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Descriptive statistics of study variables (n = 138)

Descriptive statistics of study variables (n = 138)

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High levels of maternal pregnancy–specific stress are associated with an increased risk for adverse birth outcomes as well as anxiety and depression symptoms during and following pregnancy. There is evidence that early childhood experiences play an important role in maternal psychological health and well-being and may be important for shaping mater...

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... and standard deviations for all variables appear in Table 1, along with maximum and minimum values for each variable. The average pregnancy-specific stress score was 18.79, which is near the midpoint of the range (2 to 44). ...

Citations

... Thus, several investigations have discovered a negative association between resilience and anxiety during pregnancy (Lubián López et al., 2021), and between resilience towards stress and anxiety in other populations at the time of the pandemic (Braun-Lewensohn et al., 2021;Satici et al., 2020: Wang et al., 2021. Additionally, previous researches carried out before the pandemic have proven the protective role of resilience regarding these variables in the perinatal stage (Armans et al., 2020;García-León et al., 2019). ...
... Thus, our findings are in line with those provided by structural equation models in other studies. For example, they support those found by Armans et al. (2020), who showed that resilience negatively influenced pregnancy-specific stress, or those found by Peñacoba-Puente et al. (2016), which demonstrated how pregnancy worries had an impact on anxiety symptoms before the pandemic. The results provided by this model showed that resilience also acts as a buffering factor in relation to stress, pregnancy worries and anxious symptoms in women during their pregnancy before the COVID-19, and not only in times of crisis or great adversity. ...
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The present study explored and compared the link between resilience and pregnancy-related stress, perceived stress, and anxiety, employing two structural equation models. One model focused on pregnant women before the outbreak of the pandemic, and the other on pregnancies throughout the pandemic. For this purpose, a total sample of 690 women during their pregnancy were collected: the Pre-Pandemic Group (P-PG) was composed of 341 pregnant women evaluated prior to the pandemic; and 349 pregnant women assessed at the time of the pandemic constituted the Pandemic Group (PG). The resilience, pregnancy-related stress, perceived stress, and anxiety symptomatology of the women were assessed. For both samples, resilience was found to lower levels of pregnancy-specific stress, as well as general perceived stress, and anxiety symptomatology. Furthermore, pregnancy-specific stress and perceived stress showed a covariance relationship and, that these, in turn, increased the anxiety. Moreover, the PG showed greater levels of pregnancy-specific stress, anxiety, somatisa-tions, and obsessions-compulsions, while the P-PG presented higher perceived stress levels.
... 17 Relatedly, recent research suggests that resilience (i.e., the ability to bounce back after stress) can serve as a protective factor in the relationship between ACE exposure and health issues during pregnancy. 12,32 A promising avenue may be directing ACEs exposed women to programs that helps build resilience in the face of adversity. Moreover, the promotion of family-level factors such as maternal responsiveness 33 or social support, 34 which have been found to moderate the effect of stressful life events -a construct closely related to ACEs-and promote resilience could potentially attenuate the negative impacts of ACEs on unwanted pregnancies. ...
Article
Purpose: The current study investigates the association between maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and having an unwanted (i.e., a pregnancy that was undesired) or mistimed pregnancy (i.e., a pregnancy that occurred sooner than wanted). Methods: Data are from the 2018 North Dakota and South Dakota Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) (N = 1,897). Multinomial logistic regression analyses are used to assess the association between levels of ACE exposure and having an unwanted or mistimed pregnancy relative to an intended pregnancy. Results: Findings demonstrated that women with 3 ACEs (Relative Risk Ratio [RRR] = 2.157, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.121, 4.151) and 4 or more ACEs (RRR = 1.836, 95% CI = 1.181, 2.854) had approximately twice the relative risk of having an unwanted pregnancy (versus to an intended pregnancy) compared to women with 0 ACEs. There was no association between ACEs and reporting a mistimed pregnancy. Conclusions: These findings add to a burgeoning literature detailing how accumulating ACEs can create challenges for family planning by increasing the likelihood of having an unintended pregnancy. Study results suggest the need to devote greater resources to the prevention of ACEs and unintended pregnancies.
... It is important to note that our examination of PACEs was based on a cumulative factor, adding up the PACEs reported on, rather than examining the factors individually. Several recent studies indicate that cumulative positive experiences in childhood should be considered when examining resilience (Armans et al., 2020;Bethell et al., 2019;Narayan et al., 2020;Yamaoka & Bard, 2019). For example, Bethell and colleagues found a dose-response between positive childhood experiences and adult mental and relational health, "analogous to the cumulative effects of multiple ACEs" in a large, retrospective study of adults (Bethell et al., 2019, p. 8). ...
Article
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Theory and research indicate that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are linked to negative parenting attitudes and behaviors. We posit that protective and compensatory experiences (PACEs) in childhood buffer the negative effects of ACEs on later parenting. To test this premise, the present study examined associations between ACEs, PACEs, and attitudes towards nurturing and harsh parenting in an ethnically diverse sample of parents with children of various ages (N = 109; 65% mothers, 35% fathers; M age = 38). Parents completed a widely used parenting attitudes questionnaire and the ACEs and PACEs surveys. PACEs were negatively correlated with ACEs and positively correlated with nurturing parenting attitudes and parent income and education levels. Linear regression models indicate that higher PACEs, ACEs, and family income and less harsh parenting attitudes predict nurturing parenting attitudes. In contrast, higher ACEs and less nurturing attitudes were correlated with harsh parenting attitudes. As expected, moderation analyses indicated that the association between ACEs and harsh parenting attitudes was conditional upon the level of PACEs. When PACE scores were low (M – 1 SD), but not when PACE scores were average or high (M + 1 SD), ACEs were associated with harsh parenting attitudes, suggesting a buffering effect of PACEs on negative parenting attitudes. These findings support the importance of including protective as well as adverse childhood experiences when assessing the role of childhood experiences on parenting attitudes and practices. Implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed, as well as new directions for PACEs research using a cumulative protection approach.