Figure - uploaded by Shaila Jamal
Content may be subject to copyright.
Description of the respondents of the in-depth interviews.

Description of the respondents of the in-depth interviews.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
At the start of the pandemic in early 2020, many cities went to complete or partial lockdown to minimize the mass transmission of COVID-19. Consequently, personal travel patterns have changed throughout the world. This study explores the transport mode preferences and associated dilemmas that commuters face in Dhaka, Bangladesh, in the post-lockdow...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... interviewed 20 young employed persons who were regularly commuting during the post-lockdown period in Dhaka with a description of their commute mode during and in the pre-pandemic situation ( Table 1). Recruitment of the study participants and the interviews took place between July and August 2020. ...
Context 2
... process has been shown in Table 2. To maintain the rigour of the data analysis, authors worked independently to generate the initial codes, focused codes and categories and finally translated the findings into themes by working together. Table 1 includes a description of the characteristics of the interviewees and their mode shifts during the post-lockdown period. We made our sample as diverse as possible by recruiting respondents from private sectors, public sectors, informal sectors, female employees, employed individuals with low income (monthly income < 15,000 BDT, 1 USD ~ 84 BDT), full-time and part-time employees. ...
Context 3
... interviewed 20 young employed persons who were regularly commuting during the post-lockdown period in Dhaka with a description of their commute mode during and in the pre-pandemic situation ( Table 1). Recruitment of the study participants and the interviews took place between July and August 2020. ...
Context 4
... process has been shown in Table 2. To maintain the rigour of the data analysis, authors worked independently to generate the initial codes, focused codes and categories and finally translated the findings into themes by working together. Table 1 includes a description of the characteristics of the interviewees and their mode shifts during the post-lockdown period. We made our sample as diverse as possible by recruiting respondents from private sectors, public sectors, informal sectors, female employees, employed individuals with low income (monthly income < 15,000 BDT, 1 USD ~ 84 BDT), full-time and part-time employees. ...

Citations

... However, some events such as pandemics could result in shifts away from high density travel modes (e.g., public transit or carpooling) and into single occupancy vehicles (SOVs), altering the number of vehicles on the road network [15,16]. Works [17][18][19] analyze the daily vehicle commuting patterns in different ways, and works [20][21][22][23] analyze the commute behavior change under COVID-19. Our work take one step forward and asks the important question: how will the shifts in commute patterns impact the road traffic? ...
Article
Full-text available
This work considers the sensitivity of commute travel times in US metro areas due to potential changes in commute patterns, for example caused by events such as pandemics. Permanent shifts away from transit and carpooling can add vehicles to congested road networks, increasing travel times. Growth in the number of workers who avoid commuting and work from home instead can offset travel time increases. To estimate these potential impacts, 6-9 years of American Community Survey commute data for 118 metropolitan statistical areas are investigated. For 74 of the metro areas, the average commute travel time is shown to be explainable using only the number of passenger vehicles used for commuting. A universal Bureau of Public Roads model characterizes the sensitivity of each metro area with respect to additional vehicles. The resulting models are then used to determine the change in average travel time for each metro area in scenarios when 25% or 50% of transit and carpool users switch to single occupancy vehicles. Under a 25% mode shift, areas such as San Francisco and New York that are already congested and have high transit ridership may experience round trip travel time increases of 12 minutes (New York) to 20 minutes (San Francisco), costing individual commuters $1065 and $1601 annually in lost time. The travel time increases and corresponding costs can be avoided with an increase in working from home. The main contribution of this work is to provide a model to quantify the potential increase in commute travel times under various behavior changes, that can aid policy making for more efficient commuting.
... Thus, a better understanding of how the health concerns impact their mode choice behavior in the new normal situation is necessitated to understand patterns of the future and what the focus of future policies and emerging modes should be (Md. S. Abdullah et al., 2021;Jamal et al., 2022aJamal et al., , 2022bJamal & Paez, 2020;Paul et al., 2021;Shaik et al., 2021;Zafri et al., 2021). ...
... As the concern for affordability rose in the new normal, the commuters need to balance between their concern for health, Levels of Service (LOS) and affordability. In pre-COVID times, the factors affecting mode choice of the commuters of Dhaka City depended on commuters' socio-economic characteristics and LOS attributes, however, the recent studies showcase the paradigm has shifted greatly due to COVID-19 as health concern emerged as a greater factor than before (Enam & Choudhury, 2011;Jamal et al., 2022a). As a result, for successful planning and development of the upcoming urban transportation systems of Dhaka, it is necessary to understand how the pandemic altered mode choice behavior along with the quantification of the paradigm shift in the balance between factors. ...
