Table 1 - available via license: CC BY
Content may be subject to copyright.
Descriptions of refusal situations.

Descriptions of refusal situations.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the refusal and complaint speech act strategies employed by Jordanian undergraduate EFL learners. Refusal and complaint data were collected using a discourse completion test and role-plays. The findings revealed that, as non-native speakers, the respondents preferred to use indirect semantic formulas. The most frequently use...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... first six situations, obtained from Alemi and Tajeddin (2013), focused on different contexts (e.g., education- al, workplace, and daily life). The remainder addressed profes- sor-student situations and student-student situations ( Table 1) that ivoloved four types of refusals: a refusal of requests, refusal of suggestions, refusal of invitations, and refusal of offers. ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
Having their own unique characteristics, interactions in everyday communications are categorized as culture-dependent and universal. Whereas politeness and impoliteness, in general, are universal characteristics of interactions, they are considered to be culture-sensitive and gender-based. Although in recent years there has been an increasing inter...
Article
Full-text available
Rodríguez-Piedrabuena, Sandra (2022), «Ejes de cortesía lingüística en Eurípides», Veleia, 39, 173-192. (https://doi.org/10.1387/veleia.22353). This paper provides an analysis of the distribution of deference and insults with regard to three linguistic politeness axes: Speaker-addressee, speaker-referent, speaker-bystander. In the following exampl...
Article
Full-text available
The dissertation defense as a complicated conflict-prone context entails the adoption of elegant interactional strategies, one of which is self-denigration. This study aimed to develop and validate a self denigration model that fits the context of doctoral defense sessions in applied linguistics. Two focus group discussions provided the basis for d...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to reinforce character building through the Qur’an perspective during Arabic teaching and learning processes at MA Al-Musdariah 2 Cimahi, Indonesia. There are six principles of politeness in language use in Qur’an, namely; qaulan sadidan, ma’rufan, balighan, maysuran, layyinan, dan kariman. The research method used in this study was...

Citations

... This study employed Brown, Levinson's politeness framework (1987), Culpeper's suggested list of positive and negative impoliteness (1996(, and a modified version of Beebe et al.'s (1990) patterns of refusal classifications (direct, indirect, and adjunct refusals) and speech act coding schemes (1990). These frameworks are still deemed valid and significant as they are used and referenced in the latest studies, such as those by Tavakoli and Shirinbakhsh (2014), Kreishan (2018), Amirrudin (2016), Tuncer (2016), Saad et al. (2016), Han (2016), Chunli P (2016), Huwari (2015), Jiang (2015), Moaveni (2014), Ghazanfari (2013), Adolrezapour (2012), and Hashemian (2012). ...
Article
This study intends to investigate the role of culture in the acquisition of pragmatic competence by EFL learners. It investigated the refusal of requests and offers used by Bahraini and Indian learners of English compared to those employed by native speakers of English. It also explored the similarities and differences between refusal strategies used by Bahraini and Indian L2 learners on the one hand and native speakers of English on the other. The participants included 20 Bahraini and 20 Indian learners of English (ILE) and 12 British and American native speakers of English (NE). Two instruments were used to collect the data: a discourse completion test (DCT) and open-ended Role Plays. The data were classified using widely used refusal strategies classifications and were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings indicated that there were differences between the two EFL groups and the NE control group in the frequency and number of pragmatic strategies.
... The speech act of complaint has been examined from different viewpoints. For instance, comparative research examining the differences between native speakers (NS) of English and non-native (NNS) speakers of English (Olshtain & Weinbach, 1987;Zhang, 2001;Hussein & Al-Mofti, 2014;Gallaher, 2014;Kreishan, 2018). Moreover, the concept of pragmatic transfer was examined in many complaint studies (Umar, 2006;Nikoobin & Shahrokhi, 2017;Al-Momani, 2017;Önalan & Çakır, 2018). ...
... Finally, Kreishan (2018) examined the speech acts of refusal and complaint by Jordanian EFL learners compared to those of English native speakers. Data were collected using a DCT and role-plays. ...
