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Data-driven analysis: a summary of the descriptive categories in relation to the tools and arrangements. Source: authors' own original figure created for use in this paper.

Data-driven analysis: a summary of the descriptive categories in relation to the tools and arrangements. Source: authors' own original figure created for use in this paper.

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Background: The latest curriculum reforms in Finland have shifted the aims of education towards learning how to learn, and the secondary education sector is already required to teach integrative skills. This study seeks to understand how these curricular demands can be fulfilled in the context of the subject of home economics in secondary education...

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... the data-driven analysis, the descriptive categories for pedagogical arrange- ments impacting the integration were identified as follows: who led the integration (teacher/students); what kind of integration was present (knowledge/experience/skill/ methods/material based); whether the pupils from different subjects were mixed in a meaningful way; and whether the theme and objectives of the lesson supported the integrative approach. A summary is presented in Figure 1. When arranging the lessons according to their holistic nature -i.e. ...

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... Accordning to Haapaniemi et al (2019) "an essential skill in the twenty-first century is how to make sense of the complex flood of information". For this reason, it is important for students to develop the ability to connect scattered information. ...
... For this reason, it is important for students to develop the ability to connect scattered information. The authors call these students integrative thinkers (Haapaniemi et al, 2019). ...
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Environmental protection contents are characterized by a wide range of interdisciplinarity. They are realized separately within the teaching of biology and geography (5th–8th grade) in elementary school in Serbia. Numerous concepts and facts are similar, especially within the content Nature Protection. The application of an integrative teaching approach in the realization of environmental protection contents in elementary schools was investigated. Pedagogical experiment with parallel groups of elementary school students was conducted by applying integrative teaching approach in the experimental (E) and traditional approach in control (C) groups of students. The data were obtained through the pre-test and post-test. Integrative teaching approach has proven to be effective in the realization of the above-mentioned program contents.
... Teachers' subject-related and communicative competence are major factors influencing students' learning, including understanding of the value of interdisciplinary cooperation with other teachers and supporting cooperation among students. Therefore, it is important how well teachers support this kind of thinking in their students (Haapaniemi et al., 2019). Such interdisciplinary teaching is a challenge for teacher educators, teachers, as well as students (Jackson and Bruegmann, 2009;Schleicher, 2015). ...
... Therefore, it has gone through several transformations within the more than a century of its existence, and will keep constantly changing in the future. Rapid societal changes (forced by globalisation, environmental, technological and cultural change) often make it difficult to determine what it is exactly that students need to be learning in schools, and how this needs to be organised, for example, with or without cooperation beyond the subject borders in schools (Haapaniemi et al., 2019;Venäläinen, 2010). Countries all over the world have taken different approaches in putting together the learning content for contemporary home economics education. ...
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In this paper, we seek to determine the relationship between home economics education and 21st-century skills (critical thinking, creativity, communication and collaboration) in the context of social learning. We see potential in students' discussions while working together with different group members and practicing the essential skills necessary for coping in the contemporary world. Using a socio-cultural framework, we focused on students' talk and language use as a tool in an educational setting. In addition, interthinking was analysed to obtain an overview of language use for thinking together while solving learning assignments requiring thinking-in-action in the context of home economics lessons. The results demonstrate how interthinking emerges in students' group work discussions during gap-closing processes in various collaborative home economics tasks (n = 11). As a result, interthinking was determined to be as a good medium for the development of 21st-century skills in school lessons. Based on the empirical data, we argue that interthinking is well-suited to the aims and context of home economics education, as it enables the promotion of students' action competence so that the knowledge and skills learned in school can become a reality in students' lives.
... Home economics-based entrepreneurship is a veritable tool for self-reliance, poverty eradication and sustainable national development [6][7][8]. Moreover, home economics, being multi-disciplinary, interdisciplinary, and context-based by nature provides opportunity to integrate timely knowledge in response to the needs of society; and finally, home economics is a skills-rich field, providing a perfect venue for linking livelihood entrepreneurial activities with other essential skills [3,9,10]. The role of home economics-based entrepreneurship in enhancing quality of life cannot be over-emphasized. ...
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Entrepreneurs are the seeds of industrial development and the fruits of industrial development are greater employment opportunities to unemployed youths. The study aimed at assessing the Nigerian youths' perceptions and attitudes towards home economics-based entrepreneurship as a sustainable carrier for wealth generation, determine the gender differential in home economics as a carrier and examine the problems associated with home economics as a career. The study was carried out among the Nigerian youths in three local government areas in Ogbomoso, Nigeria where 160 youths were interviewed with the aids of structured questionnaire to obtain information from the respondents. Mainly descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data which include; frequency, percentages, and weight mean. From the analysis, it was revealed that majority of the respondents were youths between 21-25 years old. The predominant religion was Christianity meanwhile, larger percentage of the respondents have their years of schooling between 16-20 years, single and residing in urban area. Likewise Yoruba happens to be the highest tribe among the three major tribes in the country such as Hausa and Igbo considered in the study. The study also revealed that, 74% of males and 71% of females had unfavorable attitude towards home economics as a career. The respondents had an unfavorable (negative) attitude towards home economics as a career because most of them didn't want to live on home economics as a means of livelihood. Their socioeconomic status had nothing to do with attitude towards home economics as a career. Less than 20% each of the respondents believed that there are high differences between male and female role in home economics. They were also able to identify some problems attached to home economics practices.
