Demand for Li-ion batteries in two decades. Reproduced with permission [3].

Demand for Li-ion batteries in two decades. Reproduced with permission [3].

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Li-ion batteries are the powerhouse for the digital electronic revolution in this modern mobile society, exclusively used in mobile phones and laptop computers. The success of commercial Li-ion batteries in the 1990s was not an overnight achievement, but a result of intensive research and contribution by many great scientists and engineers. Then mu...

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... demand for Li-ion batteries increases rapidly, especially with the demand from electric-powered vehicles (Fig. 1). It is expected that nearly 100 GW hours of Li-ion batteries are required to meet the needs from con- sumer use and electric-powered vehicles with the later takes about 50% of Li-ion battery sale by 2018 [3]. Furthermore, Li-ion batteries will also be employed to buffer the intermittent and fluctuating green energy supply from ...
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... could be suitable for mass production. Interestingly, few monolayers of carbon film formed on the surface of olivine particles and the carbon also was deposited inside the pores of the particles. With just 3.4 wt% carbon, impressive cycling performance over 70 cycles could be achieved with no capacity fade at either room temperature or at 37°C (Fig. 11). It is particularly interest- ing to note that, without addition of carbon black as the conductivity enhancer typically for LiFePO 4 , they could achieve specific capacity of 140 and 150 mAh/g when tested at room temperature and at 37°C, respectively. The improved performance was attributed to the network of carbon film on the surface ...
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... addition to carbon coating, other conductivity en- hancers have been explored to improve the conductivity of LiFePO 4 as well. Chung and colleagues [56] explored the preparation of LiFePO 4 thin films with uniformly dis- persed highly conductive silver to improve the conductivity of LiFePO 4 (Fig. 12). With a small fraction of dispersed silver at only 1.37 wt%, a superior electrochemical per- formance in terms of specific capacity, cyclability, and high charge-discharge rate has been achieved. The preparation procedure for making this uniformly dispersed silver in LiFePO 4 thin films was remarkably simple. Pulsed laser deposition ...
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... could help to increase the energy density but demand for alternative stable electrolyte instead of conventional electrolyte. Another family of emerging polyanionic cathode is Li 2 MSiO 4 , (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, e.g., Li 2 MnSiO 4 ), which could offer much high capacity of 330 mAh/g. The obstacles to adopt those high-capacity Li 2 MSiO 4 ( Fig. 13) are their poor electronic conductivity, poor rate capability and fast capacity fading upon cycling ...
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... oxide (with average composition of Li[Ni 0.68 Co 0.18 Mn 0.18 ] O 2 ) microparticles [59]. The cathode materials is unique in the way that the microparticles have concentration gra- dient, where the core is rich in Ni, and the outer layer is rich in Mn with decreasing Ni concentration and increasing Mn and Co concentrations at the surface (Fig. 14). The bulk core of Ni-rich cathode provides high capacity. The concentration-gradient outer layer and the surface improve the thermal stability. The cathode materials demonstrated impressive high reversible capacity of 209 mAh/g and good safety characteristics. It should be noted that the materials preparation procedure based on copre- ...
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... the first commercializa- tion of carbonaceous anodes, carbon is still dominant in commercial Li-ion batteries today. Graphitic carbon with Figure 13. The crystal structure of (A) a typical form of Li 2 MnSiO 4 (Pmnb) and (B) the hypothetical structure of the fully delithiated MnSiO 4 with SiO 4 shown in blue, LiO 4 in green, and MnO 4 in purple. ...
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... much effort is focused on disordered carbon, although the exact mechanism by which the high- specific capacity is achieved has not been fully understood [67][68][69]. Other carbon-based materials that have been extensively studied are buckminsterfullerene, carbon Figure 15. A family of carbon-based materials with different structure: (A) graphite with a stack of graphene layers, (B) diamond with carbon atoms arranged in a FCC structure, (C) buckminsterfullerene (C 60 ) with consisting of graphene balled into a sphere, (D) carbon nanotube with rolled-up cylinder of graphene, and (E) graphene of a single layer carbon, (F) the schematic of lithium intercalation and deintercalation between graphene layers in graphite. ...
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... and graphane (Fig. 15). Carbon nanotubes, in particular, can be a good lithium host on grounds of their excellent electronic conductivity and other properties associated with their linear dimensionality [70,71]. However, current interest is focused on CNT-and graphene- based composites instead of pristine CNTs or graphene to achieve much higher capacity than ...
