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Description of Participants, n = 10 

Description of Participants, n = 10 

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This case study described teachers with varying technology skills who were implementing the use of geospatial technology (GST) within project-based instruction (PBI) at varying grade levels and contexts 1 to 2 years following professional development. The sample consisted of 10 fifth- to ninth-grade teachers. Data sources included artifacts, observ...

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Context 1
... criteria for selection were used in order to determine if high levels of pedagogical practices continued 1 to 2 years following the PD experience. Descriptive characteristics of the participants are presented in Table 1. ...

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... Based on the statement, Pre-service and experienced geography teachers have the knowledge, experience, and ability to use GST in an integrated way. Also, Rubino-Hare et al. (2016) emphasize that the use of GST as a pedagogical tool takes 1 to 2 years in continuous learning. Therefore, Pre-service and experienced geography teachers focus on learning about GST and how to teach it (Donert et al., 2016;Zwartjes & de Lázaro y Torres, 2019). ...
... A lack of content knowledge means that students do not develop their thinking logic due to limited knowledge (Pamuk, 2012). Furthermore, Rubino-Hare et al. (2016), developing thinking skills, need to be supported with strong knowledge, which occurs when Pre-service and experienced geography teachers can ultimately connect one concept to produce new knowledge. ...
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... The GITW defines Geospatial Inquiry as: asking and answering a research question through the analysis and communication of data that is linked to a geographic location on, above, or near Earth. These data are often represented visually via maps and explored with geospatial technologies (Rubino-Hare et al., 2016;Whitworth et al., 2020). ...
... Actively engaging teachers in investigations of phenomena, interpreting results, and sense-making are suggested as necessary features to include in the design of science PLD (Jeanpierre et al., 2005), however, research has shown that learning science alone is not enough to support collaborative student sense-making in science; teachers must also analyse student learning and reflect upon implications for teaching (Heller et al., 2012). When teachers are attending technology PLD, it is also recommended that they maintain communication with school or district technology support and are working in schools that advocate for the type of technology use they want to implement (Baylor & Ritchie, 2002;Rubino-Hare et al., 2016). Teachers are more likely to change their classroom practices if they can adopt, adapt, and innovate the technology into their lesson plans and make it their own (Charles & Kolvoord, 2003: Fogelman et al., 2011Penuel et al., 2007;Trautmann & MaKinster, 2009). ...
... You may recall these lessons provide opportunities for students to learn in cognitively demanding ways by engaging in the practices of science, such as communicating with data and engaging in argument from evidence. This study provides further evidence that the model results in pedagogical practices that persist one to two years after the PLD ends (Rubino-Hare et al., 2016) and therefore has merit. Future research should investigate sustained practice after PLD that includes research-based pedagogical practices as compared with GST skills training alone. ...
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... Based on the statement, Pre-service and experienced geography teachers have the knowledge, experience, and ability to use GST in an integrated way. Also, Rubino-Hare et al. (2016) emphasize that the use of GST as a pedagogical tool takes 1 to 2 years in continuous learning. Therefore, Pre-service and experienced geography teachers focus on learning about GST and how to teach it (Donert et al., 2016;Zwartjes & de Lázaro y Torres, 2019). ...
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... Professional development opportunities in geospatial technologies, however, do not necessarily lead to changes in teacher practice in the classroom if they are applied to course material (Trautmann and MaKinster 2010;Rubino-Hare et al. 2016). Rubino-Hare et al. (2016) noted that many teachers who initially implement methods learned through professional development experiences eventually retreat back into their old teaching methods. ...
... Professional development opportunities in geospatial technologies, however, do not necessarily lead to changes in teacher practice in the classroom if they are applied to course material (Trautmann and MaKinster 2010;Rubino-Hare et al. 2016). Rubino-Hare et al. (2016) noted that many teachers who initially implement methods learned through professional development experiences eventually retreat back into their old teaching methods. This may be because of the lack of continuing technical support for teachers who utilize the technology in the classroom (Rubino-Hare et al. 2016). ...
... Rubino-Hare et al. (2016) noted that many teachers who initially implement methods learned through professional development experiences eventually retreat back into their old teaching methods. This may be because of the lack of continuing technical support for teachers who utilize the technology in the classroom (Rubino-Hare et al. 2016). Many educators find it difficult to connect geospatial processes from professional development into specific curriculum goals (Trautmann and MaKinster 2010), and student assessment in courses may be structured in a way that limits the potential of new technological enhancements (Rubino-Hare et al. 2016). ...
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... The program goal is to increase opportunities for students to practice critical thinking and data analysis skills, and to promote awareness of careers that utilize geospatial technologies. Previous research identified this as an effective program (Rubino-Hare, et al., 2016). The program was scaled-up to significantly increase its reach through a Facilitation Academy that prepared POD Facilitators to teach POD Teacher Workshops (TW) across the nation. ...
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... The results showed a positive increase in disposition for pre-service teachers who participated in online web-GIS activities and self-reflection activities, with the pre-service teachers identifying GIS as helpful for achieving physical and human geography learning objectives because of the rich information available from the GIS. Teacher persistence of newly learned geospatial and project-based learning practices and skills were studied in Rubino-Hare et al. (2016 ). It was found that context and technological skill level were factors in the participating teachers' continuation of using geotechnology and project-based learning in their classrooms. ...
... Select methods and procedures lead to successful teacher training, whether it be by tailoring the content to the specific audience ( Tabor & Harrington, 2014 ), being flexibly adaptive with teachers , or using time as a guide ( Hohnle et al., 2016 ;Millsaps & Harrington, 2017 ). The identification of teacher specific factors have also enhanced this knowledge and suggests teacher training take into account dispositions towards geotechnology ( Jo, 2016 ) and technology comfort and skill level ( Rubino-Hare et al., 2016 ). While these studies provide some guidance about teacher education and training, significantly more work is needed to clarify most of the elements of geotechnology in the professional development process. ...
Chapter
Geospatial technologies allow learners to study social or scientific data. Geospatial technologies include location-based digital tools that enable or extend data collection, analyses, or visualization; these commonly include geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning satellites (GPS), and remotely sensed data. For example, GIS can empower learners to ask and answer the “why’s of where” by creating maps that incorporate key data, relevant to a question. In recent years, these research and analysis tools and methods have become more accessible through a host of web and mobile tools – usable by anyone, anywhere, anytime. Geospatial technologies may enable citizenship education through the lens of geography, empowering community and nation values and practices through data collection, visualization, and analyses.
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Preparing learners for the future requires twenty-first-century teaching that integrates professional tools in the classroom. Geospatial technologies (GST), which represent geographical professional technologies, lack robust integration in high school geography. Researchers continue to ask why educators teach about rather than with GST. Understanding teacher decisions is paramount. This mixed methods study examined commonalities among teachers who use GST using Mishra and Koehler’s (2006 Mishra, P., and M. J. Koehler. 2006. Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record 108 (6):1017–54.[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]) Technological, Pedagogical, Content Knowledge (TPCK) framework as a theoretical lens. This investigation examined whether geography teachers who exhibit stronger geospatial TPCK used GST more frequently than other teachers who exhibited a less developed knowledge base.