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Diagram of the ScaleNet data model. The central tables to the database are the Citations, Scale Classification, Species and Genera tables. Together these tables validate the currently accepted valid names of scale insects, which are then used throughout the database to track ecological associations, distributions, taxonomic keys, etc. The figure depicts relationships between the tables using Crow's Foot Notation. The symbol k represents a one-and-only-one relationship. The crow's foot symbol represents a one-or-many relationship. Relationships can be asymmetrical, and the nature of the relationship of object A to object B is specified at the connection with B. For example, the relationship between Keys and Keys Stages would be read as 'One key can have one and only one key stage; a key stage can be in one or many keys.' 

Diagram of the ScaleNet data model. The central tables to the database are the Citations, Scale Classification, Species and Genera tables. Together these tables validate the currently accepted valid names of scale insects, which are then used throughout the database to track ecological associations, distributions, taxonomic keys, etc. The figure depicts relationships between the tables using Crow's Foot Notation. The symbol k represents a one-and-only-one relationship. The crow's foot symbol represents a one-or-many relationship. Relationships can be asymmetrical, and the nature of the relationship of object A to object B is specified at the connection with B. For example, the relationship between Keys and Keys Stages would be read as 'One key can have one and only one key stage; a key stage can be in one or many keys.' 

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Article
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Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are small herbivorous insects found on all continents except Antarctica. They are extremely invasive, and many species are serious agricultural pests. They are also emerging models for studies of the evolution of genetic systems, endosymbiosis and plant-insect interactions. ScaleNet was launched in 1995 to provi...

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... follows a Model-View-Controller architecture, i.e. the controller (logic) receives user requests and fetches in- formation from the model (data store) to be displayed in a view (HTML). We normalized the data model ( Figure 1) and performed the data migrations with a set of custom Python scripts. As part of the migration we performed a number of data cleaning and standardization routines. ...

