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1: DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS THEORY (Source: Rogers 1995)  

1: DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS THEORY (Source: Rogers 1995)  

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Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have become an everyday part of life. Communication networks within Australia link financial, educational, government and non-government services to Australian households. Both the 2001 and 2006 Australian Census data demonstrate that Indigenous Australians are 69% less likely to access the Internet...

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Citations

... A digital divide is evolving in Australian society, with some groups having better access to information and communications technology (ICT) than others (Davis, McMaster andNowak, 2002, Gurstein, 2004;Daly, 2005). Radoll (2010) identified that the use of ICT is low for Indigenous Australians compared with non-Indigenous Australians. The 2006 Census demonstrated that 43% of Indigenous households had access to the internet, compared with 64% of other households (data accessed using the Australian Bureau of Statistics product Tablebuilder). ...
... ICT forms the basis of much economic activity, and not having access to ICT has a clear detrimental economic and social impact. Along these lines, Radoll (2010) shows that some Indigenous individuals and households may be excluded from ICT access because of location, education, economic position or culture. ...
... There are several other theories that may help explain the digital divide between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians (Radoll, 2010): theory of reasoned action (TRA; Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980), the theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1991), the model of adoption of technology in households (MATH; Venkatesh and Brown, 2001), the technology acceptance model (TAM; Davis, 1989), and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (Venkatesh, Morris, Davis and Davis, 2003). Radoll (2010) also argues that structuration theory of Giddens (1984) has important implications for understanding the digital divide. ...
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The digital divide between Indigenous and other Australians describes the unequal access to information and communications technology (ICT) between these groups. Historically, researchers have focused on acquiring new technology, but we argue that it is important to understand all the dynamics of digital usage, including the loss of access to ICT within a household. For long-lived technology such as internet access, it is particularly important to consider that retention of access to the technology. This paper conducts a longitudinal analysis of changes in internet usage for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian households using the Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset, 2006–2016. While earlier work analyses the digital divide in terms of ‘diffusion’ or adoption of ICT, this paper shows that the failure to retain internet access is also important in driving the digital divide. The dynamics of the digital divide have important and ongoing implications for addressing broader socioeconomic disadvantages experienced by Indigenous Australians. The COVID-19 pandemic underscores the urgency of policy addressing the digital divide, given the renewed momentum for remote learning and telecommuting.
... Technological vulnerability in the form of unreliable technological infrastructure creates several communication barriers, which are not always limited to fieldwork in developing countries. Radoll (2010) reports that in fieldwork concerning aboriginal communities in Australia, a lack of mobile towers in the remote "Outback" made communication challenging. Clearly, existing guidelines for addressing the challenges to engaging with marginalized communities during fieldwork would be useful. ...
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Fieldwork is indispensable for understanding, explaining, and predicting the role of information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D) of marginalized communities. Engaging with marginalized communities is at the heart of ICT4D fieldwork. However, vulnerabilities of marginalized communities can prevent them from participating in fieldwork. The goal of this paper is to report best practices for engaging with marginalized communities. The findings are grounded in our fieldwork that consisted of ten three-hour sessions, each including focus groups, surveys, and hands-on exercises, with 152 participants earning less than USD 2 a day, in their native language at ten rural and urban public libraries in India. We conclude that a combination of proactive planning around the vulnerabilities of marginalized communities, constant reflective monitoring of the vulnerabilities and resulting challenges during fieldwork, and appropriate responsive action to address the challenges is one of the best ways of conducting fieldwork, since it helped us manage a majority of the challenges resulting from geographic, temporal, technological, financial, educational, psychological, informational, infrastructural, social, and cultural vulnerabilities of the participants. Our organic and structured guidance in the form of lessons learned can help library and information science researchers and practitioners to customize fieldwork around the vulnerabilities of marginalized communities.
... However, for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, access to technology continues to be an issue that impacts on educational access and participation (Anthony & Keating, 2013;Rennie et al., 2016;Wilks, Wilson, & Kinnane, 2017). As learning in higher education is increasingly online, there has rightly been a focus on access to technology and connectivity as major factors necessary to the achievement of digital equity in educational contexts (Gibb, 2006;Radoll, 2010;Rennie et al., 2016). Despite the issues associated with access to technology, particularly in remote locations (Rennie et al., 2016), Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have embraced the use of digital technologies in a range of educational contexts (Christie, 2009;Eady, 2010;Kral & Schwab, 2012). ...
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... In addition to the lower levels of educational achievement in the Indigenous population as compared to the Australian population, an additional factor that impacts on digital ability is the rapid pace of technological change which has impacted on people's ability to keep up with those changes(J Thomas et al., 2017).In terms of technology skills, there is a high level of interest and use of digital technologies by Indigenous young people that reflect changing societal communication practices that include the widespread use of social media platforms and the uptake of mobile devices(Rice, Haynes, Royce, & Thompson, 2016). Indeed, Indigenous people engage in the use of digital technology and the internet for a range of purposes (Booth et al., 2014; Christie, 2006;Radoll, 2010;Rice et al., 2016; ...
