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Descriptive Statistics: Percentage of Plagiarism in Papers Analyzed

Descriptive Statistics: Percentage of Plagiarism in Papers Analyzed

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Research on academic plagiarism has typically focused on students as the perpetrators of unethical behaviors, and less attention has been paid to academic researchers as likely candidates for such behaviors. We examined 279 papers presented at the International Management division of the 2009 Academy of Management conference for the purpose of stud...

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... most alarming results were with respect to author country where 41.86% of the papers from noncore country authors had some evidence of plagiarism of which almost half, or 19.38%, had 5% or more of the text plagia- rized. With respect to the overall plagiarism levels, approximately 25% of papers presented at the di- vision had some evidence of plagiarism, while 13.62% of papers had an average of 5% or more (1,052 words) of plagiarism (Table 3). ...

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... All theories are incomplete on their own and should be supplanted with other theories for a better understanding of the phenomenon of interest (Friedman & Hechter, 1990). More knowledge into understanding the factors affecting the likelihood of misconduct is thus necessary (Honig & Bedi, 2012;Seeber et al., 2019). To this end, we triangulate the five aforementioned theories to enhance our understanding of the causes of low-profile misconduct. ...
Article
This article discusses low-profile misconducts, which are the difficult-to-identify research misdemeanors, in management research. Due to their inconspicuous nature, low-profile misconduct could cause more damage to management scholarship than high-profile misconducts such as plagiarism, fabrication, or falsification. Prior literature on misconduct predominantly functions under a rational choice theory perspective. However, without acknowledging the intricate interactions between the individual traits of the researchers, their organizational contexts, external environments, and the specificities of the concerned situations, understanding low-profile misconduct is improbable. Therefore, we deliberate upon the causes of low-profile misconduct by combining the lenses of five criminological and sociological theories – i.e. rational choice, differential association, general strain, self-control, and anomie theories. By taking a multidisciplinary stance and by triangulating, we propose a conceptual model that highlights the complex dynamics behind low-profile misconduct which is unmapped in prior literature. We then discuss how management academia can address low-profile misconduct through transformative research ethics education at the organizational level. Our theoretical triangulation and the resultant plan of action can serve as foundations for future research and ethics education.
... We suggest these sub-strategies reflect similar practices in other industries and reveal an interplay between genre authorization and knowledge validity. For instance, studies have suggested how plagiarism, as a form of knowledge repetition, can impact the authority of journals (Li, 2013) and conferences (Honig & Bedi, 2012) in the scientific community, and knowledge fragmentation, in relation to the disclosure of environmental impact, has discredited corporate annual reports (Yuthas et al., 2002;Mason & Mason, 2012). ...
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In this paper, we study the relationship between genre and knowledge in the dynamics of occupational resistance to genre change. Using critical genre analysis, we investigate the response of French diplomats to the introduction of modifications in a key institutionalized communicative practice, the diplomatic telegram. As the organization modified genre rules for knowledge distribution, the perceived loss of control over audience and purpose threatened the elite occupational community values of autonomy and secrecy. In response, diplomats subverted the new organizational communicative practices by invalidating its content through knowledge fragmentation, repetition, and depletion. At the same time, they enhanced the content of the hybrid new genre of the ‘political email’, through knowledge integration, differentiation, and amplification. Our work contributes to critical genre analysis by revealing the political dimension of organizational genre change for elite occupational communities. Also, in examining the relationship between genre and knowledge, we identified genre resistance mechanisms that (de)authorized communicative practices by (in)validating knowledge. Our work suggests that genre resistance is an essential tool for elite occupational communities, whose power depends on control over esoteric knowledge.
... Drawing parallels to prior themes, gender roles influence the engagement in and perception of ethics or other-oriented behavior. It has been argued that women are generally socialized to obey rules and thus less likely to engage in dishonest behaviors and should show greater concern for others (Honig & Bedi, 2012;Wiltermuth, 2011). For example, Thompson and colleagues (2020) leverage social role theory to illustrate that men, more than women, need to feel a sense of obligation in order to engage in OCB and that this obligation can be fostered through perceived organizational support. ...
