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Descriptive information per variable per country

Descriptive information per variable per country

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Article
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The “motherhood earnings penalty” is a well-established finding in many Western countries. However, a divide between mothers and nonmothers might oversimplify reality given that the family life course has diversified over the last decades. In addition, whether family choices have consequences for women’s employment and earnings in later life is not...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... statistics for all variables can be found in Table 2. ...
Context 2
... addition, 12.3% of women were in one of the two childless trajectories (NCWP or NCNP), and 18.1% of women were in the single mother cluster. Table 2 shows the distribution of family trajectory clusters in total and by country. ...
Context 3
... statistics for all variables can be found in Table 2. ...
Context 4
... addition, 12.3% of women were in one of the two childless trajectories (NCWP or NCNP), and 18.1% of women were in the single mother cluster. Table 2 shows the distribution of family trajectory clusters in total and by country. ...

Citations

... We follow Henz (2004) life course focus and add to it by theorizing and empirically testing the consequences of informal care for wages and in doing so take a closer look at long-term rather than short-term consequences. The literature on wage penalties due to caregiving from a life course perspective mostly focuses on childcare (e.g., Muller, Hiekel, & Liefbroer, 2020). Informal care, however, is in general far less predictable than childcare and it can intersect with paid work at more various moments throughout the life course (Ehrlich, Möhring, & Drobnič, 2019;Henz, 2004). ...
... Furthermore, disadvantages in the domain of paid work accumulate over the life span: inequalities earlier in the employment career intensify and the loss in wages will add up over the life course (Crystal, Shea, & Reyes, 2016;Möhring, 2018). A loss or stagnation in human capital will have long-lasting consequences if it occurs early in working life when it is important to gain experience, educate yourself, develop skills, show productivity, and establish a career (Abendroth et al., 2014;Florian, 2018;Muller et al., 2020). It is more influential for the employment development when the conflict occurs earlier in life as young caregivers might be perceived as less committed to work, less productive, and less suited for promotion (Abendroth et al., 2014;Ehrlich et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Caring for a friend or family member in need of care has been found to have negative consequences for wages. This study contributes to the literature by studying how three major life course factors, namely timing of first caregiving, duration of caregiving, and the number of caregiving episodes, help to explain the (hourly) wage penalty for informal caregivers (i.e., providers of health-related care to older or disabled people in the personal network). We used unique retrospective data of 1,417 informal caregivers in the Netherlands that map start and end dates of up to seven caregiving episodes. Findings showed that a higher number of caregiving episodes was related to a stronger wage penalty, whereas timing of first caregiving was not associated with a wage penalty. Opposite to our expectation, we found that the wage penalty decreased the longer someone cared, potentially even resulting in a wage premium for long-time caregivers. We conclude that applying a life course perspective is relevant when examining employment consequences of informal caregiving and that caregiving possibly fosters skills that are beneficial for employment careers in the long run.
... Higher rates of female employment are central to the promotion of economic growth in the current context of an ageing and shrinking workforce, and to women's economic independence (Nieuwenhuis et al., 2020). Employment breaks and reduced work commitment during the childrearing years might affect mothers' earnings, future employability and income in later life (Adams et al., 2016;Grimshaw and Rubery, 2015;Muller et al., 2020). Despite policy consensus on the need to promote and support higher levels of maternal employment, the motherhood gap in labour force participation remains common across Western economies (Eurofound, 2016), and the complexity of the mechanisms at force is still to be fully understood. ...
Article
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This article studies mothers’ employment transitions around childbirth. It argues that leaving employment around childbirth and returning after an interruption might depend on multiple influences: the micro-context of individual and household characteristics, the meso-context of women’s jobs and the macro-context of broader cultural and institutional factors. This conceptual model is tested using data from the Italian Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) ‘Family and Social Subjects (2009)’ survey. The findings confirm that mothers’ transitions out of employment are shaped by micro-characteristics such as education, meso-characteristics such as status and security of prior jobs, and macro geographical and temporal factors. Subsequent returns to employment also reflect micro and macro influences, as mothers born before 1950, with low education, and large families are less likely to return; but they seem less dependent upon prior job characteristics. The research highlights the importance of considering multiple levels of influence to understand the enabling factors of maternal employment.
