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Density plots for compliance with preventive health behaviors (upper figure A) and support for containment policies (lower figure B).

Density plots for compliance with preventive health behaviors (upper figure A) and support for containment policies (lower figure B).

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This paper examines whether compliance with COVID-19 mitigation measures is motivated by wanting to save lives or save the economy (or both), and which implications this carries to fight the pandemic. National representative samples were collected from 24 countries (N = 25,435). The main predictors were (1) perceived risk to contract coronavirus, (...

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... risk) due to the coronavirus (all paired t tests p < .001). More precisely, perceptions about health and economic risks differ between groups (e.g., people under 25 perceive a lower health risk compared to all other ages), but perceived economic risk is reliably higher in pairwise comparisons within all subgroups (further information about differences per perceived risk within each sociodemographic category are presented in Supplementary Materials- Figure 3). ...
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... mandatory vaccination for coronavirus (56%), and reporting suspicious COVID-19 cases (57%) would be less approved. Figure 3 shows the density plots for these six outcomes. ...

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... However, saving lives or saving the economy should not be considered as dueling goals. Instead, strategies like public messaging in adjusting the COVID-19 control measures are suggested to mitigate health and economic losses [58]. ...
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... These policies created massive collateral economic damage from which it is predicted to take decades to recover [2], especially for low-resource settings and marginalised populations [3]. When selecting mitigation strategies, the optimal trade-off between lives vs livelihoods (i.e balancing the life-saving benefits of mitigation strategies vs their livelihood-damaging economic costs) is not obvious [4], and perceptions differ according to a volatile mix of socioeconomic, demographic and cultural features that vary between countries and evolve over time. There is a growing appreciation that decisions based on such vastly complex and dynamic data require the advanced pattern detection of deep learning networks [5]. ...
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... In addition to demographic factors such as age and gender, risk perception, perceived effectiveness of containment measures, and trust in individuals and institutions handling the pandemic play a key role in the effectiveness of public health measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic [7,10]. Risk perception is considered a core feature of psychological models of behaviour change, such as the Health Belief Model [11] or the Protection Motivation Theory [12], and is thus an important determinant of cooperation and adoption of preventive behaviours during pandemics [9,[13][14][15]. Perceived effectiveness and trust are considered crucial factors against detrimental psychological effects of governmental restrictions, and are known to support one's own preventive behaviour and to foster a positive social climate [7,9,10,16,17]. ...
... Perceived effectiveness significantly varied by educational status only in survey wave four with significantly lower perceptions of effectiveness among intermediate educational groups compared to low educational groups. Table 3 and Table 4 present the results for the multivariate analysis of trends in absolute and relative educational disparities in preventive behaviour, risk perception, perceived effectiveness, and trust (the full results are available in Supplementary Table 11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18). In all model specifications, people with the highest educational status show significantly higher preventive behaviour in comparison to the lowest educational status group not only in absolute terms but also in relative terms, as a percentage of the average in the population. ...
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Background Educational disparities in health and health behaviours have always been relevant in public health research and are particularly challenging in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. First studies suggest that factors important for the containment of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as prevention behaviour, risk perception, perceived effectiveness of containment measures, and trust in authorities handling the pandemic, vary by educational status. This study builds on recent debate by examining trends in absolute and relative educational disparities in these factors in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. Methods Data stem from four waves of the GESIS Panel surveyed between March and October 2020 in Germany (15,902 observations from 4,690 individuals). Trends in absolute and relative disparities were examined for preventive behaviour, risk perception, perceived effectiveness of COVID-19 containment measures, and trust in individuals and institutions handling the COVID-19 pandemic by educational status using sex, age, residence, nationality, children under 16 living in household, family status, household size, the Big Five Inventory, and income class as control factors. Descriptive statistics as well as unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models and random effects models were performed. Results We observed an initially rising and then falling trend in preventive behaviour with consistent and significant absolute and relative disparities with a lower preventive behaviour among low educated individuals. Indication of a U-shaped trend with consistent significantly lower values among lower educated individuals was found for risk perception, whereas perceived effectiveness and trust decreased significantly over time but did not significantly vary by educational status. Conclusions Results indicate persistent educational disparities in preventive behaviour and risk perception and a general decline in perceived effectiveness and trust in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. To address this overall downward trend and existing disparities, comprehensive and strategic management is needed to communicate the risks of the pandemic and the benefits of COVID-19 containment measures. Both must be adapted to the different needs of educational groups in particular in order to overcome gaps in preventive behaviour and risk perception by educational status.
