedings were searched for articles on NAC and health conditions listed above reviewing supportive evidence. This study uses a traditional integrated review format, and clinically relevant information is assessed using the American Family Physician Evidence-Based Medicine Toolkit. A table summarizing the potential mechanisms of action for N-acetylcysteine in these conditions is presented. Main Message. N-acetylcysteine may be useful as an adjuvant in treating various medical conditions, especially chronic diseases. These conditions include polycystic ovary disease, male infertility, sleep apnea, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, influenza, parkinsonism, multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathy, stroke outcomes, diabetic neuropathy, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, schizophrenia, bipolar illness, and obsessive compulsive disorder; it can also be useful as a chelator for heavy metals and nanoparticles. There are also a number of other conditions that may show benefit; however, the evidence is not as robust. Conclusion: The use of N-acetylcysteine should be considered in a number of conditions as our population ages and levels of glutathione drop. Supplementation may contribute to reducing morbidity and mortality in some chronic conditions as outlined in the article.