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Dendra (periféria Peloponnisou / GR), grave 12.-(After Müller-Karpe 1980, pl. 242; Schauer 1982a, 122 fig. 6).

Dendra (periféria Peloponnisou / GR), grave 12.-(After Müller-Karpe 1980, pl. 242; Schauer 1982a, 122 fig. 6).

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European Bronze Age cuirasses. Aspects of chronology, typology, manufacture and usage Bronze Age metal cuirasses are the rarest type of defensive armour in Europe. The total number of 30 cuirasses is, according to their chronology, distribution and decoration, divided into three groups: a Western European, an Eastern Carpathian and a Greek group....

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... armour. The rapid development from the protection of single parts of the body in battle, to a complete protection of the whole body, is demonstrated by the two armaments found in Dendra (Graves 8 and 12). The earliest European metal defensive armour is a bronze protective sheet for the right shoulder, found in Grave 8 at Dendra (LH II; see fig. 20). It is considered to be slightly older than the famous panoply from Grave 12 (Andrikou 2007, 402; Verdelis 1967, 21 f.), which is usually dated to LBII / IIB. The potential frag- ment of a cuirass from Phaistos can be considered contemporary with the Dendra cuirass (Grave 12). The panoplies or cuirasses from Thebes have been dated to ...
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... from Desmontà (prov. Verona / I), Malpensa (prov. Varese / I) or Poljanci I (Brodsko-posavska županija / HR) (Bz D / Ha A1; see Clausing 2002). Similar bird decorations, like those found on the cuirass from Graye-et-Charnay or Véria B, are well-known from the crested helmets from the Cave of Flies in Škocjan (občina Divača / SLO) (Hencken 1971 , fig. 92). Here, the bird heads are also an elongation of the decorative band, without further motifs such as suns, boats, embossed rings (Ringbuckel) or wheels. Nevertheless, the two central birds fac- ing each other have a bigger boss in between them, as can be noted on the bronze bucket from Nyírlugos (Kom. Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg / H) or the ...
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... Kallithea fragments are very similar to these tiara-like helmets, and thus we can exclude their interpretation of cuirass fragments. Four small, rather thin bronze sheets of 0.2 mm thickness, from the deposit of Szentgáloskér (Kom. So- mogy / H) have generally been interpreted as fragments of a cuirass (i. e. Moszolics 1985, 195;Paulík 1968, 50) (fig. 22). On one side, the bigger fragment has a small, thin bronze band, which is decorated along the edge with a row of small, embossed pellets that have been attached onto the main sheet with tiny, delicate, round headed rivets. It is possible to note that on the back of the fragment the bronze band is not rivetted onto the fragment all the ...
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... certain that he had found pure gold (a good indication for the low amount of patina on the bronzes) and sold it to the Historischer Verein für Niederbayern, who finally sold it on to the museum in Landshut. The bronze sheet, which pos- sibly belongs to a cuirass, was folded twice, and unfolded during the restoration process (Weiss 1998, 537 f. fig. 2), during which it broke into three pieces ( fig. 13). The lower end is bent around a bronze wire, which is 3 mm thick and partially heavily notched to prevent a firmer grip. On the right side, a big, convex deco- rative rivet is visible. Above the rivet, two torn-out rivet holes at the same height are visible (probably the residue of ...
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... bands of the front and back is attached to the breast-respectively backplate at the lower end. Every metal sheet has small holes of approx. 2 mm diameter every 2-2.5 cm all along the rim; these were used to attach leather lining, as threads within the holes and remnants of leather inside the breast-and backplates indicate (Verdelis 1967, 8) (fig. 23). The leather lining was bent around the metal edge and fixed on both the outside and the inside. Additionally, the edge of the metal sheets was partly protected by an 8 mm wide metal band, when the edges were not bent outside. The breastplate (41 cm high, 46 cm wide) and the longer backplate (52 cm high, 55 cm wide) are joined together ...
