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Demographic information for incarcerated females.

Demographic information for incarcerated females.

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Psychopathy is an essential construct in forensic mental health. While male psychopathy and aggression has been thoroughly studied, less is known about this relationship with female psychopathy. In this article, the relationship between female psychopathy (Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [PCL-R] total, factor, and facet scores) and the Rorschach Aggr...

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... did not receive any monetary incentives and participation did not affect their sentence or institutional adjustment. On average, the sample was white, with average IQ, and in their mid-thirties (see Table 1). ...

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... Also, women with higher levels of psychopathy exhibited more aggressive behavior than those with lower levels of psychopathy. Specifically, as psychopathy increased, women tended to exhibit more ego-syntonic aggression and identification with victimizers (Smith et al., 2020). ...
... found that the lifestyle and affective facets were associated with reactive aggression, and the interpersonal, affective, and antisocial facets were associated with proactive aggression. Furthermore, a study that sought to understand the relationship between traits of psychopathy in women and aggression also found correlations between factor 1 (interpersonal/affective), as well as facet 1 (interpersonal), facet 2 (affective), and facet 4 (antisocial) and the aggressive content response, meaning an identification with aggressive behavior (Smith et al., 2020). ...
Article
Several studies found that psychopathy is an important predictor of general reoffending/recidivism. However, these conclusions are often based on male samples. This study analyzes the association between psychopathic traits and the four facets of psychopathy (i.e., interpersonal, affective, lifestyle , antisocial) and general reoffending among incarcerated women. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) was applied to a sample of 63 incarcerated women from Portugal who were retrospectively classified as committed repeated versus first-time offenses. Two separate binary logistic regression analyses were conducted, controlling for age and criminal variables. PCL-R total scores did not postdict reoffending, but sentence length did. As for the four facets, only PCL-R antisocial facet postdicted reoffend-ing. Sentence length was also negatively associated with reoffending. Despite the relationship between PCL-R antisocial facet and general reof-fending, results raise some questions regarding the applicability of psych-opathy construct in the prediction of reoffending among women. KEYWORDS
... Rorschach imagery has effectively aided in mapping the vicissitudes and role of aggression in borderline, narcissistic, antisocial, and psychopathic personalities (Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Huprich, 2006;Nørbech et al., 2018;Smith et al., 2020a). Response patterns highlighted an egodystonic (unacceptable to the person, causing internal stress) relationship to aggression for borderline personality disordered individuals, and an ego-syntonic (acceptable to the person, does not cause internal stress) one for antisocial and psychopathic individuals (Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Gacono et al., 2008;Meloy & Gacono, 1992;Smith et al., 2020a). ...
... Rorschach imagery has effectively aided in mapping the vicissitudes and role of aggression in borderline, narcissistic, antisocial, and psychopathic personalities (Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Huprich, 2006;Nørbech et al., 2018;Smith et al., 2020a). Response patterns highlighted an egodystonic (unacceptable to the person, causing internal stress) relationship to aggression for borderline personality disordered individuals, and an ego-syntonic (acceptable to the person, does not cause internal stress) one for antisocial and psychopathic individuals (Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Gacono et al., 2008;Meloy & Gacono, 1992;Smith et al., 2020a). Borderline individuals tended to be distressed by their aggression while antisocial ones, particularly those suffering from primary psychopathy, gained relief by acting on their aggression and experienced distress when they are forced to contain it (Gacono & Meloy, 1994). ...
... Largely in response to the failure of AG to capture the aggressive imagery produced by antisocial and psychopathic prisoners, and based on the research observations of Gacono (1988) and Heaven (1989), four Rorschach aggressive scores were developed which have been found to be scored reliably (Extended Aggression Scores; Baity et al., 2000;Gacono, 1988Gacono, , 1990Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Meloy & Gacono, 1992;Gacono et al., 2008;Mihura et al., 2003;Smith et al., 2020a): (1) Aggressive Content (AgC), (2) Aggressive Potential (AgPot), (3) Aggressive Past (AgPast), and (4) Sado-Masochism (SM). ...
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Managing the incarcerated population is the primary task within correctional settings. Using psychological assessment to predict institutional behavior, the psychologist has a unique set of skills essential to the management of prisoners. PCL-R, PAI, and Rorschach data were compared with institutional infractions (total, physical, verbal, non-aggressive) among 126 incarcerated women. Multiple binary logistic regression analyses were used which found significant correlations between PCL-R total score, PAI scales (BOR, ANT, VPI), and Rorschach variables (ROD, EGOI, TCI, AgPot, AgPast, SumV, SumC’, MOR) with total, verbal, physical, and nonviolent incident reports. Each of these measures adds incrementally to the assessment and understanding of institutional misbehavior for incarcerated women. Clinical implications of the findings were presented.