Citations

... Paracoccus marginatus is a major threat to the ecological, social, and economic wellbeing of people in the countries it invades. Though the pest prefers papaya, it is extremely polyphagous, attacking horticultural crops in 142 genera and 49 families (García Morales et al. 2016). The situation is compounded by the fact that farmers practice mixed cropping of known hosts of the pest on the same pieces of land, thus ensuring continuous availability of alternative hosts for easy perpetuation (Cham et al. 2011). ...
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Fruit production in Sub-Saharan Africa is of paramount importance both socially and economically. Millions of farmers derive livelihoods from mango, avocado, citrus, cashew, and coconut farming, but native and alien invasive species constrain production The region’s capacity to contain invasives is weak due to the absence of national and institutional support systems for early detection, containment, eradication, or management of the pests. Climate change is expected to play a huge role in the influx of more alien invasive species and the shift of ecological requirements of some native species. Though a fair share of pre-and post-management pest management techniques for several insect pests has been developed, adoption and adaptation of the options are limited. Data on economic and social implications are largely lacking, making it challenging to implement informed policy decisions. The existence of the “Strategy for Managing Invasive Species in Africa 2021–2030” promises a paradigm shift in the management of invasives, from reactive thinking to coordinated proactive approaches. The uncoordinated deployment of management measures in the region and the lack of funding, play a negative role in managing the pests effectively. Prospects for enhanced future research are wide, and efforts are currently being channeled to Area-Wide-Integrated Pest Management in a bottom-up approach with stakeholders owning the process. Participatory development of technologies is also taking centre stage, paving the way for increased adoption and adaptation. Postharvest technologies promise to provide the adequate phytosanitary assurance required by countries importing fruit from Sub-Saharan Africa.
... As each species is also featured within the freely available online resource ScaleNet (García Morales et al. 2020), people may wonder why this book is required. Both ScaleNet and the encyclopedia cover similar aspects such as distribution, taxonomy and hosts of scales. ...
... Matsucoccus massonianae Young & Hu is an insect within the order Hemiptera and family Matsucoccidae. Its common name is the Massonian pine bast scale or the Chinese pine bast scale (Kosztarab and Koz ar, 1988;Ben-Dov, 2011;Garc ıa Morales et al., 2016). M. massonianae has no synonyms. ...
... Expansion of the geographical distribution of a pest within an area (FAO, 2021) Pseudolarix amabilis is listed as a host by Ben-Dov (2011) and Garc ıa Morales et al. (2016), but this might be an error in interpreting a study by Hu and Wang (1976) Young et al. (1976) believe that M. massonianae could have a wider distribution in China and also in Taiwan. However, no records were found to support this. ...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Matsucoccus massonianae (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae), the Massonian pine bast scale, for the EU territory. M. massonianae occurs in western China and has been reported as a pest of Pinus massoniana (Chinese red pine) and P. thunbergii (Japanese black pine). These hosts occur in the EU as ornamental/amenity trees. Other scales in the Matsucoccus genus feed on a variety of Pinus species and the host range of M. massonianae could be wider than is currently recorded. There is one generation per year. All stages occur on the branches and stems of hosts with developing nymphs and adult females feeding under the bark on the phloem vessels of the host. Symptoms include the yellowing/browning of host needles, early needle drop, desiccation of shoots and bark necrosis. The most serious infestations occur in hosts aged 8-25 years old and there can be some host mortality. In principle, host plants for planting and plant products such as cut branches and wood with bark could provide entry pathways into the EU. However, prohibitions on the import of Pinus from non-European third countries close these pathways. In China, M. massonianae occurs in regions with temperate humid conditions and hot summers. These conditions are also found in parts of southern EU. Were M. massonianae to establish in the EU, it is conceivable that it could expand its host range; however, this remains uncertain. M. massonianae satisfies all the criteria that are within the remit of EFSA to assess for it to be regarded as a potential Union quarantine pest. Some uncertainty exists over the magnitude of potential impacts.
... The Afrotropical region has a unique and diverse scale insect fauna with 1458 species distributed on the African continent and its many oceanic islands, including the Cape Verde archipelago [1]. ...
... According to ScaleNet, an open-source database for scale insects [1], prior to this study, 38 scale insect species in 7 families and 28 genera had been recorded from the Cape Verde Islands. These data were the result of studies by only a few scientists, notably Fernandes [4][5][6][7], Schmutterer et al. [8], and Van Harten et al. [9]. ...
... In addition, an updated checklist of Coccomorpha species known from this archipelago, along with validation sources, is appended (Table 1). Families and species within each family are listed in alphabetical order according to the classification used in the ScaleNet database [1]. The references to species recorded from the Cape Verde Islands reported in ScaleNet have been checked and, where erroneous, corrected in the present checklist. ...
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In this study, a new species of mealybug from the Cape Verde Islands, Mirococcus capeverdensis Łagowska and Hodgson sp. n., collected on Campylanthus glaber Benth. (Scrophulariaceae), a native plant to these islands, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. A taxonomic key to the mealybugs from the Afrotropical Region that lack cerarii is provided. In addition, seven scale insect species, namely Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead, Hemiberlesia cyanophylli (Signoret), Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green), Icerya aegyptiaca (Douglas), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Palmicultor palmarum (Ehrhorn), and Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana) are recorded for the first time from the Cape Verde Islands and an updated checklist of Coccomorpha species known from this region, along with their known island distributions and valid sources, is appended.
... Pyriform soft scale is polyphagous, with plant hosts in at least 64 genera belonging to 36 families (García Morales et al. 2016); Laurus nobilis and species of Citrus and Schefflera are favoured hosts. Probably originating in the Oriental Region, it is an invasive species that is now known from parts of the Oriental Region, Australia, Africa, the Palaearctic Region and the New World (Kondo et al. 2022), and is currently expanding its geographical range. ...
Article
Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) are obligate plant parasites that pierce live plant tissues and suck out juices. They are small, generally live on cryptic parts of their hosts, and are easily transported between countries on live plant material in international trade. About 7.6% of scale insect species have been recorded causing damage to their host plants; almost all harmful scale pests are unintentionally introduced species. The soft scale insects (Coccidae) are the third most diverse family in the Infraorder Coccomorpha. Samples of ivy (Hedera sp., Aquifoliaceae) with leaf undersides infested by soft scale insects were collected in public gardens in Mokhtari Ghali, Mostaganem Province, Algeria in June 2022. Specimens were mounted on microscope slides; voucher specimens on slide mounts, once dry, will be deposited in the insect collection at the National Institute for Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, 12, Avenue Colonel Amirouche, Alger, Algeria. The soft scale was identified as Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Cockerell 1894), a new country record for Algeria.