... To the researchers' best knowledge, gender differences in the performing of the speech act of complaints has not been examined among Jordanian students. Previous complaints studies on Jordanian participants were cross-cultural (Kreishan, 2018), inter-language pragmatic (Al-Momani 2017), and intra-lingual comparison study (Al-Jabali, 2018). Hence, none of these studies has compared the production of complaint speech act by Jordanian male and female students. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims at investigating the similarities and differences of complaining strategies between Jordanian male and female students at Al-Balqa Applied University (henceforth, BAU). It also examines how the participants' gender influences the complaining strategies produced by them. A modified version of the Discourse Completion Test (DCT) proposed by Zhang (2001) was used as a data collection instrument. The questionnaire was then translated into Arabic to make sure that the participants truly understand the situations. Next, data were mainly analysed based on Trosborg's (1994) classification system. Results revealed that there are similarities and differences between the two groups of participants. For example, both male and female students produced the same complaining strategies. Yet, they differ in their preference and frequency use of these strategies. For example, male students used more direct accusation complaints compared to their female counterparts. Results also showed that the social dimensions of social status and social distance of the addressee have influenced the participants' responses in terms of the level of directness and their use of different politeness strategies. In other words, the participants tended to use less direct strategies with their professors (higher social status). Moreover, the participants tended to use more direct strategies with their classmates (close) than a service person (stranger). Results also revealed that gender has influenced the choice of complaining strategies and politeness. The study concludes with a discussion of pedagogical implications and directions for future research.
... The main theme of the speech act is not prohibited within certain elements but the conclusiveness of factors enumerated vast elements to reach the strategy of apology. Significantly, speech acts do influence many other factors as stated in the literature whereas the use of factors in speech acts like requests have significant importance in moving towards an apology (Kreishan, 2018). It is clear that the factor of apology is prevalent on the offender and its importance is counted when the offender is understanding the information or message in which way. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The aim related to this study is to examine the impact of speech act such as to request, complaints and compliments on the apology strategy with the moderating role of expressions of emotions. The data has been gathered by employing the questionnaire method from private university students. The Smart-PLS has been executed for the analysis, and results indicated that speech act such as to request, complaints and compliments have positive nexus with apology strategy. The findings also exposed that expressions of emotions positively moderated among the links of speech act and apology strategy. These findings suggested to the university students that they should highly focus on the speech acts that help in the adoption appropriate strategy during communication.
... In another study, Kreishan (2018) studied the speech acts of refusal and complaint used by Jordanian undergraduate EFL learners. The data were collected using a discourse completion test and role-plays. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims at investigating politeness strategies and pragmatic modifiers used by native speakers of Jordanian Arabic to perform the speech act of refusal. The data were collected from 24 hours of recorded conversations taken from different mixed and same-sex conversations by native speakers of Jordanian Arabic. The researchers observed these conversations and utterances that perform the speech act of refusal. The strategies of refusals were analyzed following Beebe, Takahashi, and Uliss-Weltz (1990) model, while pragmatic modifiers were analyzed following House and Kasper (1981) and Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper (1989). The results of the study showed that the Jordanians used complex strategy more than direct and indirect strategies. The findings showed that Jordanians used many pragmatic modifiers to soften their refusals. The study found that external modifiers were more frequent than other types of pragmatic modifiers. The study also found out that culture affected the use of refusal strategies and pragmatic modifiers. The impact of culture appeared clearly in the fact that Jordanians tended to use Islamic religious expressions to mitigate their utterances. Besides, it seemed that Jordanians preferred complex strategies because they viewed repetition and using more than one strategy as a polite way to save the face of others.
... The first conlusion is there is only one direct refusal strategy proposed were applied in the refusal speech act in Percy Jackson & The Olympians: The Last Olympia. The strategy is nonperformative [18]. ...
... Various studies on the types of speech act were carried out in the field of pragmatics such as speech act of refusals (e.g. Shishavan & Sharifian, 2016;Kreishan, 2018), condolences (e.g. Sharif et al., 2018), congratulations (e.g. ...