Article
Role theories examine how individual behavior is shaped by prevailing social roles and provide insights into how behavior is perceived by others in light of such roles. Current movements for police reform as well as the landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court concerning the employment rights of LGBTQIA individuals have brought conversations concerning roles and their potential impact to the forefront of public discourse. Academic perspectives in management research have aided in building knowledge concerning how roles impact individuals and organizations in a variety of research domains, including entrepreneurship, human resource management, organizational behavior, and strategic management. While the utilization of role theory has gained tremendous momentum over the past two decades, its central tenets are often blurred given that several related but unique perspectives surrounding roles exist in the literature. We trace the origins and development of specific role theories by defining central constructs to bring clarity to the conceptual ambiguities between various role theories and key concepts. Next, we provide an integrative review of empirical role research in management journals over the past 20 years. Here, we identify the five most prominent research themes in the management literature: roles and identity, work–nonwork interface, biases and stereotypes, career life cycles, and ethics and other-oriented behavior. Finally, we provide an agenda for future research that highlights missed opportunities in management research that draws from the key themes identified in our review.
... With plagiarism defined as stealing and passing off the ideas of another, or from an existing source, as one's own without crediting the source (Merriam-Webster n.d), plagiarism is arguably one of the most pressing concerns facing higher education institutions today. With advances in information technology, it has become increasingly easy to access information, articles, and other students' assignments on the internet, presenting students with ample opportunities to plagiarize the work of others (Honing & Bedi, 2012;Owens & White, 2013;Ramzan et al, 2012;Snow, 2006). This has been of particular importance in the higher education space with the rapid growth of online education due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the closure of many higher education institutions all over the world. ...
... Further to this, some studies have found that students did not see any harm in plagiarizing, particularly with the internet providing free access to information (Evering & Moorman, 2012), and that this failure to recognize plagiarism or that it constitutes academic dishonesty was more prevalent in lower-income countries (Iloh et al, 2018;Ramzan et al, 2012). Students who received a lower grade point average (GPA) were more likely to plagiarize than those who were more academically successful (Honing & Bedi, 2012), and one study, conducted by Gomez et al. in 2013, found that students were more likely to plagiarize when the assignment contributes less to their overall final grade, suggesting an awareness of the consequences of plagiarism for higher stake assignments. As pointed out by different studies, variations in the attitude or the understanding of what constitutes plagiarism exist due to different cultures (Lin & Wen, 2007;Magnus et al., 2002). ...
... Similar to other studies conducted in other low-and middle-income countries, there were significant gaps in understanding what constitutes plagiarism (Amos, 2014;Evering & Moorman, 2012;Honing & Bedi, 2012;Iloh et al, 2018). About 40% of participants did not know that expressing well-known common knowledge without a source is not considered plagiarism, and about 25% did not know that self-plagiarizing is considered plagiarism. ...
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Plagiarism is a serious type of scholastic misconduct. In Rwanda, no research has been conducted to assess university students’ attitudes and knowledge of plagiarism and if they have the skills to avoid plagiarizing. This study was conducted to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism, as well as ability to recognize plagiaristic writing, among university students in Rwanda. An online questionnaire containing 10 knowledge questions, 10 attitude statements, and 5 writing cases with excerpts to test identification of plagiarism was administered between February and April 2021. Out of the 330 university students from 40 universities who completed the survey, 75.8% had a high knowledge level (score ≥ 80%), but only 11.6% had a high score in recognizing plagiaristic writing (score ≥ 80%). There was no statistically significant association between knowledge level and ability to recognize plagiaristic writing (P = 0.109). Lower odds were found in both diploma/certificate and bachelor students of having high knowledge as well as of having high ability to recognize plagiaristic writing than in master’s students. Although respondents generally disapproved of plagiarism, approximately half of the respondents indicated that sometimes plagiarism is unavoidable, and self-plagiarism should not be punished in the same way as plagiarism of others’ work. Inter-collegial collaboration on effective plagiarism policies and training programs is needed.