... Based on these research, Revealed Preference (RP) survey method was deemed to be most appropriate for this study. Similarly, the study area was limited to Dhaka Metropolitan Area due to the availability and exposure of travelers to online social media which are typically used for conducting online surveys in Bangladesh (see Arellana et al., 2020;Jamal et al., 2022a;Jamal & Paez, 2020;Pawar et al., 2020;Shakibaei et al., 2021). Lastly, the case study of Italy with its full lifting of lockdown akin to Bangladesh, with similar vaccination rates leading to lower chance of future lockdowns and adaptation to new normalcy, warranted the need for a before and after lockdown analysis, instead of existing literature that focuses on before and during lockdown (Torrisi et al., 2021). ...
... the use of cars and taxis (Jamal et al. 2022;Labib et al. 2014).  Corruption makes it difficult to ensure implication of laws and compliance (Sarker et al. 2017). ...
... Overall, the findings of our study are in alignment with other studies that also focused on exploring firm and consumer concerns regarding commuting during and after COVID-19. Studies largely indicate safety and hygiene as major concerns of passengers in various contexts by exploring as many ways as possible to avoid contagion in transportation such as ride-sharing motorbike taxis, other ridehailing options including buses and rikshaw (Choi & Shi, 2022;Hetherington et al., 2021;Jamal et al., 2022;Loa et al., 2022). In these unprecedented times when paranoia and fear reside in everyone's mind, these technical assurances will help to reduce the side effects of uncertainties on consumer minds as well as on businesses that need prompt recovery (Hendrickson & Rilett, 2020;Rothengatter et al., 2021). ...
... These businesses not only favor economic benefits but also sustainable environment goals by encouraging fuel-efficient practices such as ride-sharing (Dai et al., 2022). Ridesharing business supports the idea of sustainable development goals by making responsible consumption and production through lesser consumption of fuel (Dai et al., 2022;Jamal et al., 2022;SDGs, 2020). Hence, the perpetuity of ridesharing cab service firms is important for sustainability goals and the present research would contribute toward meeting this goal. ...
Article
The outbreak of the novel Coronavirus pandemic has brought the world to a standstill. The constant increase in the rise of cases and deaths has compelled nearly all countries to impose lockdowns and other restrictive measures. The restrictions on travel and other non-essential activities have raised some serious business concerns for ridesharing, carpooling, and cab rental services. This study aims to identify, analyze, and prioritize the commuters’ barriers to App-based Ridesharing Services during COVID-19’s first and second waves, and potential ways of adaptation for an anticipated third wave in Indian contexts. The hierarchy of barriers is established using the responses from sixty respondents and their analysis using the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) technique, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). ‘Safety from contagion’ was found to be the most significant and strong factor followed by the desire for personal space and personal security as the most important inhibitors for not choosing ridesharing services during COVID-19. Socio-economic status and the lack of reliability of service were not given much importance by the respondents. The current and potential implications for sustainable business and the environment are also discussed.
... Despite government mandates and protocols, maintaining recommended physical distancing is very difficult in a densely populated country like Bangladesh (Jamal, Chowdhury, and Newbold 2022). Given the worldwide spread of COVID-19, there is an expectation that a modal shift towards individual means of transportation such as private cars, motorized twowheelers, bicycles, and walking will occur (Abdullah et al. 2021;Dingil and Esztergár-Kiss 2021;Thombre and Agarwal 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on in-depth interviews of 17 key informants in Dhaka, Bangladesh, this paper explores the reasons behind the observed modal shift toward motorized two-wheelers that occurred with the COVID-19 pandemic, along with its implications. Analysis of the key informants' perspectives revealed that individuals' inclination towards motorized two-wheelers occurs because of maintaining physical distance, lack of walking and bicycling infrastructure, the high social status associated with motorized two-wheelers, and brand promotion. The implications of this modal shift include increased traffic congestion, GHG emission, and traffic incidents. As interviewees suggest, mass communication, understanding users' perspectives, and promoting equity concepts are needed for a modal shift towards more sustainable options.
... The pedestrian network is a new structure in the urban area that consists of cohesive streets and provides suitable features for walking. The personal, social, economic and environmental benefits of walking are well-documented: walking reduces traffic congestion and pollution; it is beneficial to individuals' health and well-being; it provides economic benefits; it has an impact on real estate prices and enhances the sociability and vitality of urban spaces [31][32][33][34][35]. For these reasons, the concept of pedestrian network has been placed at the center of various urban policies and has been a main topic for urban designers and planners over the last decades. ...
Article
Full-text available
In cities today, the digitalization of mobility is one of the most crucial tools that link each single mobility service providers (e.g., ride sharing, public transportation, air travel, etc.) to users. Based on the smart pedestrian network model, the purpose of this study is to initially provide the requirements towards the digitalization of a pedestrian network model and subsequently to draft an institutional framework towards the effective implementation and management of pedestrian mobility that will develop/create a pedestrian network as a new structure in the city. The methodology is applied in three phases, with three separate approaches: "desk approach" for a data gathering standard that is knowledge-based and connected to walkability; a "digitalization approach" for citizen and stakeholder participation in policy co-creation; and a "business approach." A business approach is defined as a set of operations that takes one or more types of input and produces a customer-valued outcome. In this case, customers are citizens and the business approach by applying a digital system is assessing policies and finding/defining an optimized combination of shared applicable/effective policies to implement the pedestrian network. By boosting an innovative linkage of these three phases, digitalization of the pedestrian network has great potential to improve the walkability planning process and therefore to create more sustainable and livable urban spaces.