... This finding is parallel with Mahrooqi and Al-Aghbari (2016)'s research on the refusal pattern of 41 Omani college students. Both studies employed the use of direct completion test or DCT as the research tool, but Kreishan (2018) included role-play as a second instrument. Interestingly, Mahrooqi and Al-Aghbari (2016)'s research also revealed that while indirect strategy is the predominant way of realising refusal among Omani college students, they tend to use direct strategies to people of higher status. ...
... Blum-Kulka's (1982) claim that language learners often fail to realize their communicative acts in terms of social appropriateness and pragmatic effectiveness generated interest in the strategies employed by EFL/ESL learners. Throughout the growing body of research, the inadequate pragmatic knowledge of the EFL/ESL learners, including ESP learners (Sirikhan & Prapphal 2011;Halupka-Rešetar & Knežević 2016;Taghizadeh 2017;Kreishan 2018), compared to the native speakers' linguistic performance, was reported. ...
Article
Full-text available
To start reducing the probable discrepancy between English for Tourism Purposes (ETP) learners’ pragmatic and grammatical development, the pragmatic facets of the polyvalent grammatical categories should be reflected in the instruction. The study focused on tense and aspect with two complementary aims: 1) to identify and set forth a characterization of tense and aspectual verbal forms used as the internal pragmatic modifiers contributing to politeness in ETP, and 2) to highlight the relevant points and outline the proposals for ETP teachers. The listening scripts from four textbooks were used in an analysis primarily oriented towards pragmalinguistics. The study confirmed the association between the investigated linguistic items and politeness, and provided the theoretical account of the hypothetical past, past tense and progressive aspect, but also shed light on the politeness effects conveyed by future-reference verbal forms. It also suggested an approach in ETP instruction based on raising students’ pragmatic awareness.
Article
Full-text available
Moral value is vital and beneficial in students' lives. This value is utilized as a guide in behavior when interacting in Arabic learning activities. This value craves to be internalized in these activities through the teacher's acts with the aim that learning can run interactively and create character students. This study aims to analyze the internalization of character values through teacher directive acts in learning Arabic at Darus Salam High School and Al Munawaroh High School Jombang. This research adopted a qualitative approach by employing the case study. The research data was obtained from interviewing and documentation of three teachers’ directive speech acts from two senior high schools about the context of these teachers’ acts. This study draws on the internalization of character values through teacher directive acts in learning Arabic at Darus Salam and Al Munawaroh High School Jombang with four functions, they are; a) the function of asking, b) the function of ordering, c) the function of inviting, and d) the function of forbidding by internalizing character values, namely the value of curiosity, independent value, religious value, and responsibility value. The results of this study contribute to the teacher's media in using appropriate speech acts as an effort to create students who have character and become more interactive and communicative learning because of the understanding between teachers and students. The implications for future research need to discuss the following research to understand character values through Arabic teaching materials.
Article
Generic person is particularly interesting in gendered languages such as Hebrew and Arabic, where the coexistence of (unmarked) masculine and (marked) feminine forms posits a choice when both are applicable. Inclusive generics, i.e. impersonal forms whose scope includes ‘I’ and ‘you’, were analyzed in women's discourse in Israeli Hebrew and Negev Arabic. In the Hebrew corpus, consisting of 7 journalistic interviews with women in both interviewer and interviewee roles, F-you (generic P2f.sg) turned out to be the undisputedly unmarked generic form; M-you (generic P2m.sg) is restricted to very specific contexts, such as shifted viewpoint, a man or a mixed gender group in the speaker's mind. A very different pattern emerged in a Traditional Negev Arabic corpus, representing 7 elderly Bedouin women interviewed by female Bedouin students. Here, the highest ranking form was M-one (generic P3m.sg), followed by M-you. This radical difference fits in with findings of research on cultural discourse patterns that has classified Arabic under the polychronic type, reflecting a relatively depersonalized ‘collective self’ and complementary gender relations. Israeli Hebrew, as reflected in our data base, is closer to the monochronic individualistic, equal gender relation type. The gap between these two types is neatly and consistently filled in by data from the Young Negev Arabic corpus, representing 7 female Bedouin students interviewed by female peers. Their medial position points to the transition which the young Arab generation is undergoing from the traditional Arabic culture to the western culture predominating the Israeli public space.