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... 8 mm wide metal band, when the edges were not bent outside. The breastplate (41 cm high, 46 cm wide) and the longer backplate (52 cm high, 55 cm wide) are joined together at the shoulder by a loop rivetted on the breastplate, which passed through a rectangular hole on the backplate and was then fixed in place by passing a nail through the loop ( fig. 25). At the sides, the back- plate overlaps the breastplate by at least 3 cm to ease the fastening. On the left side a metal bar fixed on the backplate, which reaches from the armpits to the pelvis, holds the plates together. It is possible to insert the bar into a range of three rings, which are attached on the breastplate (Verdelis 1967, ...
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... match perfectly on both sides. These would pass through three pairs of holes with diameters of about 4 mm on the lower part of the breast-and backplates on the left, the right and in the middle. In a similar way, the bands are joined together. A remnant of a leather band or strip, which held the bronze sheet bands together is still preserved (fig. 23). The sheet bands measure between 64-76.5 cm × 15-17.3 cm with the wider bands placed towards the bottom of the panoply. The cuirass from the Arsenal at Thebes consists of similar elements as the Dendra panoply (Verdelis 1967, 21 f.), but the breast-and backplate are of equal length. Also, the edges of the corselet, shoul- der guards ...
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... which is also missing. The rivet holes were punched through from the outside to the inside. On the right shoulder, the breastplate has a rectangular hole to allow the wearer to grab the upwards-bent metal sheet, which is attached to the inside of the backplate, with a conical headed rivet. In this way, the two plates could be joined together ( fig. 25). On the right side, a metal sheet was rivetted centrally, at the edge of the breastplate, with two conical headed rivets, one of which is lost today. In the centre of this sheet (in the same manner as the breastplate) a rectangular hole was made. A bronze sheet formed as a loop passed through the hole in order to fix the two halves ...
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... was rivetted centrally, at the edge of the breastplate, with two conical headed rivets, one of which is lost today. In the centre of this sheet (in the same manner as the breastplate) a rectangular hole was made. A bronze sheet formed as a loop passed through the hole in order to fix the two halves together with passing a dowel through the loop (fig. 24). The bronze loop made of a b a bronze sheet band was rivetted onto the backplate with a slightly conical headed rivet. The inside rim at the side and shoulder of the back part was also folded on the right side. There is an additional rivet hole on the breastplate right under the armpit, the function of which is not yet clear; it might ...
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... Čierna nad Tisou was fastened onto the breastplate with four conical headed rivets on the left side. Aside from a few fragments around the rivets, nothing of the breastplate re- mains. We can note one complete lining disc and remnants of other rectangular lining discs attached on the inside of the cuirass, improving the quality of the rivetting (fig. 26). Since no original edge of this exemplar is preserved, it remains unclear if the rim was rolled, bent or reinforced with rivetted metal bands. However, as the cross-section indicates, a rolled rim seems most likely. On the inside of the backplate, hammering traces can be found on the left side and in the centre. Slight vertical ...
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... Tisou and Čaka. The samples were studied with an optical microscope, bright field and dark field, as well as the SEM- EDXS for the elemental analyses. The density of inter-crystalline corrosion products outlined and visualised the matrix clearly, and thus no etching was necessary. The fragment from the cuirass from Čaka was severely corroded ( fig. 27, above). Nevertheless, the alloy composition could be measured by analysing single grains. Due to the cremation process, the fragment of the Čaka cuirass is perfectly homogenised and consists of big grains, which are now mostly completely corroded, or just a small metal core is existent. Thus, the last step of production, whether it was ...
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... nad Tisou was below the solidus curve of the alpha-phase in the equilibrium diagram Cu-Sn, but high enough to homogenise the solid solution. Only a few inclusions of Pb are distributed in the metallic matrix, indicating a mild final deformation of the matrix, which is also evidenced by the presence of slip lines and slightly deformed grains ( fig. 27, below ...