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... have been widely studied since the first report by Tarascon's group [31]. Although metal oxides are generally poor in conductivity, properly tailored metal oxides at nanoscale have demonstrated promising charac- teristics. The reaction mechanism of lithiation and delithi- ation in metal oxides can be generally classified into three main types (Fig. 16): (1) the insertion/extraction, (2) the alloying/dealloying, and (3) the conversion mechanisms. The first mechanism is observed in different kinds of anode materials, including anatase TiO 2 [75]. In fact, most of cathode materials with layered or spinel structures also follow the insertion-extraction mechanism as discussed previously. ...
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... facile gram-scale preparation of anatase TiO 2 high- order structures with subunits of tunable nanoparticle aggregates from one precursor for Li-ion batteries has been reported [75]. The nanoparticles were formed by basic building units aggregated controlled by calcination temperature (Fig. 17). Interestingly, the size of the basic building units of TiO 2 nanoparticles can significantly af- fect their electrochemical characteristics. When the crystal- lite size was at 17 nm, the anatase TiO 2 aggregates achieved an impressive high capacity 170 mAh/g, which is close to the theoretical value of 168 mAh/g. When charged at higher ...
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... at nanoscale by simple cost-effective approaches on a large scale. Recently silicon nanowires have been reported to demonstrate promising reversible lithium storage proper- ties [15]. Cui and colleagues [15] proposed and demon- strated that silicon nanowires were superior in lithium ion storage as compared to silicon thin film and particles (Fig. 18). The silicon nanowires could avoid the issue of pulverization and contact loss due to facile strain relaxation and efficient electron transport along each nanowire. Bogart et al. [77] also demonstrated that silicon nanowires with carbon skin could enhance the cycling and rate per- formances of silicon nanowires in lithium storage. ...
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... transport along each nanowire. Bogart et al. [77] also demonstrated that silicon nanowires with carbon skin could enhance the cycling and rate per- formances of silicon nanowires in lithium storage. Recently, in another attempt, Ti@Si core-shell coaxial nanorods were proposed to further improve the electrochemical perfor- mances of Si nanorods (Fig. 19). As compared to pristine Si nanorods, the benefit of metallic core is that the axial resistance observed in solid Si nanorods could be dramati- cally reduced. The electrons released/acquired on electro- chemical reactions of dealloying/alloying for LixSi could be transferred to the Ti foil current collectors easily via the metallic Ti ...
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... author believes that silicon nanomaterials could potentially replace carbon anodes in the next 10 years, Figure 18. Schematic comparing the stability of (B) silicon nanowires with (A) thin film and particles upon repeated lithiation and delithiation. ...
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... in air at 800°C could remove the hollow carbon spheres and compacted the SnO 2 nanoparticles into hollow spheres. However, capacity fading was generally observed in SnO 2 -based anodes [81]. Another interesting SnO 2 -based anode material is electro- spray deposited thin films of particles with unique porous spherical multideck-cage morphology (Fig. 21). The reversible capacity was reported to be as high as 1158 mAh/g, which is even higher than theoretical value. The improved elec- trochemical performance was attributed to the unique struc- ture and the presence of Li 2 O and CuO phases in the composite film [85]. Interestingly, even higher capacity of 2050 mAh/g with excellent ...

Citations

... LIBs will be evaluated for use in sustainable energy systems to store energy generated from renewable sources. The rising demand for energy storage necessitates further improvements to existing LIBs as well as the development of next-generation LIBs, with the goal of lowering LIB costs [102]. Fig. 16 illustrates that the future LIBs may be small and light without compromising the performance. ...
... However, due to increase in demand of battery in other major areas and Fig. 16. Size of future LIB as suggested by Deng [102]. ...
Article
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are becoming gradually common in our everyday lives, associated with the rapid growth of electric vehicles (EVs) as well as hybrid vehicles (HVs). The thermal performance of a battery pack has a significant impact on its stability, aging, and durability. Hence the thermal management system (TMS) of battery packs for EVs is one of the prominent research areas in recent years. In this study, bibliometric analysis has been conducted by using the Scopus database between the years 2000 and 2021 to assess scientific articles in the field of TMS of EV’s battery packs. After two iterations, we have found 983 articles relevant to this topic. Based on the analytical findings, the TMS of LIBs has been rapidly expanding, and significant outcomes will remain to increase in the future. Only a few countries have shown their significant role in this area. Among them, China seems to be the active participation country in this research field. Tsinghua University in China and Ontario Tech University in Canada are the most renowned Universities which produce more number of individual as well as collaborative research and review articles. In comparison to other journals, SAE Technical Papers has published highest number of articles. There are nearly 15 major funding agencies that sponsored the fund for the project in this area. In that, 52 projects have been funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis has been conducted on the development trend in TMS of LIBs and will serve as an established resource for budding scholars who are interested in this research area.
... Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are a key technology for many kinds of mobile technologies, especially due to their high energy density and tunable power characteristics, while also providing a sufficiently long lifetime. Recently battery electric vehicles (BEVs) have become a dominant market segment for LIBs and have hence also started to drive battery technology development [1][2][3]. For BEVs, where large batteries are required for sufficient driving ranges, and the battery constitutes a large portion of the total cost, the lifetime of the battery is of crucial importance as battery replacement would often be economically unviable. ...
Article
Aging of lithium-ion batteries is especially important for applications such as battery electric vehicles, where they constitute a major part of the total cost and practically determine product lifetime. One of the main problems during cycle aging is the swelling of the electrode stack, as this results in increased mechanical stresses inside batteries and can further accelerate aging. Earlier studies have used X-ray tomography to address this issue and were focused on the role of large aberrations in electrode geometry in rapid capacity fade. In this study, however, we focus on batteries not exhibiting such a rapid deterioration, where only small changes to electrode geometry can be expected. Helical trajectory micro-computed X-ray tomography and virtual unrolling were used to reveal axially and radially inhomogeneous swelling of the jelly-roll electrode windings inside commercial 18650 batteries. The results supported by mathematical-physical simulations demonstrate the efficacy of the employed methods in the analysis of minute volumetric changes and show that regions inside the batteries that are comparatively unconstrained mechanically experience accelerated swelling. In particular, the top and bottom of the jelly-roll showed an elevated thickness increase, especially within the innermost windings.
... Currently, there are six consolidated families of LIBs under commercialization worldwide, being the market clearly dominated by three of them: nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide (NMC), nickel--cobalt-aluminum-oxide (NCA) and lithium iron-phosphate (LFP) batteries [3]. However, beyond the great effort being devoted to the development of new active materials (at both the cathode and the anode levels), better electrolyte formulations (introducing solid-state and polymeric proposals), and optimizations of the working conditions in the last 20 years [4], all the families of LIBs still present limitations in terms of energy density and lifetime [5,6]. Moreover, due to the nonlinear nature of the chemical reactions taking place within the LIB cells during operation, the precise determination of certain key operational parameters, that have to be monitored continuously by the battery management systems (BMS) standing out the state-of-charge (SoC) [7,8] and the state-of-health (SoH) [9,10], remains a challenging task. ...
Article
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Aging-induced degradation of commercial Li-ion pouch cells with lithium nickel-manganese‑cobalt-oxide-based cathodes and graphite anodes is studied at various operating conditions (temperature and voltage) by galvanostatic measurements and in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A detailed equivalent electrical circuit model, capable to fit the measured EIS spectra, is developed and validated. The work also confirms the capacity fade dependence of the calendar-aged cells on stress factors such as temperature and state-of-charge. The retained capacity is found to decrease linearly with t0.5. However, it stands out that the degradation registered for cells held at 95% state-of-charge is lower than that for those at 70% and for the cases when temperatures are between 25 °C and 37.5 °C, which is a not very common singularity. A high performing calendar aging model is introduced accordingly. Both the electrical circuit model defined and the accurate calendar aging model developed provide useful tools for battery management systems in order to monitor and control both the state-of-health and the state-of-charge of these commercial cells.
... It is considered by scientists and governments because of the extremely broad application in the portable consumer electronics and automobile market [3]. To meet the requirement of energy storage, decreasing the energy consumption [4,5] and developing the next generation, LIB becomes increasingly important [6,7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The development of lithium-ion batteries largely relies on the cathode and anode materials. In particular, the optimization of cathode materials plays an extremely important role in improving the performance of lithium-ion batteries, such as specific capacity or cycling stability. Carbon coating modifying the surface of cathode materials is regarded as an effective strategy that meets the demand of Lithium-ion battery cathodes. This work mainly reviews the modification mechanism and method of carbon coating, and summarizes the recent progress of carbon coating on some typical cathode materials (LiFePO4, LiMn2O4, LiCoO2, NCA (LiNiCoAlO2) and NCM (LiNiMnCoO2)). In addition, the limitations of the carbon coating on the cathode are also introduced. Suggestions on improving the effectiveness of carbon coating for future study are also presented.
... In the combination's configuration, the primary source of energy is usually the battery that is maintained along with the auxiliary energy source or storage units. In batteries, series or series parallel cell combination of lithium ion (Li-ion) is the most extensively commercialized (Deng 2015). The powertrain topology indicates various battery and engine combinations and energy flow with single motor or dual motor (one motor acting as a generator) design for the various types of electric vehicles. ...
