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Demographic Data

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Article
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In this study, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), the Rorschach, and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) were used to elucidate the personality functioning of incarcerated females with sex offenses against minors (FSOAM; N = 31). There was significant convergence among the PCL-R, PAI, and Rorschach data. Both the PAI and Rorschach su...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... males (MSOAM; N = 36; see Table 1) were white (100%). The average age was 40.4 (range = 24-70) and the average education level was 13.7 years 2 . ...
Context 2
... = 80-116). Unlike the males, PCL-R scores were highly elevated (see Table 1). Eighteen (58.1%) had a PCL-R total score ≥ 30, seven produced a score of 24-29, and five scored ≤ 24. ...
Context 3
... than four in five victims were female (26; 83.9%) and just over half were a family member (16; 51.6%). Most had only one victim (18; 58.1%) and they tended to co-offend with a male (22; 71%). 2 Due to the nature of the archival records, not all demographic data was available (see Table 1). *Note. ...

Citations

... This may be an artifact related to the PCL-R being normed on males and using male pronouns throughout the PCL-R manual (Hare, 2003). confident, forceful) scales (Conn et al., 2010;Edens et al., 2000;Kimonis et al., 2010;Salekin et al., 1997Salekin et al., , 1998Smith, Gacono, Kivisto, et al., 2019;Smith et al., 2020bSmith et al., , 2021 and female inmates scoring higher on the AGG, VPI, and ANT scales had more violent and nonviolent incident reports . This suggested that those women who have institutional misconduct had more aggressive and antisocial attitudes, hostility, and stimulus-seeking behaviors. ...
Article
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Managing the incarcerated population is the primary task within correctional settings. Using psychological assessment to predict institutional behavior, the psychologist has a unique set of skills essential to the management of prisoners. PCL-R, PAI, and Rorschach data were compared with institutional infractions (total, physical, verbal, non-aggressive) among 126 incarcerated women. Multiple binary logistic regression analyses were used which found significant correlations between PCL-R total score, PAI scales (BOR, ANT, VPI), and Rorschach variables (ROD, EGOI, TCI, AgPot, AgPast, SumV, SumC’, MOR) with total, verbal, physical, and nonviolent incident reports. Each of these measures adds incrementally to the assessment and understanding of institutional misbehavior for incarcerated women. Clinical implications of the findings were presented.
... Most recently, the literature involving the PAI with offenders has been focusing on using it to identify interpersonal characteristics and antecedents to treatment success with sex offenders (Pappas, 2021;Parker, Mulay, & Gottfried, 2020), predictors of treatment success and classification of juvenile offenders (Charles, Floyd, Bulla, Barry, & Anestis, 2021;Humenik, Sherrill, Kantor, & Dolan, 2019), and to better understand and treat female offenders (Cunliffe, 2019;Miller & Marshall, 2019). ...
Article
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Domestic Violence programs are often mandated to treat perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV), yet ways to improve the effectiveness of these programs are needed. One possibility is to provide a more comprehensive assessment and screening so that group facilitators can be better prepared to serve their clientele from the very beginning of treatment. To that end, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was administered to 154 IPV perpetrators as part of pre-treatment assessment for group treatment programs. After the treatment groups were finished, Interviews were conducted with group facilitators to determine if the facilitators of groups for men who engage in IPV perceived the PAI as an effective pre-treatment assessment tool. The majority of the program facilitators believed the PAI to be a useful tool and discussed various ways they were able to use the results in a positive manner. Those who did not find it useful were likely not to take the time to use the PAI at all, indicating there was not enough time because of the arduous nature of the job. The PAI protocols collected from program participants are also presented and compared to those currently published in the literature for this population. PAI profiles for this group differed from the comparison groups in two ways. Within the clinical scales, this group scored higher than the community norms and the published norms for men engaging in IPV on negative relations, antisocial behaviors and alcohol problems. On the validity scales, they had a significantly higher number of invalid profiles, mainly due to higher levels of positive impression management.
... It may also relate to an active dependent style where needs are satisfied impulsively through the need of approval as well as serving additional intrapsychic regulatory functions (Cunliffe et al., 2016;Gacono & Meloy, 1994;Millon & Davis, 1996;Smith et al., 2014;. Both female sexual offenders and female psychopaths tend to produce high ROD scores suggesting that they display a reliance on others but not a true dependency (Nørbech et al., 2018;Smith et al., 2019;. ...
