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Data-driven cartogram maps demonstrating (A) relative proportions of cumulative carbon dioxide emissions, by country, and (B) magnitude and severity of the consequences of climate change for malaria, malnutrition, diarrhea, and drownings, by country. (From Patz JA, Gibbs HK, Foley JA, et al. Climate change and global health: quantifying a growing ethical crisis. EcoHealth. 2007; doi.10.1007/s10393-007-0141-1.)

Data-driven cartogram maps demonstrating (A) relative proportions of cumulative carbon dioxide emissions, by country, and (B) magnitude and severity of the consequences of climate change for malaria, malnutrition, diarrhea, and drownings, by country. (From Patz JA, Gibbs HK, Foley JA, et al. Climate change and global health: quantifying a growing ethical crisis. EcoHealth. 2007; doi.10.1007/s10393-007-0141-1.)

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The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, an...

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... experienced as a result of climate change. Developing countries will experience the greatest impact of climate change. [20][21][22][23][24][25] In general, those countries that contribute the least to GHG emissions currently experience, and will likely continue to experience, the most adverse health consequences as a result of climate change (Fig. 1). 26 For example, in 2004, per-capita GHG emissions in the United States, Canada, and Australia approached 6 metric tons (mt), and those in Japan and Western European countries ranged from 2 to 5 mt. In contrast, annual per-capita GHG emissions in developing countries overall approximate 0.6 mt, and more than 50 developing countries ...