Article
Full-text available
Transportation sector is one of the major contributors to GHG emissions, and it is essential to investigate the role of electric vehicles in economic and environmental performance of developing countries. In this research work, the authors seek to investigate the usage pattern of three-wheeler vehicle by taking a Pakistan-based survey approach and analyzing the responses from various three-wheeler drivers across the country. The survey results indicate that the adoption of hybrid and electric three-wheelers in Pakistan would be welcomed by the users due to increased economic benefits, despite having a high initial capital cost. On an average basis, the regular three-wheeler is run for more than 5 days a week, 101–150 km daily across more than 10 h, and enables the owner to make around PKR 20,000–25,000 (~ US $119–US $149) after approximately PKR 15,000 (~ USD $89) is spent every month on fuel and maintenance. The adoption of hybrid or electric three-wheelers can easily improve the monthly earnings by 50%. In addition to this, the GHG emissions from the transportation sector will be considerably lowered around 3–6 tonnes of CO2 emissions per year per three-wheeler. At an investment return period of 13–16 months, the electric three-wheeler is a highly lucrative opportunity.
... Among all available electrochemical storage cells, lithium-ion batteries (LIB) are considered to be the principal option for EV because of their high power density, extended battery life, rapid charging rate and low self-discharge rate. 2 LIB packs are made by connecting cells in series and/or parallel to supply the necessary power for EVs. A significant quantity of heat could be created in larger battery packs, where cells are often packed together and compacted for mechanical stability. ...
Article
Full-text available
The heat dissipation around battery cells should be thoroughly examined to keep the battery pack running properly. This paper mainly focuses on the 3D analysis of thermal distribution in LIB (14650, 18650, and 26650) with varied geometry sizes & the thermal distribution of Li‐ion battery packs (6s and 12s series) at different charge/discharge rate. It has been concluded that the capacity loss increases at higher SOC levels for the calendar aging as derived from the lumped model approach. Additionally, the rate of heat generation with the increase in battery size and its effect on the overall battery temperature has been observed. The proposed work has been simulated in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.6 for observing the temperature variations within the battery pack and the vital findings are stated from the conclusions.
... Performance of EV and HEV depends 49 upon the energy storage systems such as batteries. Lithium-ion batteries are the best fit, owing 50 to their advantage of higher energy density, higher efficiency, long life and low self-discharge 51 rate compared to other electrochemical batteries [5]. Many aspects of the battery performance 52 of a battery module depend upon operating temperature range and temperature uniformity 53 among the cells. ...
Article
Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS) is crucial to maintain peak temperature and temperature difference of lithium-ion battery pack in appropriate range, thus ensuring best performance, extended cycle life and safety. Liquid cooling BTMS is extensively researched for prismatic cells, but only a few studies are present on application of liquid cooling BTMS for cylindrical cells. Further, existing studies on liquid cooling for cylindrical cells majorly focus on effect of flow rate, flow direction, and number of channels. In this study, a novel mini-channel cooling plate based liquid cooling BTMS is proposed for a battery pack of 20 cells. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based numerical analysis was performed on 3-Dimensional model of battery pack to investigate effects of parameters associated with cooling plate and mini-channel design, flow characteristics, and battery arrangement on temperature uniformity, heat removal rate, parasitic power consumption and weight of the battery pack. The study concluded that; installation of aluminium cylindrical enclosure on cells could drastically enhance heat removal and temperature uniformity. Altering flow directions in mini-channel could enhance thermal performance. The research demonstrated that for case 2d (inlet and outlet are staggered in each cooling plate), the temperature difference can be reduced by 16.5% when compared to unidirectional flow. Mini-channel with square cross section offers better heat removal and fewer flow resistance compared to circular and elliptical. Although converging mini-channels offer better thermal performance, it drastically increases the pumping power. The battery pack was successful in limiting peak temperature and temperature difference to 303.26 K and 1.98 K respectively, for 4 C discharge rate.
... However, state-of-the-art liquid electrolytes suffer from the flammable nature of most organic electrolyte components, instability at higher electric potentials, possible short-circuiting due to dendrite formation, and electrolyte leakage. [10][11][12][13] To address the issue of liquid electrolytes, an all-solid-state Li battery (ASSLB) was devised. [14][15][16][17] Although the basic mechanism of ASSLBs remains 'the same (i.e., Li-ion shuttling)', the main difference results from replacing liquid electrolytes with solid-state electrolytes (SSEs). ...