... However, many studies report findings for mixed-gender samples without taking account of possible gender differences in the relationships between psychopathy and aggression (Donnellan & Burt, 2016;Fernandez et al., 2019). Where gender-specific analyses for aggressive behaviour have been undertaken, they suggest that men are more physically aggressive while women are more socially and verbally aggressive (Smith et al., 2020;Wynn et al., 2012). As this research area has received relatively little attention, the associations between the septarchic model of psychopathy and its behavioural correlates should be explored, alongside investigating whether gender differences exist in these associations. ...
Article
Previous research has established relationships between the triarchic model of psychopathy, defined by the TriPM, and aggression. However, recent research has suggested that the TriPM may be better conceptualised as having seven factors (the septarchic model). In a community sample (N = 404), we analysed measures of aggression and rule-breaking against the TriPM at the three-factor and seven-factor levels, differentiating by gender. Consistent with the septarchic conceptualisation, some factors under each of the three TriPM domains showed different relationships to aggression. For instance, the septarchic subscale of ‘Enjoy Hurting’ associated with all measures of aggression while ‘Callous’ had no or weak relationships. The ‘Antisocial’ scale was associated with proactive aggression (but not reactive aggression) while the ‘Impulsive’ scale showed the opposite pattern. Few gender differences emerged in the relationships between psychopathy and gender. Overall, the septarchic model revealed relationships between psychopathy and aggression that are not apparent from the triarchic model and thus, may allow a more refined picture of aggression and psychopathy.
... While male and female psychopaths evidence increased amounts of behavioral problems when compared to non-psychopaths, the extant research indicates that they are not dynamically equivalent (Cunliffe & Gacono, 2005;Forouzan & Cooke, 2005;Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Pauli et al., 2018;Smith et al., , 2019Smith et al., , 2020aSmith et al., , 2021. In line with David Shapiro's (1965) personality styles, the personality functioning of the psychopathic male is best understood as a form of pathological narcissism (malignant narcissism; Gacono & Meloy, Commentary: A Psychodynamic Model of Psychopathy, Using Gullhaugen et al. (2021) Kernberg, 1967Kernberg, , 1975Kernberg, , 1976Meloy, 1988); while the psychopathic female displays a form of malignant hysteria 2 (Cunliffe et al., 2016;Forouzan & Cooke, 2005;Gacono, 2016;Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Smith et al., 2014. ...
... We found the findings supported both the characterological issues related to psychopathy (narcissism, hysteria, paranoia; Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Smith et al., 2021) and the presence of a borderline level of personality functioning among psychopathic characters (Gacono, 1990;Gacono & Meloy, 1988, 1994Kernberg, 1967Kernberg, , 1975Kernberg, , 1976Kernberg, , 1984Meloy, 1988). The findings also provided additional support for gender differences within psychopathy that we have discussed here (Cunliffe & Gacono, 2005;Forouzan & Cooke, 2005;Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Pauli et al., 2018;Smith et al., , 2019Smith et al., , 2020aSmith et al., , 2021. ...
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Recently in Psychoanalytic Psychology, Gullhaugen et al. (2021) proposed a Dynamic Model of Psychopathy (DMP) to better understand psychopathic traits. Several issues with the authors' methodology, including the use of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) as an independent measure and a small sample size (N = 16) relative to their conceptual approach and the number of statistical analyses conducted, limit the conclusions that can be drawn from their data. Additionally, the authors discuss their findings as if the data from this study with all males could apply to women. In this article, we use the methodological issues presented in the Gullhaugen study to discuss problems with the broader psychopathy literature. We also provide a psychodynamic model of psychopathy consistent with theory and empirical data.
... While male and female psychopaths evidence increased amounts of behavioral problems when compared to non-psychopaths, the extant research indicates that they are not dynamically equivalent (Cunliffe & Gacono, 2005;Forouzan & Cooke, 2005;Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Pauli et al., 2018;Smith et al., , 2019Smith et al., , 2020aSmith et al., , 2021. In line with David Shapiro's (1965) personality styles, the personality functioning of the psychopathic male is best understood as a form of pathological narcissism (malignant narcissism; Gacono & Meloy, Commentary: A Psychodynamic Model of Psychopathy, Using Gullhaugen et al. (2021) Kernberg, 1967Kernberg, , 1975Kernberg, , 1976Meloy, 1988); while the psychopathic female displays a form of malignant hysteria 2 (Cunliffe et al., 2016;Forouzan & Cooke, 2005;Gacono, 2016;Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Smith et al., 2014. ...
... We found the findings supported both the characterological issues related to psychopathy (narcissism, hysteria, paranoia; Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Smith et al., 2021) and the presence of a borderline level of personality functioning among psychopathic characters (Gacono, 1990;Gacono & Meloy, 1988, 1994Kernberg, 1967Kernberg, , 1975Kernberg, , 1976Kernberg, , 1984Meloy, 1988). The findings also provided additional support for gender differences within psychopathy that we have discussed here (Cunliffe & Gacono, 2005;Forouzan & Cooke, 2005;Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Pauli et al., 2018;Smith et al., , 2019Smith et al., , 2020aSmith et al., , 2021. ...