... The COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to diverse and relatively immediate threats due to the virus (Van Bavel et al., 2020). Although these threats can give rise to behavioural changes and positive adaptation to the situation (e.g., preventive behaviours such as wearing masks and social distancing; Rui et al., 2021;Nisa et al., 2021), they can also have social and emotional costs (Kachanoff et al., 2021;Kulich et al., 2021). Research has shown that perceptions of J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f health-related threats to oneself and one's loved ones could trigger negative emotional experiences (Commodari & Rosa, 2020;Liu et al., 2021). ...
... For many people, it realistically undermines the security of their employment, and more broadly, many societies' economies. The pandemic also poses a cultural threat because it could contribute to social disorder and/or new social regulations (e.g., social distancing, face mask mandates, lockdowns) that change the group's valued norms, ideology, group connections, and way of life (e.g., sense of freedom; Kachanoff et al., 2021;Lalot et al., 2020;Nisa et al., 2021). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic's differential impact on ethnic minorities, immigrants, and Indigenous peoples (e.g., mortality and infection rate, as well as psychological well-being) may exacerbate existing disparities. This study examined some psychological mechanisms that might explain the apparently more negative emotional experiences of ethnic minority Canadians during the pandemic compared with non-immigrant European Canadians (i.e., the majority/mainstream ethno-cultural group). We investigated group differences in negative affect and three possible threat mechanisms (perceived health, material, and cultural threat) for these differences using an online survey completed by a self-selected Canadian sample (N = 1,918). The results suggest that compared to the European Canadians, ethnic minority members, immigrants, and Indigenous peoples have on average perceived higher levels of pandemic threat, which in turn is associated with negative affect. These findings support the hypothesis that the amount of perceived threat perceived by different groups during the pandemic may partially explain reported group differences in well-being.
... Importantly, COVID-19-related worry and protective behaviors are more strongly predicted by perceived COVID-19 threat than actual COVID-19 threat (Schmidt et al., 2021), highlighting the importance of threat appraisals in shaping emotions and behavior during the pandemic. In addition to perceived health-related threats, perceived risk of suffering personal economic losses due to COVID-19 is associated with preventative health behaviors and support for policies to mitigate COVID-19 across the globe (Nisa et al., 2021). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by unprecedented levels of stress and threats in a variety of domains (e.g., health, livelihood). Individual differences in threat reactivity may explain why some individuals are at elevated risk for the development or maintenance of psychopathology during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article describes several prominent models, mechanisms, and components of threat reactivity (e.g., appraisals, intolerance of uncertainty, avoidance) and discusses how they might help improve understanding of changes in psychopathology during and following the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Mula and colleagues [11,12] found that the specific perceived COVID-19 threat was associated with an increased desired tightness in Italy. Nisa and colleagues [28] found, in a worldwide sample, that the more people perceived a personal health risk, the more they supported strict health measures (i.e., support for mandatory coronavirus vaccination and mandatory quarantine). Qin and colleagues [29] found that talking about the COVID-19 crisis (i.e., salient threat) among team members in workgroups was positively associated with team cultural tightness in a Chinese sample. ...