... As the integrative approach to learning is understood as 'a process, not a fixed body of content' (Klein, 2002, p. 9), it informs pedagogical choices, leaving room for different implementations while affording opportunities to adjust teaching according to pupils' needs as the project or lesson proceeds. Problem-based learning, project learning, inquiry-based learning and phenomenon-based learning are examples of implementations where the integrative approach to learning may be exploited (Haapaniemi, Venäläinen, Malin, & Palojoki, 2019;Spelt et al., 2009). From the viewpoint of pupils, common to these implementations is that their active participation is at the centre of learning, and social interaction and collaboration between pupils is usually encouraged. ...
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Drawing on a sociocultural approach to learning, this article highlights comprehensive school pupils’ perspectives on working style and classroom pedagogy based on the integrative approach to learning. Using the diamond ranking method, seven groups of 8th grade pupils ranked classroom practices according to their importance for succeeding in integrative and collaborative learning tasks. The study was conducted in the context of home economics education in Finland. Audio and video data were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The results indicate that working style to enhance interthinking and shared commitment to working was considered important, as were several practical elements such as computer use. Utilising knowledge from other school subjects was found to be challenging. The findings suggest that for the participating pupils, collaborative ways of working and the teacher’s pedagogical choices in providing tools and framing the task were the keys to successful working.
... In Norway, the Linking Instruction and Student Achievement (LISA) study is the largest of its kind using videos from 50 schools in research on the effects of different classroom instructions on students learning in mathematics and Norwegian language arts (Department of Teacher Education and School Research, n.d.). In recent years, researchers in HE education in Sweden and Finland, which both have subjects similar to Norwegian FH, have also used a video-based approach when conducting classroom research (Bohm et al., 2015(Bohm et al., , 2016Gelinder et al., 2020;Haapaniemi et al., 2019;Lindblom et al., 2016aLindblom et al., , 2016b. Video recordings enable us to capture social interaction in detail, as it captures both verbal and non-verbal communication (Kristensen, 2018). ...
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The Norwegian Food and Health (FH) school subject aims to develop students' ability to understand the association between diet and health. Research on FH in Norway indicates that the main focus today is on cooking and the development of practical cooking skills, leaving little emphasis on activities related to the more theoretical aspects of the curriculum. To increase students’ knowledge and skills regarding nutrition and health, we aimed to evaluate three newly developed student-activating learning tasks. Three 6th grade FH classes in Southern Norway participated. Audio and video recording of the learning tasks were used to evaluate the activities. Also, data from focus group discussions with FH teachers and students, which were conducted afterwards, was included in the analysis. By emphasising sociocultural learning and using the skills highlighted as essential in social learning and development as basis for the activities, we found the activities valuable in working with FH. The students’ learning process was stimulated while they engaged with the learning tasks by working in groups, by being active in interaction, dialogue, communication and collaboration, and by being given the opportunity to listen and argue. Language was used as a pedagogical tool and was central in the students’ learning process. Both the students and their teachers valued the active and practical outline of the learning tasks. We propose a stronger emphasis on practical learning tasks in FH, to strengthen the students’ social learning and thus the learning in the subject, by using this as a pedagogical approach in FH classrooms. 2021
... This study continues to investigate the researchers' interest in an integrative approach to learning (Haapaniemi et al., 2019), that is enabled and challenged by teachers and the teaching practice but not the learning process or results themselves, due to the type of data collected and the teacher-focused theme. Thus, 'integrative teaching' is used to distinguish between this aspect and the wider integrative approach to learning, which includes the pupils' perspective. ...
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This study builds on previous work in curriculum studies by providing insight into manifestations of the interplay between curriculum traditions, that are interested in education on a global scale and emphasized in the newest curriculum reform in Finland. This reform proposes a shift towards a competency-based curriculum, emphasizes integrative teaching and obligates to multidisciplinary teaching. Here, the suggestions are analysed from teachers’ perspectives. This data-based case study uses qualitative content analysis to examine interviews conducted with five teachers from three Finnish schools. The results reveal growing diversity as a result of multiple implementations of integrative teaching in Finland. Autonomy was maintained in teaching activity and provided possibilities for professional development. That being said, some limitations and challenges for integrative teaching were identified. This study argues that the ongoing curriculum reform process, which emphasizes integrative teaching, is a fruitful starting point for expanding teacher autonomy and collaboration. Further study is needed to follow the teachers’ changing perceptions of teacher autonomy.
... In the United States, Home Science which is recognized more as Home Economics has been used to expose families to alternative solutions to household and community issues (Dubey, 2016); Home science has been used to create awareness on societal issues in Europe and Asia; and to improve families quality of living in Ireland (McCloat & Caraher, 2018). In Australia, Canada, Malta and Scotland Home Science has been used in sustainable of development (Dewhurst & Pendergast, 2011); while in Finland, it has been integrated in other disciplines (Haapaniemi, 2019). The important role that Home Science education plays has also permeated the African continent where it has been used to raise the living standards of families and societies (Nyangara et al., 2010); and to address poverty (Arkhurst, 2005). ...
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Trainee quality, training environment, curriculum design and instructional process play a critical role in determining quality outcome in Home Science teacher education at university level. In Kenya, the challenge of Home Science teacher education has been noted to revolve around a bloated curriculum, scarcity of resources and instructional process which by extension has brought about the question on the quality of trainees channeled out of Universities offering the program. This study employed the Structural Equation Model to analyze trainee quality, training environment, curriculum design and instructional process as antecedents of quality outcome in Home Science teacher education. The study adopted the confirmatory research design that is covariance based to examine the measurement and structural models. A self administered questionnaire was used to