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... The inclusion of local knowledge within national or provincial adaptation strategies requires such linkages and vertical coordination. Overall, there is an increasing body of literature that highlights the importance of improved integration and coordination also in order to promote a higher effectiveness of strategies and an improved consideration of social justice and climate justice when designing and implementing responses (Levy and Patz, 2015). ...
... 2018; Arku and Arku 2010; Armenski et al. 2014; Ayantunde et al. 2015; Baez et al. 2017; Bagozzi et al. 2017; Balteanu et al. 2013; Barreau et al. 2017; Bell and Keys 2018; Bosongo et al. 2014; Branch 2018; Busby et al. 2018; Caldwell and Boyd 2009; Campbell 2014; Caravani 2018;Clifford et al. 2010;Comstock and Cook 2018;Corlew 2013;Crawford et al. 2015;Curran and Meijer-Irons 2014;De Châtel 2014;De Silva and Kawasaki 2018;Detges 2016;Detges 2017;Ding et al. 2011;Easdale and Rosso 2010;Ergin 2017;Fahad and Wang 2018;Fennell et al. 2016;Garbero and Muttarak 2013;Gautier et al. 2016;Gil et al. 2013;Gila et al. 2011;Gilbert and McLeman 2010;Goin et al. 2017;Gray and Mueller 2012;Habiba et al. 2012;Haeffner et al. 2018;Hao et al. 2010;Hill and Porter 2017;Hunter et al. 2013;Ide 2018;Isaacman et al. 2018; Janku 2018;Jobbová et al. 2018;Julich 2011;Kabir et al. 2017;Kabir et al. 2018;Kaniewski et al. 2015; Keshavarz 2013;Keshavarz et al. 2017;Khapung 2016;Kilimani et al. 2018;Kintigh and Ingram 2018;Kuil et al. 2016;Levy and Patz 2015;Lin et al. 2013;Linke et al. 2015;Linke et al. 2018a;Linke et al. 2018b;Lupu et al. 2018;Lwoga and Asubisye 2018;Madani et al. 2016;Malik et al. 2012;Martin-Ortega et al. 2012;Matarira et al. 2013;Mathivha et al. 2017;Maystadt and Ecker 2014;McLeman and Ploeger 2012;Miyan 2015;Moore et al. 2018;Murthy et al. 2015;Musemwa 2009;Musolino et al. 2017;Nawrotzki et al. 2016;Ocello et al. 2015;Owain and Maslin 2018;Panda and Nayak 2009;Papaioannou 2016;Pardo Martínez 2018;Parry and Lea 2009;Pauw et al. 2011;Phuong et al. 2018;Rich et al. 2018;Rigby et al. 2011;Ruhil 2016;Safra de Campos et al. 2017;Salehyan and Hendrix 2014;Sam et al. 2017;Scheffran et al. 2012;Schleussner et al. 2016;Shi et al. 2018;Simatele and Simatele 2015b;Singh et al. 2014;Sinoga and Gross 2013;Smucker and Wisner 2008;Sousa et al. 2018;Suckall et al. 2017;Sujakhu et al. 2016;Tan et al. 2015;Torres and Casey 2017;Tortajada et al. 2017;Tosam and Mbih 2015;Tubi and Feitelson 2016;Udmale et al. 2014;van Dijk et al. 2013;Vidyattama et al. 2016;Von Uexkull et al. 2016;Wakabi 2009;Wilhelmi et al. 2008;Willett and Sears 2018;Wineman et al. 2017;Woudenberg et al. 2008;Xiao et al. 2014;Zheng et al. 2017) have been investigated. These studies have also covered issues like immigration, violence, human rights and development. ...
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... Furthermore, there is a gap in the types of climate-related disasters (droughts, fires, dust) as well as the countries represented in the included literature. Results align with other studies [19][20][21][22][23][24] , which necessitate urgent attention to preparing health systems and health care professionals in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) to address the health effects of climate change. ...
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Introduction Climate change is a global public health emergency with implications for access to care and emergency care service disruptions. The African continent is particularly vulnerable to climate-related extreme weather events due to an already overburdened health system, lack of early warning signs, poverty, inadequate infrastructure, and variable adaptive capacity. Emergency care services are not only utilized during these events but also threatened by these hazards. Considering that the effects of climate change are expected to increase in intensity and prevalence, it is increasingly important for emergency care to prepare to respond to the changes in presentation and demand. The aim of this study was to perform a scoping review of the available literature on the relationship between climate change and emergency care on the African continent. Methods A scoping review was completed using five databases: Pubmed, Web of Science, GreenFILE, Africa Wide Information, and Google Scholar. A ‘grey’ literature search was done to identify key reports and references from included articles. Two independent reviewers screened articles and a third reviewer decided conflicts. A total of 1,382 individual articles were initially screened with 17 meeting full text review. A total of six articles were included in the final analysis. Data from four countries were represented including Uganda, Ghana, Tanzania, and Nigeria. Results Analysis of the six articles yielded three key themes that were identified: climate-related health impacts that contribute to surges in demand and resource utilization, opportunities for health sector engagement, and solutions to improve emergency preparedness. Authors used the outcomes of the review to propose 10 recommendations for decision-makers and leaders. DXDiscussion Incorporating these key recommendations at the local and national level could help improve preparedness and adaptation measures in highly vulnerable, populated areas on the African continent.
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... Achieving 1.5 C requires close interaction among mitigation, adaptation, and sustainable development under geophysical, environmental-ecological, technological, economic, sociocultural, and institutional feasibilities (Kjellstrom et al. 2009;Levy and Patz 2015;Kumar et al. , 2020. ...
... Climate change already endangers human health and well-being in numerous ways (Luber et al. 2014). The environmental and health consequences of climate change will profoundly affect human rights and social justice Kumar 2013, 2016;Levy and Patz 2015). Global climate change is causing miseries all over world but it disproportionately impacts poor and marginalized populations thereby increasing health inequities (Shonkoff et al. 2011;NRC 2007;Roundtable 2014). ...
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Global warming has increased the frequency and intensity of some extreme weather and climate events, and will continue to increase if no mitigation strategies are undertaken urgently. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security. The increasing air pollution is promoting diseases. Water pollution and increasing secondary soil salinization is reducing agricultural production. There is a nexus between climate and COVID and there is urgent need to understand this nexus and act swiftly. Political and business leaders throughout the world have recognized that global climate change is real as evidenced by Paris Accord. However, there is urgent need of increased public engagement in adaptive and mitigative behavior. Moving the fossil fuel-based economy to decarbonization is major goal for achieving zero carbon emissions by 2050. Besides obtaining first-, second-, and third-generation biofuels, the agricultural and municipal wastes can readily be converted to bioenergy. Evolving green economies will result in human health benefits for mankind. This mini review will discuss nexus between climate change, health, and evolving mitigation strategies.
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... These heat mitigation measures should be planned in a way that safeguards human rights, supports social justice, as well as prevents the rise of new problems or intensification of existing ones [256]. Also, the efficacy of managing occupational heat stress in the context of global warming depends heavily on early warning systems [215,257,258], as well as valid and reliable ways to quantify heat exposure at work [183,184,259]. ...
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The present comprehensive review (i) summarizes the current knowledge on the impacts of occupational heat stress on outdoor workers, (ii) provides a historical background on this issue, (iii) presents a meta-analysis of published data, (iv) explores inter-individual and intra-individual factors, (v) discusses the available heat mitigation strategies, (vi) estimates physical work capacity, labour productivity, and metabolic rate for the year 2030, and (vii) provides an overview of existing policy and legal frameworks on occupational heat exposure. Meta-analytic findings from 38 field studies that involved monitoring 2,409 outdoor workers across 41 jobs in 21 countries suggest that occupational heat stress increases the core (r = 0.44) and skin (r = 0.44) temperatures, as well as the heart rate (r = 0.38) and urine specific gravity (r = 0.13) of outdoor workers (all p < 0.05). Moreover, it diminishes the capacity of outdoor workers for manual labour (r = −0.82; p < 0.001) and is responsible for more than two thirds of the reduction in their metabolic rate. Importantly, our analysis shows that physical work capacity is projected to be highly affected by the ongoing anthropogenic global warming. Nevertheless, the metabolic rate and, therefore, labour productivity are projected to remain at levels higher than the workers’ physical work capacity, indicating that people will continue to work more intensely than they should to meet their financial obligations for food and shelter. In this respect, complementary measures targeting self-pacing, hydration, work-rest regimes, ventilated garments, and mechanization can be adopted to protect outdoor workers.
... J. Nelson et al., 2013;Singh et al., 2019;Smale et al., 2019). In short, climate change threatens the human rights of coastal populations and nations to food, livelihoods, health and physical security (Ahlgren et al., 2014;Elver & Oral, 2021;Levy & Patz, 2015). ...
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