Article
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The histories of incarcerated women exhibit a multitude of personality issues including psychopathy, trauma, and interpersonal dependency. Two studies were undertaken to better understand these issues with psychopathic (PCL-R ≥ 30; N = 115) and non-psychopathic (PCL-R ≤ 24; N = 53) women incarcerated for drug, theft, fraud, violence, and sex offenses. In the first study, trauma symptoms were compared on Rorschach variables, TSI-2, and PAI scales. The female psychopathic group experienced more problems related to intrusive experiences and dissociation (TSI-2, Rorschach). In the second study, interpersonal dependency was also examined with the PAI, TSI-2, and Rorschach. The psychopathic females had higher rates of interpersonal dependency (PAI, Rorschach). Based on our findings we discuss the relationship between trauma and interpersonal dependency and the meaning of these testing variables and concepts within the personality functioning of these antisocial women.
... While the number of incarcerated prisoners has declined, the percentage of female offenders has increased slightly (Carson, 2018;Green et al., 2016). Female offenders have exhibited higher rates of psychopathology (including mood and anxiety disorders), trauma, and borderline personality disorders than male offenders (Bronson & Berzofsky, 2017;Fazel, Hayes, Bartellas, Clerici, & Trestman, 2016;Smith, Gacono, Kivisto, & Cunliffe, 2019). ...
... Examining the PAI BOR scales, BOR-A examines affective instability and heightened emotionality which has been described as a differentiating factor between male and female offenders/psychopaths (Cunliffe & Gacono, 2005Cunliffe et al., 2016;Gacono, 2016;Gacono & Meloy, 1994;. This leads the female offender to be prone to dissociation, avoidance, and traumatic intrusions and the emotionality may be the driving force of symptom presentation and antisocial behavior (Smith, Gacono, Kivisto et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Based on findings from prior research studies, trauma histories have been found to be ubiquitous in psychopathic women. In this study, the Rorschach Trauma Content Index (TCI) was used to better understand the trauma histories of incarcerated women (N = 180). The TCI was significantly correlated with total reported trauma events, reported sexual abuse, other Rorschach scores (AgPast, ROD), and scales on both the Personality Assessment Inventory and the Trauma Symptom Inventory-2. The TCI may be related more to sexual abuse than physical abuse and the traumatic intrusions appear to be related to borderline features and dependency in this sample. These results suggest that the TCI facilitates our understanding of trauma in the lives of incarcerated women.
... The PCL-R, when properly administered and scored, is a valuable tool since items and scores are linked to real world behavior, which cannot be said for self-report measures (i.e., PAI). Though, others have argued that the Rorschach and PAI have convergent validity (Hopwood & Evans, 2017;Morey & McCredie, 2019;Smith, Gacono, Kivisto, & Cunliffe, 2019), meta-analytic findings have found externally assessed criteria rather than introspectively assessed criteria are better at validating Rorschach indices (Mihura et al., 2013). This may explain the lack of significant correlations between the EGOI, reflections, pairs and the PAI scales of MAN-G and ANT-E. ...
... This finding is related to the regulatory aspects of self-worth within the psychopathic female rather than non-psychopaths, and as Exner (1974) postulated, it was a more controlled or subtle form of reflections. The pair response may be tied to twinship and masochism and linked to Obsessive Compulsive PD (Gacono et al., 1990;Kohut, 1971;Smith et al., 2019). For example, OCPD may be related to the pair response as both need to focus on two, keep things balanced and a more ruminative self-critical style (also SumV). ...