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Erratum--please note on page 116, the total score of 34 should be 37. Also, the text should read "might receive" instead of receive, accounting for the potential individual items scoring.
... No differences were found for AG. The authors speculate that the female psychopathic offender identifies both with the victim (AgPast) as well as the aggressor (AgPot), and aggressive behavior (AgC; Smith, Gacono, & Cunliffe, 2020). In another study, Smith et al. (2018) compared female (n = 46) and male (n = 44) psychopathic offenders on a selected set of Rorschach CS variables. ...
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Over the years, a significant number of Rorschach studies have been conducted with forensic adult and adolescent samples, partly motivated by the use of the test in forensic psychological evaluations. Could the Rorschach, as a performance-based personality assessment tool, provide unique information that is not as vulnerable to distortion on the part of the examinee as self-report measures are? This article provides a review of Rorschach studies on relevant Rorschach variables, including those with different forensic samples. Empirical findings are mixed; there is not a one-on-one relationship between certain Rorschach variables and forensically relevant traits, such as psychopathy or hostility. This does not mean the Rorschach cannot provide useful information in answering psychological questions before the court. A case illustration of a male college student, who committed a (first) violent offense, illustrates the unique contribution of the Rorschach for understanding the psychological dynamics behind a violent act that was seemingly out of character.
... Perhaps, these scores in higher functioning, neurotically oriented, non-patients relate to internal processes of trauma or ego-dystonic aggression (AG), resting on higher level defenses such as repression. Within the psychopathic women, where splitting predominates along with borderline and/or psychotic personality levels, the TCI/CritCont% scores suggest dissociation and traumatic intrusions coupled with a damaged sense of self (MOR tied to an AgPast score [victim of aggression, aggress because of these feelings; Smith et al., 2020a]). The score may also suggest how these women process their trauma and internalize (non-patients) or act out (antisocial women) their emotions (also Fi/Ex scores). ...
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The histories of incarcerated women exhibit a multitude of personality issues including psychopathy, trauma, and interpersonal dependency. Two studies were undertaken to better understand these issues with psychopathic (PCL-R ≥ 30; N = 115) and non-psychopathic (PCL-R ≤ 24; N = 53) women incarcerated for drug, theft, fraud, violence, and sex offenses. In the first study, trauma symptoms were compared on Rorschach variables, TSI-2, and PAI scales. The female psychopathic group experienced more problems related to intrusive experiences and dissociation (TSI-2, Rorschach). In the second study, interpersonal dependency was also examined with the PAI, TSI-2, and Rorschach. The psychopathic females had higher rates of interpersonal dependency (PAI, Rorschach). Based on our findings we discuss the relationship between trauma and interpersonal dependency and the meaning of these testing variables and concepts within the personality functioning of these antisocial women.
Article
Citation: Entezari S, Taher M, Aghaei H. The comparison of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy and metacognitive therapy on depression, suicide ideation, and masochistic aggression in individuals with subclinical symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Background and Purpose: The most common comorbid disorder with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is depression. Masochistic aggression and suicide are the main concerns about individuals with BDD who suffer from depression and have impaired function. Present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and metacognitive therapy (MCT) on depression, suicide ideation, and masochistic aggression among individuals with subclinical symptoms of BDD. Method: This study was a quasi-experimental study with a control group pretest-posttest design. The sample included 51 girls with subclinical symptoms of BDD who had been selected with purposive sampling from a public secondary school in Tehran in the academic year 2018-2019. After being evaluated and giving the informed consent, the participants were randomly assigned to one of the two experimental groups of CBT and MCT or waiting list. The participants completed the Body Image Concern Inventory (Littleton, 2005), Beck Depression Inventory-II (Beck et al., 1996), Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (Beck et al., 1979), and masochistic aggression subscale of Aggression Styles Inventory (Alavizadeh & et al., 2016) at the pre-test, post-test and 3 months follow-up stages. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA in SPSS-26. Results: Results showed that although CBT and MCT were effective in alleviating the symptoms of depression (p<0.01), suicide ideation (p<0.01) and masochistic aggression (P<0.05), CBT was more effective in decreasing depression (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between CBT and MCT in terms of their effect on suicide ideation and masochistic aggression (P<0.05). Conclusion: According to these findings, it can be concluded that CBT and MCT are effective in alleviating the mood-related symptoms in individuals with subclinical symptoms of BDD. Furthermore, the behavioral activation session can be the reason of the higher effectiveness of CBT.
Chapter
s Psychopathy is an important construct for research and applied usage in forensic context. Rigorous assessment with suitable instruments is imperative for the evolution of research on etiology, risk assessment, prevention, and intervention. Since the construction of the Hare Psychopathic Scale and consequently revised versions, that are consider a reference, there has been an exponential growth in the study of psychopathy and its evaluation instruments. This chapter focus in the psychometric qualities of several instruments that assess the psychopathy and antisocial behavior.