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... of deformation could not be calculated. Six of the cuirasses from Marmesse were sampled, analysed and published by Lehoërff (2008, 95-106 fig. 3, including the location of sampling). The Cu 2-x Fe x S-inclusions are deformed by up to 90 %. The cuirasses from Marmesse that were analysed (86.197, 83.753-54, 83.756-58) contain between 9-10 % tin (Lehoërff 2008, fig. 7). The publication of further analyses on the Marmesse cuirasses as well as the cuirass from Saint-Germain-du-Plain is in preparation by Lehoërff. ...
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... sheets rivetted partly above each other on the outside of the cuirass (Mottier 1988, 127 fig. 21). The cuirass from Graye-et-Charnay or Véria B (former Naples) exhibits damage in the form of a long, thin perforation from the outside (with inward-bent edges), as can be caused by swords, at the lower area of the liver, which was not repaired ( fig. 28). Similar battle traces are also known from shields (cf. Uckelmann 2011, fig. 4). Additionally, there are repairs in the form of rivetted bronze sheets on the right side of chest and neck. On the rivetted rectangular bronze sheet on the right side of the chest, the decoration was ap- plied as it was on the cuirasses from Fillinges. The ...
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... above a rectangular, cut out void in the breastplate. As the cuirasses from Fillinges and the one from Graye-et-Charnay or Véria B, the cuirasses from Marmesse have also been repaired. The most significant repairs are on cuirass inv. no. 32.691, on the left side of the backplate and on the left side of the breastplate of cuirass inv. no. 83.757 ( fig. 28). Steuer assumes without questioning the repairs were made during manufacture and not after combat (Steuer 2001, 337). It seems as if the slightly different decoration on the back of the Marmesse cuirasses was important for identifying the person wearing the cuirass, while the front view provided opponents with a uniform view of the ...

Citations

... Nejnověji jsou na Moravě doloženy již také celobronzové pancíře, a to níže analyzovaným zlomkem z nedávno publikovaného depotu Ivančice 4, objeveného patrně v r. 2006 při amatérském průzkumu na hradisku Réna (Salaš 2016;2018, 60-61, 158-159;Mödlinger 2012 jej chybně uvádí pod lokalitou Brno-Řečkovice). V souvislosti s problematikou pancířů můžeme ještě vzpomenout funkčně poněkud sporný oválný opaskový plech, publikovaný zpravidla pod lokalitou Úvalno, ve skutečnosti však pocházející z hradiska Cvilín na katastru Krnova (Kulka 1886). ...
... Pomineme-li další vzácné nálezy této unikátní zbroje z Řecka a Francie, pak jedinou významnou oblastí výskytu celobronzových pancířů je severozápadní část Karpatské kotliny, kde se nachází těžiště výskytu a produkční centrum tzv. východoalpsko-karpatské skupiny pancířů či pancířů karpatského typu (Mozsolics 1985a, 26-27;Mödlinger 2012;2017, 171-215;Paulík 1970). Typologická klasifikace toreutického fragmentu z Ivančic 4 se opírá především o ramenní obloukovitý výkroj s okrajem stočeným do trubičky a dále paralelní rýhy, které ramenní výkroj lemují (obr. ...
... 2: 1B-D). A fragment of morpho-typologically and decoratively parallel incisions corresponds to the relevant parts of Carpathian-type cuirasses (Mozsolics 1985a, 26-27;Mödlinger 2012;2017, 171-215;Paulík 1970). Also consistent with this is the edge wound in a tube shape in which the bar is hammered. ...
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Celobronzové komponenty ochranné zbroje jsou fenoménem, který se ve středoevropském nálezovém fondu objevuje poprvé počátkem doby popelnicových polí. Na Moravě je dnes tato zbroj doložena kromě dvou částí bronzových přileb (Služín, Brno-Řečkovice) a starším nálezem náholenice (Kuřim) také zlomkem pancíře (Ivančice 4). Pouze u náholenice není znám nálezový kontext, ostatní artefakty pocházejí z depotů a jsou karpatské provenience. Typologicky i kontextem depotů jsou moravské nálezy bronzové zbroje datovány do rozpětí stupňů B D2 – Ha B1. Plech pancíře z depotu Ivančice 4 byl podle materiálové analýzy vyroben z klasického bronzu mechanickým tvářením s následným rekrystalizačním žíháním. V obvodovém lemu ramenního výkroje pancíře byla zakována tyčinka ze slitiny PbSn, která posloužila jako měkký podklad pro vykování ohybu okraje. Olovo bylo sice v době popelnicových polí vzácně již vyráběno a používáno, v technologické aplikaci při výrobě bronzového pancíře je však nálezem v depotu Ivančice 4 takto prokázáno poprvé.