Article
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The Rorschach Comprehensive System Egocentricity Index (EGOI) and its component variables have been useful in understanding antisocial and psychopathic individuals (Gacono & Meloy, 1994; Gacono, Meloy, & Heaven, 1990). In this study, the EGOI, Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) were used with a sample of incarcerated women. The EGOI, Fr + rF, and pairs were examined in relation to PCL-R Items 1 (Glibness/Superficial Charm) and 2 (Grandiose Sense of Self-Worth), PCL-R Factor 1, PCL-R facet 1, and the PAI MAN-G and ANT-E scales. The EGOI and reflections were significantly correlated with PCL-R Item 1 and a combination of PCL-R Items 1 and 2. Unlike highly narcissistic male offenders where grandiosity elevates reflections and EGOI, female psychopaths (PCL-R total score ≥ 30; N = 85) and non-psychopathic females (PCL-R total score ≤ 24; N = 40), did not demonstrate a significant difference for their mean EGOI; however, female psychopaths were more likely to produce protocols with a high EGOI (≥ 0.44) with and without reflections and they had more pairs (a finding consistent with conceptual differences between male and female psychopaths). The utility of the EGOI with incarcerated women is discussed.
Chapter
Long before psychology, bias has existed in science. From the beginning, concerns have been raised about the reliability, validity, and accuracy of social science research (Meehl, 1954). In this chapter, we define and discuss the origins of bias and how it can erode the scientific method. We focus specifically on bias in psychological research, theory, assessment, and treatment. We discuss the range of common misconceptions and misinformation that permeates the female offender literature. Finally, we conclude with ten myths about female offenders and offer guidelines for identifying bias and how to avoid it.
Chapter
Despite the perception that women do not commit sexual offenses, female offenders engage in sexual homicide, sexually assault their students or their own children, and, at times, work with co-perpetrators to sexually aggress against their victims. Few studies have used psychological tests to psychometrically map the personality of female sexual offenders. In this chapter, we use the PCL-R, PAI, and Rorschach in studying a sample of female sexual offenders with offenses against minors (N = 39). These women evidenced (1) borderline reality testing, defenses, & thinking; (2) a damaged sense of self (entitlement & victim stance); (3) abnormal bonding and pseudo-dependency (maladaptive neediness); (4) affective instability; (5) impulsivity; and (6) chronic anger couched within a malignant hysterical style that masks an underlying paranoid position. Descriptive personality measure data and two case examples are presented to highlight the dynamics of their offending behavior.
Chapter
Historically, the cornerstone of the psychologist’s identity rested on providing competent in-depth psychological assessment (Rapaport, Gill, & Schafer, 1946). The ability to utilize a battery of assessment methods to elucidate complex issues makes the psychologist unique among other mental health professionals. Recent trends, however, have tarnished that cornerstone. Not surprisingly, the movement away from proficiency in psychological assessment has led to a decline in the need for psychologists. In this chapter, we discuss these harmful trends, define psychological assessment, offer a model for assessing female offenders, and provide examples of how record review, clinical interview, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and Rorschach Inkblot test can be useful with female offenders. We discuss the interpersonal aspects of the assessment process, evaluate gender specific patterns for several PCL-R criteria (also see Appendices A & B), and provide caveats for assessing female offenders. We conclude with a case study.
Chapter
In this chapter, we provide a theoretical and empirically based understanding of antisocial and psychopathic women. We begin by clarifying the differences between psychopathy, sociopathy, and ASPD, and then provide a historical perspective of hysteria. While the underlying personality of the female psychopath is paranoid, malignant hysteria is their predominant personality style (Gacono & Meloy, 1994). Overviews of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and Rorschach are offered as a refresher for those experienced clinicians and as a resource for those that are not. Finally, we present group PAI and Rorschach data (also Trauma Symptom Inventory-2 [TSI-2]) for 337 female offenders including subsets of psychopathic (N = 124) and non-psychopathic (N = 57) females. We make note of the differences between female and male psychopaths.
Article
Full-text available
In this study, PCL-R scores were used in correlational analyses with PAI scales in a sample of incarcerated women (N = 133). The total PCL-R score was significantly correlated with many PAI scales including ANT, DRG, and AGG. Categorical analyses were also used where the psychopathic women (N = 71; PCL-R ≥ 30) were significantly higher on the PAI scales of MAN, VPI, PAR, BOR, ANT, AGG, DOM; the non-psychopathic women (N = 28; PCL-R total score ≤ 24) scored higher on the RXR scale. These results further elucidate the conceptualization of female psychopathy (borderline and histrionic personality traits) and were consistent both with clinical observations, theoretical conceptualizations, and previous Rorschach research. Clinical implications were provided for working with incarcerated psychopathic women.