Development of the Neochetina population one year after release. Left axis is total estimated tonnes (fresh weight) of Water Hyacinth in the lake; right axis is mean no. of Weevils per m 2 .
Classical biological control –or biocontrol- is a form of pest management comprising the release of specialized natural enemies (biocontrol agents) of an exotic pest. Classical biocontrol agents are scientifically selected from among the natural enemies the pest has in its native region. However biological control is firmly resisted in many countri...
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... For the separate physical control, despite being used widely in several countries, only few cases (9 countries out of 23) were successful while, the chemical control has not been too much adopted, because it's costly, harmful for the environment, and forbidden in some countries (Cabrera Walsh et al. (2017)). As shown in Figure 9, despite its negative impact, and being adopted only in few countries, the chemical control was effective. ...
The proliferation of the invasive Water hyacinth (WH) plant leads to ecological, economic, public health, and agricultural problems. Several efforts have been deployed to control its spread, but no concreate results have been obtained. Only few studies dealing with systematic approaches for the WH control have been conducted. To establish a road map for the best control methods to be adopted, this review highlights the control programs that have been tested worldwide and describes, through a deep literature analysis and comparison, the most effective and sustainable control programs for managing the proliferation of this aquatic weed. Through a critical analysis, this review evaluates the advantages and drawbacks of the main proposed control methods including biological, chemical and physical methods. The obtained results suggested that short and medium term physical control promptly manages the plant's proliferation and thus could complement the effect of the biological control. Moreover, to be economically viable, the harvested WH through physical means must be valorized to generate high value-added products. Furthermore, runoff nutrients control could reduce the end-of-catchment loads and would help the resilience of freshwater bodies and promote plant removal. Descriptive results analysis confirmed that an integrated control approach combining "biological and physical'' is the most sustainable and cost-effective approach. The adaptation of these methods based on the socioeconomic context of each country, could promote ecosystem restoration, self-generation, and conservation for a sustainable development.
No previous study has examined the large-scale distributional drivers of the entire global pool of 3,499 macrophyte species, despite the obvious importance of this for understanding the macro-ecology of these plants. To assess the hypothesis that natural rather than human-related transfer vectors act as the primary long-distance drivers of global movement of aquatic macrophytes, we analysed current macrophyte species distributions in relation to a set of human-related and natural transfer vectors. Most macrophytes (2,492 species: 71.2% of the global total) are endemic to a single ecozone, and generally lack the various functional adaptations needed for successful long-distance propagule transport. Such traits are, however, common in the 1,007 (28.8%) species native in > 1 ecozone. In total, 779 species (22.3%) are introduced, naturalised or invasive (I species) in one or more ecozones outwith their native range. The proportion of I species varies between ecozones and is best predicted by annual temperature and longitude. A migratory bird transfer vector and climatic variables strongly predict global native macrophyte species occurrence. Some native species Handling editor: Andre Andrian Padial Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at https:// doi. of Miocene origin (or older) may have had their world distribution influenced by ancient vicariance events, while inter-ecozone hydrochory and Late Quaternary climate change are also relevant factors influencing a few species.
We compare invertebrate herbivory upon 13 macrophyte species in freshwater wetland systems located in two global ecozones, the Afrotropics and Neotropics, in the context of biotic and environmental factors influencing these wetlands. The two ecozones are climatically similar regions, with similar water chemistry, but experience contrasting grazing and disturbance pressures from large mammalian herbivores. Our results for macrophytes show that small invertebrates removed significantly more lamina biomass per leaf in Neotropical macrophytes (6.55%) than Afrotropical ones (4.99%). Overall, the results indicate that underestimation of up to 15.6% of leaf biomass may occur if plant tissue removal by invertebrate herbivores is not included in estimates of plant biomass. Regarding the contrasting grazing and disturbance pressures from large herbivores influencing these wetlands, seven mammal species (especially the Black Lechwe antelope, Kobus leche) were observed impacting macrophytes in the Afrotropical wetlands, while in the Neotropics, only much smaller rodents, capybara, (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) were sporadically observed. We discuss the relevance of results for invertebrate herbivory in the context of both the methodological approach and the importance of large mammalian herbivores as biotic factors additionally impacting macrophyte populations in these subtropical to tropical wetlands.