... Our approach enables us to explicitly acknowledge that an aggregate of time-dependent processes featuring the occurrences, timings, and ordering of family transitions are (directly or indirectly) related to the life-long accumulation of economic resources and thus contributes to intra-cohort wealth inequality. While similar longitudinal approaches were taken by Madero-Cabib and Fasang (2016), Muller et al. (2020) or Jalovaara and Fasang (2020) to examine the association between family life courses and income in mid-to late-life, it needs to acknowledged that wealth is not a direct function of income, as aspects such as consumption or financial transfers additionally influence wealth accumulation . ...
Article
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Considering soaring wealth inequalities in older age, this research addresses the relationship between family life courses and widening wealth differences between individuals as they age. We holistically examine how childbearing and marital histories are associated with personal wealth at ages 50-59 for Western Germans born between 1943 and 1967. We propose that deviations from culturally and institutionally-supported family patterns, or the stratified access to them, associate with differential wealth accumulation over time and can explain wealth inequalities at older ages. Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP, v34, waves 2002-2017), we first identified typical family trajectory patterns between ages 16 and 50 with multichannel sequence analysis and cluster analysis. We then modelled personal wealth ranks at ages 50-59 as a function of family patterns. Results showed that deviations from the standard family pattern (i.e. stable marriage with, on average, two children) were mostly associated with lower wealth ranks at older age, controlling for childhood characteristics that partly predict selection into family patterns and baseline wealth. We found higher wealth penalties for greater deviation and lower penalties for moderate deviation from the standard family pattern. Addressing entire family trajectories, our research extended and nuanced our knowledge of the role of earlier family behaviour for later economic wellbeing. By using personal-level rather than household-level wealth data, we were able to identify substantial gender differences in the study associations. Our research also recognised the importance of combining marital and childbearing histories to assess wealth inequalities. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10680-021-09601-4.
... According to various studies (Eagly et al., 2003;Van Engen and Willemsen, 2004;Antón, 2006;Eagly and Carli, 2007) one of the main barriers arises from the duality of family vs. work. In this way, the reality is that many women perceive that they must choose between home and work, for which reason they tend to abandon their development and progress in the organization, due to the incompatibility of adequately fulfilling the roles of being a good professional and being a good mother at the same time (Muller et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The impediments and barriers that women face in entering and developing a police career have received relatively little attention from researchers. As of today in Europe, despite the slow progress, the 25% barrier to female representation has already been overcome in several countries. However, many areas remain closed to women within police organizations. In this context, research was conducted based on a content analysis of the perceptions of 56 police officers, 28 men and 28 women with considerable police experience, occupying executive leadership positions from a total of 26 European countries. Data was collected through a questionnaire composed of 23 open questions. The results show a considerable gap between the perceptions of male and female police executive leaders with regard to access, career development and workplace conditions faced by policepersons. According to the results, the mirage of equality, dominant in the view of male police officers, is a major barrier to achieving real equality, both horizontally and vertically. What implications these results have on the strategies that police organizations should follow to achieve the challenge of inclusion are discussed, and new ways of analysis are proposed.
... The fact that motherhood penalties persisted into women's midlife may reflect women's difficulties reconciling work with family under Japan's patriarchal social norms and labor market practices (Brinton, 2001;Brinton & Oh, 2019). This finding also resonates with previous studies (Kleven, Landais, Posch et al., 2019;Muller, Hiekel, & Liefbroer, 2020), showing that motherhood earnings penalty was more likely to persist to midlife for women who followed conservative gender norms and family trajectories in societies with limited work-family supports. Because younger generations in Japan remain relatively conservative in their attitudes on gender divisions of labor and female employment (Piotrowski et al., 2019), the significant motherhood earnings penalty in Japan is likely to persist in the near future. ...
Article
The issue of motherhood earnings penalty has been well-documented in many Western countries. However, only a few studies discussed how earnings penalty evolves over time and varies across different parity of birth. Moreover, related research in non-Western developed countries is scant. This study contributes to the motherhood penalty literature by examining the long-term impacts (up to 10 years after childbirth) of the first and the second birth on women’s employment, work hours, wage rates, and earnings in Japan. It proposes a novel research design based on the event-study approach and fixed effects regressions to quantify the dynamic effects of motherhood resulted from two consecutive birth transitions. Drawing on longitudinal data from the Japanese Panel Survey of Consumers (from 1993 to 2015), our results show that both the first and the second birth trigger short-term earnings penalties by causing a considerable employment slump upon pregnancy. In the long run, while women’s employment rates recover, work hours and wage rates remain significantly lower than their pre-pregnancy level, leading to the long-term earnings penalty. More importantly, the long-term negative impacts of childbirth on labor supply and wage rates result mostly from women’s first-time rather than the second-time birth transition in Japan. These findings imply that motherhood in Japan imposes long-term penalties on women’s earnings, primarily by depressing maternal labor supply after their first-time motherhood transition.