... These results were supported; however, our participants were predominantly younger adults and our moderation by age effect was not present in the subsample that excluded older (60+ years) participants. This research is situated within the literature on the associations of tightness with variables specific to the COVID-19 pandemic [7,11,12,28,29]. Of these studies, only those by Mula and colleagues [11,12] recruited participants from Italy. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic is a health crisis that requires individuals to comply with many health-protective behaviors. Following the previous literature, cultural tightness has been found to be a key mechanism to increase coordination in order to mitigate collective threats (e.g., COVID-19). In this study, we test a moderated mediation model to examine whether the perceived COVID-19 threat could intensify the extent of desired tightness (i.e., a personal desire for cultural tightness), moderated by age. Subsequently, we test whether this could intensify individuals’ emotional reactions to non-compliance with COVID-19 health protective behaviors. The study relies on a cross-sectional design, with a sample of 624 participants residing in central Italy (i.e., Lazio). The data were collected from February to October 2021. Questionnaires contained self-reporting measures of the perceived COVID-19 threat, desired tightness, and personal emotional reactions to non-compliance with COVID-19 preventive measures (e.g., wearing a mask). The results confirm that the perceived COVID-19 threat is associated with an increase in the desire for cultural tightness—and that this relationship was moderated by age—and, consequently, with intolerance for noncompliance with preventive behaviors. Additionally, both direct and indirect effects of the perceived COVID-19 threat on negative emotional reactions to noncompliance were significant; this indirect effect was larger at high (+1 SD) age than at low (−1 SD) age. Overall, this research provides some insight into how people can respond to the current pandemic threat, and how this may have implications for violating rules and regulations to keep contagion under control.
... Received 31 The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the mental health of many people across the globe (Lieberoth et al., 2021;Olashore et al., 2021;Sharma et al., 2021). Among those factors found to be connected to mental health are risks that relate to people's health through COVID-19 infection and to people's economic well-being associated with interventions to mitigate infection (Nisa et al., 2021). A recent meta-analysis indicates that fear of COVID-19 has a detrimental impact on mental health, making people more vulnerable to depression, anxiety, and stress, among others (Şimşir et al., 2021). ...
Article
Objective The study examined the role of fear of COVID-19 and of financial difficulties in the family on the positive (flourishing and satisfaction with life) and negative (depression, anxiety, and stress) dimensions of mental health among a Filipino university student sample during the COVID-19 crisis. Method Using a cross-sectional online survey, data were collected among university undergraduate students (N = 681) from September to October of 2020. The online questionnaire included demographic information, the Fear of COVID-19 scale and measures of positive (SWLS and Flourishing Scale) and negative mental health (DASS-21 Filipino). Results Results of structural equation modelling revealed that fear of COVID-19 infection predicted all three indicators of negative mental health (depression, anxiety, and stress) but not the positive mental health indicators (satisfaction with life and flourishing). Financial difficulties, in contrast, predicted all indicators of positive mental health and negative mental health, except stress. Conclusions While fear of COVID-19 is associated with students’ negative mental health, their financial concerns have a wider ranging association with positive and negative mental health. Mental health services must address the psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on university students, such as the more basic financial difficulties of some students and their families.
... Though different sources of threat certainly lead to different outcomes, a systematic examination of these differential effects is currently lacking in the COVID-19 literature. As an exception, Nisa and colleagues found interactive effects of life threat and livelihood and economic concerns on compliance with COVID-19 mitigation measures (Nisa et al., 2021). Second, only 12 out of 123 records on processes related to intra-and inter-group outcomes (10%) included samples of ethno-racial or immigrant minority members. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic constitutes an unprecedented threat for individuals and societies, revealing stark inequalities in preparedness, exposure, and consequences. The present systematic literature review complements extant knowledge on disasters and pandemic diseases with programmatic research on the COVID-19 pandemic. Building upon an integrative definition of threat, we merge intra-personal threat regulation with group dynamics and inter-group relations. Via streamlined methods of knowledge synthesis, we first map out a broad taxonomy of threats, as appraised by the majority population and ethno-racial and immigrant minorities. Second, we delve into research linking threat appraisals with either conflict or prosociality within and across group boundaries. To conclude, we propose some guidelines for researchers to actively involve ethno-racial and immigrant minorities, and for societies to cope cohesively with the impact of COVID-19.