... Diese Form der Verzierung wird gewöhnlich in HaB(1) datiert, was in etwa den Atlantischen Wilburton/ Brécy/Hío Phasen entspricht. Es spricht allerdings einiges dafür, die Herstellung der Panzer in HaA2 vorzudatieren: höhere chronologische Nähe zu den Karpatenpanzern (und somit auch zu dem nahegelegenen Fund von Saint-Germain-du-Plain), den ersten Metallschildfunden und den französischen Beinschienenfunden (etwa von Cannes-Écluse), das erste Auftreten anderer Bronzeblechobjekte wie Kessel in der Atlantischen Bronzezeit (Gerloff 2010), das erste Auftreten der Punkt-Buckel-Zier in HaA2 (Jockenhövel 1974, 39), sowie der rege Handel mit verschiedenen Schwerttypen (Mödlinger 2014a;2017 H e r s t e l l u n g ...
Article
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Die frühesten metallenen Körperschutzwaffen datieren in die erste Hälfte des 15. Jahrhunderts v. Chr., wobei der Großteil der bronzezeitlichen Schutzwaffen jedoch aus der Spätbronzezeit (ca. 1200−950 v. Chr.) stammt. Heute sind rund 30 Panzer, 75 Beinschienen und 120 Helme bekannt. Diese stammen aus ganz Europa: von Spanien im Westen bis Zypern im Osten, und von Sizilien im Süden bis Dänemark im Norden. Lag der Schwerpunkt bei der Erforschung bronzezeitlicher metallener Körperschutzwaffen bisher auf typologisch-chronologischen Aspekten der einzelnen Schutzwaffengruppen, wird im Folgenden auch auf die Herstellung derselben, sowie technologische Beobachtungen und Materialanalysen eingegangen. Durch die Analyse vor allem der ost- und zentraleuropäischen Funde vor Ort konnten darüber hinaus auch Gebrauchsspuren dokumentiert und die tatsächliche Verwendung der Helme, Panzer und Beinschienen als effektive Schutzwaffen rekonstruiert werden.
... In Greece, several greaves, a few cuirasses and some helmets have been brought to light, but most likely no functional metal shields (except for the Delphi shield: Molloy in press). In the central Alpine region, helmets, a small number of greaves and, most recently, a miniature cuirass have been found (Mödlinger 2014a). Only in the Carpathian Basin are all four major categories of defensive armour known, with overlapping distribution ranges. ...
... Greek cuirasses are documented from graves (i.e. Dendra and a recently excavated burial from Pylos) as well as settlements (Thebes) (Mödlinger 2014a). Depictions of cuirasses are also known from Linear B tablets, whilst a stone vase from Crete resembles a cuirass in its shape. ...
... These are traditionally attributed to the Ha B1 period, which roughly corresponds to the Atlantic Wilburton/Brécy/Hío phases. However, a recent proposal suggests backdating them to Ha A2, as this is the period in which the east-west trade of weapons and sheet metalwork (including cauldrons and shields) reaches its peak (Mödlinger 2014a(Mödlinger , 2017. ...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of all classes of metal body armour from the European Bronze Age based on an interdisciplinary approach combining traditional typo-chronologies with aspects of manufacture and use revealed by scientific analysis. The earliest known specimen of metal body armour from Dendra, Greece, dates to the first half of the fifteenth century BC. However, most pieces of armour, including about 120 helmets, 30 cuirasses and 75 greaves, are to be assigned to the Late Bronze Age, c. 1200–950 BC. Metal body armour has been found in most of Europe, from Iberia in the west to Cyprus in the east and from Sicily in the south to Sweden in the north; comparable specimens are also known from the Near East. The chapter provides new insights into the manufacturing methods and uses of Bronze Age body armour by means of metallurgical analysis, use-wear analysis and a reappraisal of find contexts and chronologies. The study is grounded in the author’s original documentation and analysis of all accessible helmets, greaves and cuirasses from Eastern Europe and is further augmented by several specimens from Western Europe. This is all the more valuable considering that the sample includes finds from auction houses and private collections, which had never been examined prior to this research.