... The types of plagiarism are as follows: Intentional plagiarism, unintentional plagiarism, source text, and plagiarism of ideas or ideas without referring to clear sources and references. (Honig, B. & Bedi, 2012). This means that various types and forms of plagiarism that exist have the potential to be carried out by authors. ...
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Writing scientific papers is influenced by several things, including grammatical problems, linguistic problems, technical aspects of writing, and plagiarism aspect. Gender factors are indicated to contribute to plagiarism behavior because men and women are assumed to have different attitudes and style in perceiving an idea. This study aims to obtain the correlation among the plagiarism awareness, gender, the expository essay of the capability in composing it. This study uses a quantitative approach with the correlational method. Questionnaires and composing of the text tests were conducted to get the results of the research. Research respondents were 24 postgraduate students at Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University of Postgreaduate Program of English Education, consisting of 12 males and 12 females. From the data analysis, it was found that: First, the relationship between plagiarism awareness and expository essay writing skills is 0.783 ( 0.05). It means that there was no tight relation among plagiarism alarming of expository essay writing skills. Second, the tight relation among gender and expository essay composing skills is 0.783 ( 0.05). That is, gender also does not provide a significant contribution to the skill of writing an expository essay. Third, the value of R square among students' plagiarism awareness (X1), gender (X2), and expository essay writing skills (Y) is 0.011 (1.1%). It means that expository essay writing skills are influenced by awareness of plagiarism and different category by 1.1% and 98.9% is affected by different variations. Although the contribution is low, these variations played significant roles in expository essay composing skills. Therefore, student awareness needs to be increased by implementing strict plagiarism policies in universities.Keywords: plagiarism awareness, gender, writing skill, expository essay Korelasi antara kesadaran plagiarisme, gender, dan keterampilan menulis esai ekspositori pada mahasiswa bahasa Inggris Pascasarjana Universitas Sultan Ageng TirtayasaAbstrakMenulis karya ilmiah sangat dipengaruhi oleh beberapa hal, seperti tata bahasa, linguistik, aspek teknis penulisan, dan hal plagiarisme. Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi seperti gender diindikasikan berkontribusi dalam perilaku plagiarisme, karena pada faktanya, laki-laki dan perempuan diasumsikan memiliki sikap berbeda dalam mempersepsi suatu ide. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan hubungan antara kesadaran plagiarisme, jenis kelamin, dan keterampilan menulis esai ekspositori. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan mengimplementasikan sub desain penelitian korelasional. Dalam proses pengumpulan data, peneliti menggunakan instrumen penelitian berupa angket dan tes kemampuan menulis. Responden penelitian adalah 24 mahasiswa Pascasarjana Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, yang terdiri atas 12 laki-laki dan 12 perempuan. Dari hasil pembahasan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan beberapa hal. Pertama, hubungan kesadaran plagiarisme dengan keterampilan menulis esai ekspositori sebesar 0,783 ( 0,05). Artinya, tidak ada hubungan antara kesadaran plagiarisme dengan keterampilan menulis esai ekspositori. Kedua, hubungan jenis kelamin dengan keterampilan menulis esai ekspositori sebesar 0,783 ( 0,05). Artinya, jenis kelamin tidak memberikan kontribusi yang signifikan terhadap keterampilan menulis esai ekspositori. Ketiga, nilai R square antara kesadaran plagiarisme siswa (X1), jenis kelamin (X2), dan keterampilan menulis esai ekspositori (Y) sebesar 0,011 (1,1%). Artinya, keterampilan menulis esai ekspositori dipengaruhi oleh kesadaran plagiarisme dan gender sebesar 1,1%, sedangkan 98,9% dipengaruhi oleh variabel lain. Meskipun kontribusinya rendah, kedua variabel tersebut tetap berperan dalam keterampilan menulis esai ekspositori. Oleh karena itu, kesadaran mahasiswa perlu ditingkatkan dengan penerapan kebijakan plagiarisme yang tegas di perguruan tinggi.Kata Kunci: kesadaran plagiarisme, gender, keterampilan menulis, esai ekspositori
... We see the publication status as yet another source for an overestimation of the magnitude of the correlations. The reward system of the scientific community exerts high pressure to publish in peer-reviewed journals (Honig & Bedi, 2012). However, reviewers are reluctant to accept articles with null findings (Shadish & Sweeney, 1991). ...