... SSEs have several advantages compared with liquid electrolytes, including better mechanical strength that can inhibit dendrite growth and thus battery short circuiting, improved thermal and chemical stability, and no electrolyte leakage. [10][11][12][13] SSEs are useful for Li-ion batteries and can also address the issue of polysulfide shuttling in Li-S batteries in which the dissolution of intermediate-sized (Li 2 S n , 4 ⩽ n < 8) polysulfides in liquid electrolytes is the main cause of shuttling. [18][19][20][21] Polysulfide shuttling reduces the cycling stability and columbic efficiency of Li-S batteries, making them less attractive for commercial use. ...
Article
Inorganic solid-state electrolytes (SSEs), especially Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO), are promising candidates for all solid-state batteries. Generally, SSEs are synthesized by solid-state reactions at high temperatures. The high temperature required to synthesize useful polymorphs (e.g., cubic phase, in the case of LLZO) increases their production cost. To lower the synthesis temperature, several approaches, including doping and crystallite size control via sol-gel processes, have been explored. Recently, electrospinning was used to synthesize the inorganic SSE fibers to control the crystallite size and lower the calcination temperature. Several publications followed that investigated the properties of fibers and demonstrated the use of these fibers in inorganic-polymer composite SSEs. This paper presents a concise discussion of electrospinning, the parameters that control fiber morphology, the synthesis of inorganic SSE fibers, the effect of sintering conditions on the fiber morphology and composition, and the recent use of these fibers in making composite SSEs and other battery applications. Most of the discussion focuses on LLZO, but this paper also discusses applications of other types of electrospun inorganic electrolyte fibers, the challenges of using these fibers, and possible future directions in this research field.
... Li Ion batteries are preferred over conventional lead acid batteries due to their high storage density, low self-discharge and nonexistent memory effect. These advantages coupled with small size make Li-Ion batteries an ideal choice for electrical energy storage as well as use in high electricity demand products such as personal mobile phones, industrial cordless drill machines or even in transportation industry such as electrical vehicles [1]. ...
Article
Due to many inherent problems of lead acid batteries such as low life cycle, less storage capacity and memory effect, Lithium ion batteries were developed which overcame these difficulties. But when these batteries are subjected to higher discharge rates they exhibit a high rate of temperature increment which if crosses 50 °C changes the internal chemistry of the battery cell and that leads to degradation of battery capacity (measured in Ah) or even causes fire in certain conditions. So, in order to maintain the battery temperature, Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS) was developed. Phase change cooling is a type of BTMS which utilizes Phase Change Material (PCM) in order to cool the battery cell by passive or hybrid cooling technique which not only sustains the battery temperature but also leads to prolongment of battery life and improvement in its performance. The current study numerically analyzed a passive BTMS using RT-42 as PCM for thickness of 1 mm to 7 mm with an increment of 1 mm on an 18,650Li-Ion cell discharged at 3C discharge rate. The results conclude that a minimum of 4 mm thickness is necessary for effective temperature control of the battery cell. Also for 4 mm thickness of PCM it did not melt completely throughout the battery cell discharge cycle.
... Figure 1 shows the basic principle of operation of a Li + battery cell. The basic design of Li-ion cells is essentially the same as those commercialized two decades ago by Sony with a continuous and extensive exploration of electrode materials, electrolytes and separators [25]. During charging, Li + are directed from the cathode through the electrolyte towards the anode [25]. ...
... The basic design of Li-ion cells is essentially the same as those commercialized two decades ago by Sony with a continuous and extensive exploration of electrode materials, electrolytes and separators [25]. During charging, Li + are directed from the cathode through the electrolyte towards the anode [25]. Meanwhile, the electrons travel from the cathode to the anode through an external electric circuit in order to maintain charge neutrality. ...
Article
Full-text available
The necessity for large scale and sustainable energy storage systems is increasing. Lithium-ion batteries have been extensively utilized over the past decades for a range of applications including electronic devices and electric vehicles due to their distinguishing characteristics. Nevertheless, their massive deployment can be questionable due to use of critical materials as well as limited lithium resources and growing costs of extraction. One of the emerging alternative candidates is potassium-ion battery technology due to potassium’s extensive reserves along with its physical and chemical properties similar to lithium. The challenge to develop anode materials with good rate capability, stability and high safety yet remains. Iron oxides are potentially promising anodes for both battery systems due to their high theoretical capacity, low cost and abundant reserves, which aligns with the targets of large-scale application and limited environmental footprint. However, they present relevant limitations such as low electronic conductivity, significant volume changes and inadequate energy efficiency. In this review, we discuss some recent design strategies of iron oxide-based materials for both electrochemical systems and highlight the relationships of their structure performance in nanostructured anodes. Finally, we outline challenges and opportunities for these materials for possible development of KIBs as a complementary technology to LIBs.