... Employment rates among single parents are high (Nieuwenhuis and Maldonado 2018a). Indeed, a recent study found that women living with dependent children and a partner are more likely to reduce their employment than women living with a partner and no children or single mothers (Muller et al. 2020). These findings challenge behavioural explanations based on the supposed joblessness of single parents. ...
Chapter
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The objective of this chapter is to explore family poverty and how it is mitigated by social policy in European countries. It examines the poverty risks of families in Europe, with an emphasis on families with dependent children, as these families tend to be at greater risk of poverty than others because they have more members to maintain with a given income.
... In particular one CONOPP study illustrates the implications of union formation and dissolution for the stratified opportunities (and constraints) of women with and without children to profit from economics of scale and attachment to the labor market until later in life (Muller et al. 2020). They investigated the earnings gradient of women with different family and partnership trajectories in 22 European countries. ...
... A key question addressed in the CONOPP project is the extent to which the relationships between childhood (dis)advantage, young adult demographic choices and later life outcomes vary by national contexts of opportunity. Two aspects of the national context were investigated as potential moderators of these relationships: (1) economic aspects, such as income inequality, intergenerational social mobility (Mooyaart and Liefbroer 2016;Studer et al. 2018), and female labor force participation and earnings (Muller et al. 2020) and (2) cultural aspects, such as family related norms and behaviors (Brons and Härkönen 2018;Brons et al. 2017;Koops et al. 2017;Mooyaart and Liefbroer 2016;Zoutewelle-Terovan and Liefbroer 2018). The importance of parental monetary resources for children's status attainment can be expected to be greater the more an institutional framework, such as the educational system, is distorted in favor of the powerful. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter I contrast the economic and cultural perspective of intergenerational transmission processes of social inequality in demographic behavior. I systematically compile the underlying social mechanisms that are scattered across the literature and apply them to the relationships investigated within the CONOPP project. Identifying a predominant focus on the parental resource perspective in the literature linking family background and young adult demographic behavior, I argue in favor of widening the theoretical perspective. Greater theoretical width will enable social scientists to more comprehensively grasp the persistent social stratification of demographic behavior across generations and the role of context in moderating these relationships. I conclude with some suggestions on how future research can further push the boundaries of understanding these relationships.
... These studies focused on specific elements in the family-life course however, rather than taking the entire partnership and fertility trajectory into account. Within the CONOPP project, Muller et al. (2020) contributed to this literature by studying women's fertility and partnership trajectories simultaneously. They showed that the consequences of women's transition to motherhood -or of not making this transition -can be better understood by taking into account the partnership context. ...
... Existing studies mainly examine short-term effects of women's family events on their labor market position. Muller et al. (2020) revealed that family decisions in early and mid-life continue to affect women's economic position until the end of their careers (age 50-60). Muller et al. (2020) combined three major surveys: SHARELIFE, the Generations and Gender Survey and the British Household Panel Survey. ...
... Muller et al. (2020) revealed that family decisions in early and mid-life continue to affect women's economic position until the end of their careers (age 50-60). Muller et al. (2020) combined three major surveys: SHARELIFE, the Generations and Gender Survey and the British Household Panel Survey. Their combined dataset covers full fertility and partnership histories from 18,656 women aged 50-59, from 22 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Georgia, East-Germany, West-Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom). ...
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on adult family-related experiences and the manner in which they affect later-life socio-emotional and economic well-being (loneliness, employment, earnings). Particularly innovative is the investigation of these relationships in a cross-national perspective. Results from two studies conducted by the authors of this chapter within the CONOPP project show that deviations from family-related social customs differently impact socio-emotional and economic well-being outcomes as there is: (a) a non-normative family penalty for loneliness (individuals who never experience cohabitation/marriage or parenthood or postpone such events are the loneliest); and (b) a non-normative family bonus for women’s economic outcomes (single and/or childless women have the highest earnings). Moreover, analyses revealed that European countries differ considerably in the manner in which similar family-related experiences affect later-life well-being. For example, childlessness had a stronger negative impact on loneliness in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe and the observed heterogeneity could be explained by culturally-embedded family-related values and norms (childless individuals in countries placing stronger accent on ‘traditional’ family values are lonelier compared to childless individuals in less ‘traditionalistic’ nations). In terms of economic outcomes, results show that the lower the female labor force participation during child-rearing years, the more substantial the differences in later-life employment and income between women with different family life trajectories.
