TABLE 2 - uploaded by Noha Daher
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Demographic Questionnaire Please use an X to select your answers where indicated. 

Demographic Questionnaire Please use an X to select your answers where indicated. 

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The purpose of this study was to explore factors associated with the current gender gap in the Physician Assistant (PA) profession. Sixty-six physician assistant students from three physician assistant programs in southern California. We enrolled a focus group at each school. We used four open-ended questions to explore the participants' reasons fo...

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Context 1
... compiled a list of items to explore, and developed questions from this list. The latter was a self-administered demo- graphic questionnaire that collected information on gender, race, age, marital status and offspring (see Table 2). ...

Citations

... 12,13 However, as with all innovative strategies, challenges exist about the clarity of the scope of practice, defi ning roles, funding for implementation, availability of posts, competency, and job title issues. 8,14,15 Hence, studies pertaining to the acceptance of the new cadre in the clinical environment have been conducted. Findings indicate clinical associates are competent at performing their designated role, contribute to task sharing, and are making a contribution to the work of the healthcare team. ...
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Objective: To determine the opinions of supervising physicians about the introduction of clinical associates at South African district hospitals in 2012. Methods: Twenty-four healthcare professionals in Gauteng and North West provinces were selected to participate in cross-sectional qualitative interviews exploring their opinions on the clinical practice of clinical associates, the effect of the new cadre, their achievements, and the concerns of the supervisors. The inductive content analysis process generated several themes. Results: Three positive themes related to clinical associate practice were identified: professionalism, skill level, and efficiencies in patient management. Themes of concern included overtime and calls, writing prescriptions, and supervision. Conclusions: Interview results highlighted acceptance and appreciation for the introduction of clinical associates. Baseline opinions enhanced curriculum development and will inform further research on the effect of clinical associates on healthcare delivery in South Africa.
... The high rating of all career motivational factors listed in the beginning, are consistent with workforce research on PAs in the USA. Studies found that PAs are largely motivated to choose a certain specialty based on feelings of self-worth, challenge, and intellectual fulfillment as well as an opportunity for higher wages and professional advancement [16][17][18][19]. ...
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Background A new role of Physician Assistant (PA) was introduced into Emergency Departments (ED) in Israel in 2016, as part of a larger effort to improve the quality of service in the EDs. When the new role was introduced, there was a fair amount of uncertainty about whether it would succeed, in light of ambivalence on the part of many ED nurses, and lack of clarity among ED directors about the necessity of a PA role, and about the extent to which PAs would be allowed to take on professionally meaningful tasks. The first class to train PAs was run by the Ministry Of Health between May 2016 and August 2017, with 34 PA trainees participating. 17 out of 24 EDs across Israel partook in the integration of the new PAs. This study assessed how this initial phase of integration is proceeding, from the perspective of the PA trainees themselves. Methods New PA trainees were surveyed at the beginning and end of their training. Likert scale responses were collected (using a scale of 1 to 6). Respondents were asked about difficulties in their previous profession, their motives for choosing the PA profession and their expectations for the new position. The follow-up survey included additional questions about their clinical activities. Descriptive and correlational statistics were performed. Results In the first survey, PA trainees reported that their main difficulties as paramedics were lack of options for professional advancement and burnout. New PA trainees had initially very high expectations for professional challenge, professional status upgrade, personal fulfillment, career prospects and an increase in wages (average mean score 5.7). In the follow-up survey there was a large drop in all of their ratings (average mean score 3.8). In the second survey, PA trainees reported spending the majority of their time evaluating, diagnosing and managing patients as opposed to preforming clinical procedures, such as inserting an IV, administrating medicine or applying casts. Despite their decreased expectations, they still felt that they were intellectually stimulated (5.3 average), given high levels of responsibility (4.8 average), and making significant contributions to the healthcare team and patients (average score of 5.5). All of the above were correlated with overall satisfaction. The main difficulties they reported were related to limited authority and further career advancement. Conclusions The new Israeli PA role has officially been launched in emergency medicine. The first group of PA trainees report a positive, productive integration, and overall satisfaction levels with their new career are high. However, the PA trainees reported having experienced some difficulties along the way, and there was a large decrease in their overall expectations from the new position during their first year on the job. Since the subject of limited authority was found to be a substantial difficulty for the new PA trainees, the Ministry of Health should explore this issue and create a uniform policy on it.
... This participant pool was considered to be potentially vulnerable to fatigue given that perceived stress is common among individuals pursuing graduate education in health professions, including occupational therapy, physical therapy, and physician assistant students [56][57][58][59]. The need to master an ever-increasing body of knowledge represents a challenge that students often struggle to meet. ...
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Background: Studies examining energy and fatigue as a bipolar mood have focused on a single variable, usually fatigue, when studying these moods. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify factors predicting feelings of energy and fatigue separately while simultaneously examining multiple domains related to these mood states in graduate health sciences students. Method: Seventy-seven participants were recruited from a Physician Assistant, Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy program at a small school in Northern New York. Participants completed a series of surveys to measure mood, diet, mental work load intensity on school days and non-school days, and physical activity. Participants also completed the Trail-making Test Part B task on an iPad and their Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) and muscle oxygen consumption mVO2 was measured. A backwards linear regression was used to determine the relationship between energy, fatigue and multiple variables. Results: The predictor variables accounted for 46.1% and 22.7% of the variance in fatigue and energy, respectively. More fatigue was associated with worse sleep quality, more time spent sitting and higher perceived intensity of mental workload on non-school days. More energy was associated with better sleep quality, higher muscle oxygen saturation, lower RMR, and faster psychomotor performance. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that energy and fatigue are separate, yet overlapping constructs that are predicted with different accuracy by different variables. Our results indicate that small lifestyle changes may be necessary to improve feelings of fatigue but comprehensive interventions may be necessary to improve feelings of energy and fatigue.