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Determination of the hepatic steatosis by hepatic tissue histology stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) (a) Illustrative picture (40× magnification) of the control group (Co); (b) illustrative picture (40× magnification) of the control group supplemented with lycopene group (Co+Ly); (c) illustrative picture (40× magnification) of the obese group (Ob); (d) illustrative picture (40× magnification) of the obese group supplemented with lycopene (Ob+Ly); (e) microvesicular steatosis (score); (f) macrovesicular steatosis (score). Presence of macro (red arrows) and microvesicular (green arrow) steatosis in obese groups. Data expressed in mean ± standard deviation. Comparison by Poasson distribution followed by the post-hoc test Wald multi-comparison. Different letters correspond to the significant statistical difference (p < 0.05); n = 6 animals/group.

Determination of the hepatic steatosis by hepatic tissue histology stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) (a) Illustrative picture (40× magnification) of the control group (Co); (b) illustrative picture (40× magnification) of the control group supplemented with lycopene group (Co+Ly); (c) illustrative picture (40× magnification) of the obese group (Ob); (d) illustrative picture (40× magnification) of the obese group supplemented with lycopene (Ob+Ly); (e) microvesicular steatosis (score); (f) macrovesicular steatosis (score). Presence of macro (red arrows) and microvesicular (green arrow) steatosis in obese groups. Data expressed in mean ± standard deviation. Comparison by Poasson distribution followed by the post-hoc test Wald multi-comparison. Different letters correspond to the significant statistical difference (p < 0.05); n = 6 animals/group.

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... Also, the hepatic cords were more distinctly defined, and the structural integrity of the hepatic lobules was improved more remarkably. These findings were consistent with those of some other reports [43,44]. These results indicated that RRK has positive therapeutic effects on NAFLD in a dose-dependent manner. ...
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... Several studies have reported that LYC has a modulating effect by reducing TNF-α, IL-6, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and oxidative stress markers such as MDA and NO. Moreover, studies have also reported that it elevates the levels of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT in the livers of obese mice [34,40,41]. The present study aimed to consider the potential effect of LYC on controlling obesity and its adverse sequelae by assessing liver function parameters, lipid profiles, inflammatory markers, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidant enzymatic activities. ...
... Another significant finding of our study was that LYC cotreatment resulted in considerable reductions in LDL levels in conjunction with increased HDL in obese rats. This finding is similar to that of previous research that found that LYC significantly enhances serum parameters of lipid metabolism [40,63,64]. Previous research has shown that LYC can affect cholesterol metabolism in several ways. ...
... Our results agree with those of [44,68,69]. According to previous studies, LYC has successfully produced anti-inflammatory effects and a hepatoprotective effect by lowering cytokine activity [40,70]. Apo-10'-lycopenoic acid, a metabolite of LYC, significantly reduces liver inflammation in mice fed an HFD by inhibiting the release of cytokines and lowering TNF, IL-6 and NF-B p65 [71]. ...
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... Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease. It refers to a spectrum that comprehends from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may evolve to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1][2][3]. NAFLD is currently considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and affects around 25% of the worldwide population [1]. ...
... Macrovesicular steatosis is defined as large or small lipid droplets present in the cytoplasm with nucleus dislocation which is, alone, associated with a good prognosis with rare progression to fibrosis or cirrhosis. On the other hand, the microvesicular steatosis, which is characterized by the innumerable lipid droplets accumulation with a centrally placed nucleus, is a serious condition associated with fibrosis, cholestasis, necrosis, and impairment of the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation [3]. Macrovesicular was noted in both HSF and HSF plus γOz with no effect of the compound. ...
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... Moreover, it has been observed that DTP increased the mRNA expression of adiponectin in the white adipose tissue. In a study by Róvero Costa et al., 24 rats were divided into four groups: control group, control group supplemented with LYC, obese group and obese group supplemented with LYC [77]. The main results shows the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of LYC. ...
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... Róvero Costa et al., 2019 Lycopene intake as tomato sauce exhibited positive effects on liver and cardiac metabolism. Hence, it can be recommended as a nutritious food supplement for the treatment and prevention of cardiac diseases and nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis. ...