... Of these, F. simplicior and M. piperis have been considered endemic to Sri Lanka; but A. thaiensis was first described from Thailand and was recorded later in Malaysia (Takahashi 1942(Takahashi , 1951, Philippines (Williams 2004), Sri Lanka (Sirisena et al. 2012) and Indonesia (Sartiami et al. 2016). Paralecanium machili and F. pokfulamensis were known only from Taiwan and Hong Kong, respectively, whereas K. deltoides has a relatively wide distribution and has been recorded from the Palaearctic, Afrotropical and Indo-Australian Regions (García Morales et al. 2016). In this paper we provide a detailed redescription of M. piperis based on Indian material, diagnoses of the remaining five newly recorded scale insects in India, and compare their morphological variations with the original or other available descriptions. ...
... Ecological notes: Paralecanium machili was collected in large numbers on Indian bay leaf (Cinnamomum tamala), with at least one scale insect per leaf. The scale may restrict itself to higher altitudes on host plants belonging to Lauraceae, the only family on which it has been recorded so far (García Morales et al. 2016). Appearance in life (Fig. 1d): Body of adult female usually broadly oval but occasionally asymmetric, quite flat but with a slight longitudinal ridge anterior to anal plates. ...
... Based on data in Garcia Morales et al. (2016), the six new country records above bring the Indian scale insect fauna species totals to 96 soft scale insects (Coccidae) and 131 mealybugs (Pseudococcidae). The pathways of introduction by which these scale insects entered India are not known; however, scale insects are one of the most commonly transported insect groups in the trade in live plant materials, and are some of the most successful invasive insects (Malumphy et al. 2012). ...
Article
Four species of soft scale insect [Hemiptera: Coccidae: Fistulococcus pokfulamensis Hodgson & Martin, Kilifia deltoides De Lotto, Maacoccus piperis (Green) and Paralecanium machili Takahashi] and two species of mealybug [Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae: Antonina thaiensis Takahashi and Formicococcus simplicior (Green)] are recorded in India for the first time. Each of the six species is comprehensively diagnosed based on Indian material, and compared with earlier descriptions. Keys to the Indian species in their respective genera are provided to facilitate identification. Ecological information on host plants, associated ants and natural enemies is also given.
... Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) are heterogeneous and diverse insects and are exclusively phytophagous, which may vary, depending on the species, with respect to the specificity of the host plant (Grazia et al. 2012). Studies on the entomofauna associated with A. brasiliensis are lacking and there are no reports of scale insects associated with this species so far (García Morales et al. 2016). ...
... The genus Umbaspis MacGillivray (1921) has two valid species and the type species Diaspis regularis Newstead, by monotypy and original designation accepted valid name. In addition to this species there are Umbaspis spatulata (Hall, 1929), both described in Africa (Balachowsky 1954;García Morales et al. 2016). Fonseca (1969) reports in São Paulo, in an unknown native host, the subspecies brasiliensis close to U. regularis and U. spatulata, from which it differs by the presence of a marked depression in the anterior cephalothoracic margin, by the occurrence of 8 to 13 glands. ...
... Umbaspis regularis has a wide distribution in Africa with introduction in Italy and Poland in Ananas sp. (Pellizzari & Dalla Montà 1997;Danzig & Pellizzari 1998 Morales et al. 2016). Therefore, this is the first record of the occurrence of U. regularis in a member of the Opiliaceae family and the first report of this scale insect for the central region of Brazil. ...
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Agonandra brasiliensis Miers ex Benth. & Hook.f. (Opiliaceae), is a tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado used for wood and medicinal purposes by the local population. Studies about insects associated with A. brasiliensis are inexistent and there is no report of scale insects association with this tree species. This study aimed to report for the first time the occurrence of Umbaspis regularis (Newstead, 1911) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on A. brasiliensis in Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. This is also the first report of this scale insect in Central Brazil. Additionally, macroscopic and microscopic descriptions of U. regularis and the injuries observed in the plants are presented.
... Together with aphids (Aphidoidea), jumping plant lice (Psylloidea), and whiteflies (Aleyrodoidea), they constitute the hemipteran suborder Sternorrhyncha (Kondo et al., 2008;Ross et al., 2010). More than 8,400 species belonging to 56 families have been identified, of which 20 are extinct and 36 are extant (Gullan and Cook, 2007;Hodgson and Hardy, 2013;García Morales et al., 2016). Many species of scale insects are cryptic in habit, resembling their host plants (Hodgson and Hardy, 2013). ...
Article
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Scale insects (Coccoidea) are morphologically specialized members of the order Hemiptera, with 56 families recognized to date. However, the phylogenetic relationships within and among families are poorly resolved. In this study, to further characterize the phylogenetic relationships among scale insects, an ultraconserved element (UCE) probe set was designed specifically for Coccoidea based on three low-coverage whole genome sequences along with three publicly available genomes. An in silico test including eight additional genomes was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the probe set. Most scale insect lineages were recovered by the phylogenetic analysis. This study recovered the monophyly of neococcoids. The newly developed UCE probe set has the potential to reshape and improve our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within and among families of scale insects at the genome level.
... Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) comprise a group of insects composed of 55 families (35 extant and 20 extinct) containing 8469 species in 1223 genera (García Morales et al. 2022). The Coccidae, commonly known as soft scales, is the third most species-rich family of the Coccomorpha, with 1224 species in 178 genera (García Morales et al. 2022). ...
... Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) comprise a group of insects composed of 55 families (35 extant and 20 extinct) containing 8469 species in 1223 genera (García Morales et al. 2022). The Coccidae, commonly known as soft scales, is the third most species-rich family of the Coccomorpha, with 1224 species in 178 genera (García Morales et al. 2022). ...
Article
A new soft scale species, Cryptostigma cecropiaphilum Kondo & Roubik, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae), is described from specimens collected from inside hollow branches (internodes) of Cecropia ficifolia Warb. ex Snethl and Cecropia sciadophylla Mart. (Urticaceae), in Orellana province, Ecuador. The new species was found in association with three mutualistic hymenopterans: two species of Plebeia Schwarz, subgenus Nanoplebeia Engel (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini), and Azteca sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae). The new species of coccid is described based on the morphology of the adult female and first-instar nymph. Keys to the known adult females and first-instar nymphs of Cryptostigma Ferris are provided.
... Rutherfordia major (Cockerell, 1894) (Hemiptera, Diaspididae), is a polyphagous armored scale distributed in 27 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America, with a host range of 37 plant species in 27 genera under 15 plant families (Morales et al., 2016). This was originally described in Chionaspis Signoret, 1868 from Antigua in South America on 'Heliotrope sp.' (sic) by Cockerell in 1894 (Cockerell, 1894). ...