... Cahill's (2005) innovative study of contemporary gold gorgets suggests that body armour may have been known to the metalsmiths of Ireland. The very few suits of armour known from Bronze Age Europe (Mödlinger, 2013;Molloy, 2013) represent a mature smithing tradition, indicating that a great many more than have survived were once in circulation. It is, therefore, reasonable to argue that armour could have been known in Ireland, but that is all. ...
Article
Warfare is increasingly considered to have been a major field of social activity in prehistoric societies, in terms of the infrastructures supporting its conduct, the effects of its occurrence, and its role in symbolic systems. In the Bronze Age many of the weapon forms that were to dominate battlefields for millennia to come were first invented—shields and swords in particular. Using the case study of Ireland, developments in Bronze Age warfare are traced from the Early to the Late Bronze Age. It is argued that during this period there was a move from warfare that made use of projectiles and impact weapons to warfare that used both defensive and cutting weapons. This formed the basis for a fundamental reorganization in combat systems. This in turn stimulated change in the social organization of warfare, including investment in material and training resources for warriors and the development of new bodily techniques reflecting fundamental changes in martial art traditions. Metalwork analysis of bronze weapons and experimental archaeology using replicas of these are used to support this position. The article explores how developments in fighting techniques transformed the sociality of violence and peer-relations among warriors and proposes that these warriors be regarded as a category of craft specialist exerting significant social influence by the Late Bronze Age.
... Véase por ejemplo, para la Edad de Bronce, una primera aproximación enKristiansen, 2002 y para estudios más específicosMolloy, 2008Molloy, , 2009Molloy, y 2011Mödlinger, 2010Mödlinger, , 2012 y 2013 o Gener, en prensa. Para la Edad del Hierro en el contexto peninsular, véase Quesada 2014; Gener y Montero, en prensa. ...
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Presentamos un estudio metalúrgico de las armas de época ibérica documentadas en el valle de altura de Jutia (Nerpio-Yeste, Albacete) integrado en el análisis de su contexto arqueológico y en nuestra investigación en curso de las formas de organización de los paisajes de montaña durante la Edad del Hierro. Los resultados obtenidos son especialmente válidos en el caso de un soliferreum, cuyo análisis metalográfico nos permite caracterizar la tecnología del proceso de producción, y en el de una moharra de lanza, cuyo análisis plantea argumentos sobre la compleja vida social y las acciones sociales diversas que potencialmente contienen los objetos depositados en contextos rituales y funerarios.
Chapter
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The Cambridge World History of Violence - edited by Garrett G. Fagan March 2020
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the concept of value and its relationship to Bronze Age warfare and violence using the example of cuirasses discovered in armour hoards from French contexts. Cuirasses and hoards of cuirasses are the illustration of a formalised three-part relationship between bronzesmiths, combatants and commissioners in a society that recognised knowledge and resources and promoted sufficient investment in time to manufacture these ‘high-tech’ functional pieces of armour. The cuirasses were made by highly skilled craftspeople and took over 150 h to complete from casting to finishing, using 3–4 kg of raw metal. Their study sheds light on the technological choices made by the bronzesmiths as well as the individual and socially sanctioned creativity observed in the chaîne opératoire of their production. The cuirasses were not only used in combat, as can be seen from the repairs observed on the Marmesse specimens, but were also employed in ritualised depositional practices. They illustrate the link between high-end technological craftwork and the notion of value in a society that significantly invested on warfare and its social representation.