... Lockdowns to reduce citizen movement [12]; • The need to maintain social distance [13]; • Closing of many key public utilities [14]; • Switching to remote work mode [15], Which significantly influenced the change of transport mobility and the existing habits of the society around the world. Scientists noted that the outbreak of the pandemic therefore brought many economic, social, and environmental challenges to the shared mobility industry [16]. ...
... Such misguided innovations in the case of shared mobility systems include, for example, the implementation of an insufficient number of vehicle fleets with high demand, the implementation of electric vehicles in the absence of the necessary infrastructure, or a change in the type of provided services by the transition from rentals per minute to typical subscription systems. In contrast, a business model based on open innovations should be characterized by five main terms, which include [9][10][11][12]: ...
Article
Full-text available
The shared mobility services market is growing and changing very rapidly. Many novelties are introduced to the systems, ranging from improvements to the services already offered to services referred to as innovative. Since the following years are to bring significant development of mobility as a service (MaaS) systems, data sharing, and cooperation on the mobility market, the article is dedicated to check whether the current business models of the industry are ready for the open innovations implementations. The article aimed to analyze the business models of shared mobility systems along with their presentation in the form of CANVAS models and to investigate whether the models contain aspects of open innovation. Moreover, the article presents its own value-added open business model prepared for the whole shared mobility market. The paper also identifies a set of open innovations that can be implemented by all types of shared mobility operators. It proposed the basis that operators can use when developing their own open business models. The developed research is an original contribution to filling the research gap concerning the approach to open innovation by operators of all types of shared mobility services available on the market. The results show that car-sharing service providers are the biggest opponents of open innovation. On the other hand, the most ‘open’ systems are bike-sharing services. The conducted research may support operators in the process of transforming their businesses into more accessible for users. It also helps to develop the open innovation concept to create more sustainable shared mobility systems along the lines of collaborative economy assumptions.
... In addition, we found that the low-income group is less likely to perceive high risk of viral transmission in terms of using public transport. One of the possible reasons could be unaffordability or lack of alternative modes for them to travel as highlighted by Jamal et al. (2022). Therefore, they kept traveling by public transport during the pandemic. ...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 pandemic has caused adverse impacts on different aspects of life around the globe, including travelers’ mode choice behavior. To make their travel safe, transportation planners and policymakers need to understand people’s perceptions of the risk of COVID-19 transmission in different travel modes. This study aimed to estimate mode-wise perceived risk of viral transmission and identify the factors that influenced the perceived risk in Bangladesh. The study used a five-point Likert scale to measure the perceived risk of COVID-19 transmission in each travel mode. Using ordinal logistic regression models, the study explored the factors that influenced the perceived risk of COVID-19 transmission. The study found that people perceived a very high risk of viral transmission in public transport (bus), moderate risk in shared modes (rickshaw, auto-rickshaw, ridesharing), and very low risk in private modes (private car, motorcycle/scooter, walking, cycling). Such high-risk perception of viral transmission in public transport and shared modes might lead to a modal shift to private modes, which would worsen urban transport problems and undermine sustainable transportation goals. The study also found that socio-economic factors (gender, age, income) significantly influenced perceived risks in all travel modes. Contrarily, psychological factors (worry, care, and trust) were significant only for public and shared modes, but not for private modes. Lastly, travel behavior-related factors influenced perceived risk in shared and private modes.
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed socioeconomic vulnerabilities around the world. After fighting the coronavirus for more than 1 and a half years now, the countries are recovering from the epidemic with the help of cutting-edge medical research. The policymakers are implementing stimulus packages for post-pandemic economic recovery. However, sustainable "green recovery" plans are yet to get adequate attention. Sustainable investment in green industries can create green jobs, promote a low-carbon economy, and foster long-lasting economic growth in the post-pandemic world. COVID-19 affected countries with emerging economies call for even more focus on such investments. In Bangladesh, the bicycle industry - a growing low-carbon industry - has been showing promising potential for growth since the beginning of the pandemic. Both the local and global markets of Bangladeshi bicycles have seen substantial growth during the epidemic. In this paper, we analyze the potential of the Bangladeshi bicycle industry as an effective green recovery driver. We conduct semi-structured interviews with relevant experts and professionals, analyze their opinions, and perform a "strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT)" analysis. The analysis reveals valuable insights regarding post-pandemic sustainable economic and environmental recovery which will be beneficial to the policymakers of Bangladesh and similar developing countries.