Article
Psychological empowerment has become a popular construct in organizational research and practice. Leadership ranks high among the best predictors of employees’ psychological empowerment, yet little is known about which leadership styles prove more effective than others. This meta-analysis investigates the effects of four leadership styles on psychological empowerment. More specifically, we test whether empowering leadership evokes more psychological empowerment than transformational leadership, servant leadership, or transactional leadership. We found that empowering, transformational and servant leadership contribute almost equally to psychological empowerment. No relationship was found with transactional leadership. In an explorative manner, we tested the effects on the different dimensions of psychological empowerment. We found that the leadership styles had a weaker influence on the competence dimension of psychological empowerment. We also investigated the effects of several moderators on the relationships with psychological empowerment: country culture (power balanced freedom (PBF)), study design (cross-sectional vs. multi-wave studies) and publication status (published vs. unpublished). We found no moderating effects of culture, which indicates the universally empowering effects of the leadership styles. The relationships between leadership and empowerment were somewhat weaker when data were collected at different measurement points, and publication bias does not seem to be an issue in this research field.
... Proceeding from such theory, several scholars have hypothesized and investigated perverse effects on the behavior of researchers and institutions, caused by the increasing resort to metrics in evaluation systems ( de Rijcke, Wouters, Rushforth, Franssen, & Hammarfelt, 2016;Fang, Steen, & Casadevall, 2012;Haustein et al., 2015 ). Among these, evidence is found for a range of scientific misconducts, such as multiplication of irrelevant publications, plagiarism, self-plagiarism and scientific fraud ( Edwards & Roy, 2017 ;Hazelkorn, 2010 ;Honig & Bedi, 2012 ), discouragement of research diversification, and of interdisciplinary or innovative research ( Hicks, 2012 ;Rafols, Leydesdorff, O'Hare, Nightingale & Stirling, 2012 ;Wilsdon, 2016 ). ...
Article
We investigate the changes in the self-citation behavior of Italian professors following the introduction of a citation-based incentive scheme, for national accreditation to academic appointments. Previous contributions on self-citation behavior have either focused on small samples or relied on simple models, not controlling for enough confounding factors. The present work adopts a complex statistics model implemented on bibliometric individual data for over 15,000 Italian professors. Controlling for a number of covariates (number of citable papers published by the author; presence of international authors; number of co-authors; degree of the professor's specialization), the average increase in the number of self-citations per paper following introduction of the national scientific accreditation (ASN) is of 9.5%. The increase is common to all disciplines and academic ranks, albeit with diverse magnitude. Moreover, the increase is sensitive to the relative incentive, depending on the status of the scholar with respect to the ASN. A further analysis shows that there is much heterogeneity in the individual patterns of self-citing behavior, albeit with very few outliers. Link to editorial pdf (up to 17.10.2021): https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1dfFK6EAijv~io
... Citation-Based Method: This is a novel method; it mainly belongs to semantic plagiarism detection methods for the usage of the semantics in the cited document. It looks for identical pair of documents based on the citation, because these techniques use semantics contained in the citation [40,41]. ...
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Plagiarism Detection Systems play an important role in revealing instances of a plagiarism act, especially in the educational sector with scientific documents and papers. The idea of plagiarism is that when any content is copied without permission or citation from the author. To detect such activities, it is necessary to have extensive information about plagiarism forms and classes. Thanks to the developed tools and methods it is possible to reveal many types of plagiarism. The development of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and the availability of the online scientific documents lead to the ease of access to these documents. With the availability of many software text editors, plagiarism detections becomes a critical issue. A large number of scientific papers have already investigated in plagiarism detection, and common types of plagiarism detection datasets are being used for recognition systems, WordNet and PAN Datasets have been used since 2009. The researchers have defined the operation of verbatim plagiarism detection as a simple type of copy and paste. Then they have shed the lights on intelligent plagiarism where this process became more difficult to reveal because it may include manipulation of original text, adoption of other researchers' ideas, and translation to other languages, which will be more challenging to handle. Other researchers have expressed that the ways of plagiarism may overshadow the scientific text by replacing, removing, or inserting words, along with shuffling or modifying the original papers. This paper gives an overall definition of plagiarism and works through different papers for the most known types of plagiarism methods and tools.
