Dependent Variable: Plant Height 45 DAP

Dependent Variable: Plant Height 45 DAP

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The agricultural environment continues to be used for inappropriate technology, reduced agricultural land, insufficient inputs (chemical fertilizers and inorganic pesticides), and air. Rice is the most important food crop in Indonesia because almost all residents use rice as a staple food. Rice straw is a source of organic material that is availabl...

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... Biochar applied at the rate of 1%, or 16 t ha À1 (tonne per hectare) equivalent was able to improve crop productivity and soil nutrient status (Speratti et al. 2018). Similarly, biochar of rice husk and straw compost (straw husk ash, sawdust, water hyacinth, and prebiotic decomposers) improved the rice straw's growth, i.e., plant height and the number of tillers with higher yields (Nisa et al. 2019). Furthermore, Tibouchina biochar elevated soil mineral concentration (Mg, K, Ca, and Zn), decreased soil acidity, increased soil microbiome species richness, and improved cassava growth (von Gunten et al. 2019). ...
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The increasing competition for available resources and inefficient use of those limited resources necessitates the need to improve the use of available resources. If these inefficacies are not corrected, the resource-poor farmers, mainly living in developing countries will be most affected. Yet these resource farmers contribute immensely for food production in developing countries. Smallholder farmers must be proactive and learn to adopt new strategies that can assist them in continuing farming with maximum use of limited agricultural resources and even wastes in agriculture. Several methods are available to improve the use of agricultural wastes, including non-agronomic benefits. Furthermore, we suggest the integration of waste resources, such as from both the trilogy of human–animal–crop wastes. Similarly, inexpensive techniques are encouraged among the farmers, including composting and vermicomposting of human–crop–animal wastes and/or slaughterhouse/abattoir wastes, biocharing of crop and animal wastes as various means of recycling/recovering nutrients in the soil system. Furthermore, the deployment of fungi could also improve the resource use efficiency through mushroom growth and sales, crop residue fermentation to enhance its feed value. Livestock farmers facing nutritional problems can apply microbes through fermentation to reduce antinutritional factors (lignin, tannins) in plants, and improve the safety of kitchen and dairy waste before feeding. Alternatively, farmers are encouraged to raise microlivestock (rabbits, snails, and grasscutters) on their farm to improve the use of resources. On a large scale, nitrogen and phosphorus recovery from cow urine, slurry, human feces, and fermentation of phytate rich plants with phytate on industrial scales is recommended. This chapter aims to provide insight into the methods by which farmers and industries, especially those in developing countries, can improve their available resources for agricuture and as livestock feeds.
... Crop wastes that constitute huge nuisance in highly productive regions could be converted to products with environmental, economical, and agricultural value. Biochar have been made from Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) (Lefebvre et al., 2019); cotton husks, eucalyptus residue, sugarcane filtercake, swine manure (Speratti et al., 2018); rice straw (Nisa et al., 2019); cassava residues, corncobs, rice husk, sawdust, coffee husk, and Peanut (Billa et al., 2019); and walnut, loblolly pine wood, pine needle, palmwood, and nutshell (UC Davis Biochar Database, 2019). The pictorial representation of biochar preparation and its potential benefits is presented in Fig. 7. ...
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Previous and current agricultural practices have contributed to environmental pollution, which is further affecting food security, human health, and climate. Yet, agriculture cannot be eliminated, because, of its promising role in ending hunger, reducing poverty, improving nutrition, and achieving food security in low-middle income countries. Hence, there is a need for shift from ‘unclean’ practices to sustainable practices. Similarly, differences in pollution, among nations call for regional changes or intervention in agri-food practices to reduce global pollution. These practices are essential for African and Asian countries. Of the many methods proposed in this review, localized technology improvement and globalized sustainable intensification are of high impact models having the potential of mitigating greenhouse gases upto an extentof 30%. Various methods of achieving these measures include, but not limited to, the shift in management systems of crop and livestock production, encouraging agriculture and veterinary practices with less environmental impact and high adaptation, enabling nutrient recycling or recovery, resource-use efficiency, mitigation of nitrous oxide and methane from soil, implementation of integrated farming system and insect farming. Government agencies along with agri-food producers, processors, and farmers must be ready to change their current agricultural practices by adopting new methods. The review conclude that the sustainable agricultural production is possible through the use of low-priced local resources that are capable of increasing soil carbon storage, thus combating the pollution in countries with a transition economy.
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Biochar has been recognized as a potential media for soil amendment regarding its high surface area and retention capacity to slowly release nutrients to soils. However, the recycling of biochar after domestic water treatment towards agricultural application is still not well known. Therefore, this research studied the role of nutrient-loaded biochars produced from agricultural residues after canal water treatment as soil promoters for Gomphrena growth. Corncob, coconut husk, coconut shell and rice straw derived biochars were separately produced in a kiln (~378 °C) (namely CC, CH, CS and RS, respectively) and a pyrolysis reactor (500 °C) (namely CC-P, CH-P, CS-P and RS-P, respectively). The CH biochar was further modified with chitosan to improve its surface properties (labeled as CHC). The CH and CHC biochars after canal water treatment at lab and pilot scales are labeled as CH-column, CHC-column, CH-pilot and CHC-pilot, respectively. The loaded and unloaded biochars were further added in aquaculture sediment and loamy soil at 0.4, 0.7 and 1% mass ratio for Gomphrena growth. From the results, biochars amended in soil and sediment significantly improved seed germinations of Gomphrena, compared to control treatments. RS 0.4% amended in soil and sediment showed the highest seedling height (~2.5 cm) among all biochars, in accordance with its releases of K ⁺ , PO 4 ³⁻ and NO 3 ⁻ into solution at high concentrations. Gomphrena growth in sediment amended with CH-column 1.0% biochar was comparable to unloaded biochar, indicating that loaded biochar can provide nutrients without harming the plant. In addition, chitosan modification induced higher plant growth in sediment amended with CHC-column 1.0% than with unmodified biochar. Gomphrena germination was also improved in CH-pilot and CHC-pilot biochars amended in sediments with maximum seedling heights of 3.5 and 4.2 cm, respectively. This is likely due to the abilities of CH-pilot and CHC-pilot biochars to release N (NH 4 ⁺ , NO 3 ⁻ ) and total P of 0.106 and 0.111 mgN/L, and 0.770 and 0.637 mgP/L, respectively. This study revealed that the nutrient-loaded biochars can be used to sustain soil fertility through gradual releases of nutrients and thus promote the recycling of agricultural residues.