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... Due to the increased global obesity prevalence, it is important to find alternatives that can minimize the obesity-related disorders. Several researches have shown that the introduction of bioactive compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in eating habits have controlled the emergence of several diseases (Costa et al., 2019;Ferron et al., 2019;Francisqueti et al., 2018;Sengupta et al., 2011). Gamma-oryzanol (γOz) is a compound present in the whole grain of rice and consists of a mixture of sterile ferulates or triterpene alcohol with the carboxylic group of ferulic acid (Minatel et al., 2014). ...
... This antioxidant effect is also associated with improvement in glucose uptake by GLUT-4. Some reports suggest that bioactive compounds present in vegetables may increase antioxidant capacity by stimulating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), a nuclear factor that stimulates the production of exogenous antioxidants by balancing the redox system, reducing oxidative stress (Costa et al., 2019;Lou et al., 2019;Wang et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2019). Moreover, other studies about oxidative stress and insulin resistance show that bioactive compounds present in fruits and vegetables ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle by activating adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK). ...
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... This calculation considered the adiposity index of previous studies published by our group. [22][23][24] The animals were randomly divided into two experimental groups: the control group (C, n= 8 animals) that received standard diet/water and the obese group (OB, n= 8 animals) that received high sugar-fat (HSF) diet and water plus 25% of sucrose for 30 weeks. The diet model is a well-established model to induce obesity previously published by our research group. ...
... At the end of the experimental period, the results show that these animals presented higher adiposity index and several disorders, such as hyperglycemia, increased uric acid, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated SBP, increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in both heart and adipose tissue, confirming the efficacy of the diet model used. [22][23][24][25] The coexistence of obesity-related disorders -such as insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia -associated with adipose tissue dysfunction, characterized by adipokine imbalance, promote maladaptive responses in the heart, such as myocyte hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, and cardiac remodeling, which contribute to both the development and progression of chronic heart failure. [31][32][33] This condition was confirmed in this study, since the echocardiogram evaluation showed cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in the OB group. ...
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Background: Obesity is a chronic low-grade inflammation condition related to cardiac disorders. However, the mechanism responsible for obesity-related cardiac inflammation is unclear. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) belongs to a receptor of the transmembrane family responsible for the immune response whose activation stimulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Objective: To test whether the activation of the TLR-4 receptor participates in the obesity cardiomyopathy process, due to cytokine production through NF-ĸB activation. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups: the control group (C, n= 8 animals) that received standard diet/water and the obese group (OB, n= 8 animals) that were fed a high sugar-fat diet and water plus 25% of sucrose for 30 weeks. Nutritional analysis: body weight, adiposity index, food, water, and caloric intake. Obesity-related disorders analysis: plasma glucose, uric acid and triglycerides, HOMA-IR, systolic blood pressure, TNF-α in adipose tissue. Cardiac analysis included: TLR-4 and NF-ĸB protein expression, TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Comparison by unpaired Student's t-test or Mann- Whitney test with a p-value < 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: The OB group showed obesity, high glucose, triglycerides, uric acid, HOMA, systolic blood pressure, and TNF-α in adipose tissue. OB group presented cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. TLR-4 and NF-ĸB expression and cytokine levels were higher in OB. Conclusion: Our findings conclude that, in an obesogenic condition, the inflammation derived from cardiac TLR-4 activation can be a mechanism able to lead to remodeling and cardiac dysfunction.
... This concurred with the study of Ali and Agha (2009) who reported that the administration of Lyc to hyperglycemic rats reduced lipid peroxidation and increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Also, our results are consistent with Rovero Costa et al. (2019) who reported that supplementation of Lyc to obese rats significantly ameliorated the increase in MDA level, and improved the hepatic levels of GSH, GPx, and SOD. The mechanism by which Lyc could affect total antioxidant, SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR activities, can be clarified by its efficient antioxidant capacity and ability to scavenge singlet oxygen and free radicals (Kaplan 2005). ...
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This study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of lycopene (Lyc) against arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity. Sodium arsenite orally administered to mice for 14 days, inducing severe nephrotoxicity, in the form of hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and elevation in the markers of kidney damage. Induction of severe inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidants/antioxidants imbalance was observed in kidney tissues. DNA damage in the form of 8-hydroxy-2′deoxyguanosine was found. However, pretreatment with Lyc prevented these consequences of arsenic poisoning in the kidneys. We suggest that Lyc exerts its nephroprotective effect via the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, making it a promising prophylactic agent against arsenic toxicity.