... For example, Bennet et al. (2011) found disparities among teachers on regarding the recycled work of someone as plagiarism. 2. The incidence of academic misconduct in different surveys in the world of researchers is around 25% (Honig and Bedi, 2012) and 33% (Anderson, 2008) which is not encouraging at all. 3. Institutional responses to plagiarism in research are most often silence, apathy, laxity, even though there are serious written commitments to cultivate academic integrity (Luke and Kearins, 2012;Sonfield 2014). ...
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The purpose of this paper is to explore three different themes within university teacher plagiarism via the use of a systematic literature review: definition of concepts, the relationship between Information and Communication Technologies and university teacher plagiarism and the attitudes and perceptions regarding university teacher plagiarism. The motivation of the research is related to the fact that there is a very comprehensive literature on plagiarism in general, but rather limited literature on university teacher plagiarism. Teachers are role-models; hence, their actions and attitudes are often assumed by students. The data composing the present literature review were extracted from one of the databases very frequently used in Romania: Springer Link. A literature search in this database was performed using the following keywords: "teacher plagiarism" and "researcher plagiarism ". We found that the concept of university teacher plagiarism does not exist as such, and authors support a unique delimitation, irrespective of context. The least represented domain is that related to ICT and university teacher plagiarism, which urges for an immediate approach to this topic by means of empirical studies.
... ISSN 2326-0297 2021, Vol. 9, No. 1 plagiarism is not only academic but also socio-cultural phenomenon (Sonfield, 2014;Honig & Bedi, 2012;Walker & White, 2014;Sarlauskienea & Stabingisa, 2014). This therefore, calls for the adoption of a "comprehensive and clear definition of plagiarism and various types of it with practical examples could help the academic community to develop plagiarism prevention." ...
... A number of factors contribute to its complexity. First, it has been suggested that it is not only committed by students but also lecturers who are supposed to mentor and teach students on proper principles of research (Sonfield, 2014;Honig & Bedi, 2012;Walker & White, 2014;Sarlauskienea & Stabingisa, 2014). Further, lecturers may not be willing or lack requisite skills in determining students' plagiarism and ensuring avoidance (Chireshe, 2014;Alsmadi, AlHami, & Kazakzeh, 2014;Chireshe, 2014;Maio, Dixon, & Yeo, 2019). ...
... This observation could be interpreted as the University's belief that only students are capable of committing plagiarism. This observation is supported by literature (Honig & Bedi, 2012;Walker & White, 2014;Sarlauskienea & Stabingisa, 2014;Sonfield, 2014). ...
Article
Globally, higher education institutions (HEIs) adopt different strategies to curb plagiarism, which undermines the integrity of educational qualifications issued by these institutions. One of the key strategies adopted by HEIs is the development of anti-plagiarism policies. Emerging research from literature do indicate that effective strategies are educational and developmental intended to equip students with skills of acknowledging materials from other sources. Further, research indicates that anti-plagiarism policies reinforce negative attitudes towards plagiarism, hence adopting punitive strategies against the would-be perpetrators. The study reviewed the National University of Lesotho (NUL) anti-plagiarism policy, to determine the type of messages and discourses the policy communicates to its users. The study used document analysis, using the NUL anti-plagiarism policy as the unit of analysis. Content and discourse analysis were applied as research techniques. The study revealed that the policy communicated punitive and moral discourses. These discourses undermine the developmental aspects of academic writing. The study recommends the review of the policy to include educational and developmental discourses that would encourage that students’ academic writing is developed. Further, the University should review its policy not only to address students but members of staff.