... Some studies show no differences (Hershey & Mowen, 2000;Rosenkoetter & Garris, 2001;Reitzes & Mutran, 2004), but others do find small discrepancies, with women planning less (Jacobs-Lawson et al., 2004;Quick & Moen, 1998;Kim & Moen, 2001a;Kim & Moen, 2001b;. Although women do more retirement planning compared to two decades ago, their overrepresentation in lower paid and nonunionized occupations with limited planning resources (O'Rand & Henretta, 1982;Kilty & Behling, 1986;Hayes & Parker, 1993;Muller et al., 2020), differences in financial literacy (Lusardi & Mitchell, 2008), lack of education about retirement (Perkins, 1995), and greater risk aversion (Agnew et al., 2003;Watson & Mc-Naughton, 2007) may still contribute to some discrepancies. Women's financial retirement preparation is also related to home ownership, having longer planning horizons, and working for a large employer (Tamborini & Purcell, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
When older adults face age-related life challenges, anticipating what to expect and how to access potential coping strategies can both prevent and provide the possibility of easier recovery from crises. Aging-Related Preparation (ARP) is defined as the contin-uum of thoughts and activities about how to age well, often begin-ning with the awareness of age-related changes, or the anticipation of retirement, and concluding with specifying end-of-life wishes. In the current paper, we introduce the concept of ARP and related formulations regarding plans for aging well, describe both predic-tors and outcomes of ARP for several the domains of ARP, and consider the elements of ARP within the context of existing social policy. We conclude that ARP is determined by a variety of influ-ences both intrinsic to the older person (e.g., personality, cognitive ability, beliefs about planning, problem-solving skills), linked to so-cial class and education, as well as dependent on family structures, access to and knowledge of options, services, and local community resources, and social policy. We further provide evidence that ARP has positive effects in the domain of pre-retirement planning (for retirement adjustment), of preparation for future care (for emo-tional well-being), and of ACP (for a good death). However, other domains of ARP, including planning for leisure, housing, and so-cial planning are under-researched. Finally, we discuss policy im-plications of the existing research. Keywords: Age-related preparation, Retirement planning, Preparation for future care, Proactive Coping, Long-term care; doi: 10.18278/jep.1.2.7
... If the man is forced to reduce working hours or stop working completely, his spouse is likely to decide to adjust work effort based on the stage of her career, the possibilities for changing work hours, and the marginal costs or benefits that changes in labor supply would provide. For example, if a woman has been a homemaker for most of her life, she is unlikely to suddenly enter the labor market (Muller et al., 2020). In this case, the man might have a greater incentive to continue working despite the health shock. ...
... One potential explanation for this finding that the risk of health shocks increases with age and the older the couples get, the more difficult it is to change roles in the household. In particular, women who have been outside the labor market or in marginal or part-time jobs for most of their lives will suffer from depreciated human capital and will see little chance to take on a role of breadwinner (Muller et al., 2020). The European welfare states' safety nets may also smoothen the income-effect of illness and work incapacity to the extent that there are no great economic needs for the women to enter the labor market. ...
Article
Full-text available
A health shock can have lasting consequences for the employment of not only the individuals experiencing it, but also their spouses. In this article, we complement the individual approach to the impact of health shocks with a dyadic perspective and show how employment opportunities and restrictions within couples are interdependent in the face of severe illness. We investigate whether the association between male spouses’ health shocks and couples’ employment trajectories depends on household specialization and both spouses’ education. Multichannel sequence analysis is applied to retrospective life-course data from the Survey for Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe for couples with health shocks and their matched controls (N = 1,022). By identifying typical employment trajectories, we find that health shocks are negatively associated with trajectories where both spouses continue in full-time employment and positively with trajectories where the man retires while the woman continues working and where both spouses retire simultaneously. Couples’ trajectories differ according to the spouses’ combined education levels. Findings suggest that health shocks may exacerbate economic inequalities within and between couples.