Thesis
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This study developed six principles for the design of online learning environments which are inclusive of and which enhance the experiences of Indigenous students in online learning. The guiding methodological framework used in the study was Educational Design Research (EDR). Three micro-cycles of the EDR phase of analysis and exploration were conducted, with yarning used as the main method of data collection. The yarning approach produced a rich picture of the experiences of online learning of the nineteen Indigenous participants. Qualitative analysis of the data identified that a relational epistemology underpins the learning of Indigenous higher education students. Ten themes identifying matters of concern led to the development of the six principles for the design of online learning environments. The study concluded with recommendations for whole of institution approaches to enhance the experience of online learning for Indigenous students.
... Some interesting questions may include: (Mit et al., 2012). Conducting research in the Indigenous community requires trust, respect, responsibility and utilises culturally sensitive research methodology (Du et al., 2015;Radoll, 2010). This view aligns with ethical research in valuing Indigenous intellectual contributions to any Aboriginal research and resolving conflict between the values of the academic setting and those of the community (Cochran et al., 2008). ...
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This paper presents an examination of research on Indigenous people and information and communications technology by surveying the landscape of existing studies. A literature review of the relevant 166 publications worldwide from 1995 to 2013 inclusive was performed, and bibliometrics were applied to identify the trends of research in terms of amount of yearly articles, names of authors and their affiliations, financial support status and research methods. Content analysis was used to identify major research topics. Findings show that the amount of relevant publications fluctuated almost every year, with the highest number of publications in 2007. International Information & Library Review was the most prolific journal publishing a wide range of articles in the area, and Laurel Evelyn Dyson from Australia was the most productive author. Only 9% of the publications reported explicitly that they were financially supported. Multiple empirical methods were used for the investigation, including case studies and surveys. Indigenous cultural and knowledge preservation, Indigenous literacy and education development, Indigenous people’s interactions with technologies, and the digital divide issues were identified as four main research topics. On the basis of the review, future research directions from an information research perspective are discussed.
... Meanwhile, quite a few studies have been conducted on the issues around Indigenous people's adoption of information and communication technologies (Brady, Dyson and Asela, 2008;Dyson, 2003;Radoll, 2010;Rennie, Crouch, Thomas and Taylor, 2010). For example, Dyson (2003) suggested that technologies should be viewed in various ways for Indigenous people. ...
... For example, McCallum and Papandrea (2009, p. 16) believed that such technologies should be seen as a community capacity-building tool and a pathway to improve social and health outcomes for Australian remote Indigenous communities. In his PhD thesis, the Aboriginal Australian researcher Peter Radoll stressed that household use of information and communication technologies can assist in addressing the continuing disadvantage facing the Indigenous community by improving access to education, government, financial and health services (Radoll, 2010). Rennie et al. (2010) also claimed that access to the Internet (both facilities and infrastructure) has now been seen as one facet of a broader strategy to address Indigenous disadvantage. ...
... Telecommunication providers therefore should provide alternative opportunities for Indigenous communities to make Internet access more affordable (Dyson, 2004). Radoll (2010) examined factors, including both motivators and inhibitors, affecting the adoption of information and communication technologies by Australian Indigenous households. Motivators included having family and friends with information and communication technologies in their home, and use of the technologies in education and employment; while inhibitors referred to substance abuse by the head of the household and racial discrimination in the labour market. ...
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Introduction. This paper reports the first stage of an ongoing information behaviour research project undertaken with a rural Indigenous community in South Australia. Method. Twenty-one Ngarrindjeri volunteers participated in the field study. Permission was granted and extensive community consultations were conducted. Analysis. Questionnaires and interview transcriptions were analysed using the open coding method. Results. Ngarrindjeri people’s everyday information needs included the gathering of information on weather, jobs, entertainment, culture, education, and health services. The Internet (37.6%) was the most frequently used source of information where participants obtained information from social media, specialised Websites and search engines. However, non-Internet resources accounted for 62.4% of overall information sources and these included local sources such as families and relatives, Elders, and local TV channels. Ngarrindjeri participants were distressed by a lack of computer literacy, costs of maintaining a network, and inadequate facilities in the rural area. Despite this, their attitudes towards the Internet were still positive: they recognised the value of technologies and would like to distribute their culture online, with caution and in an appropriate manner. Conclusion. The study provides insights into indigenous Australians’ information behaviour and Internet use in their daily lives. Future research directions are also discussed. This research project was funded by the auDA Foundation Pty Ltd and Division of ITEE Research Development Grant at the University of South Australia. We acknowledge the advice and support of the Ngarrindjeri Land and Progress Association, with particular thanks to the Ngarrindjeri participants. We thank the anonymous reviewers for their detailed and constructive comments. Research Assistants Vicky Sun and Dandan Ma helped collect the data and did some preliminary analysis.
... This, it is argued, will enable the sharing of social and economic benefits for all through ubiquitous access to information networks while preserving diversity and cultural heritage. Radoll (2011) and The Civil Society Content and Themes Working Group (CSCTWG) (2003) suggest that rural people should be enabled to acquire requisite skills in order to participate actively and understand the information society and benefit in full from the possibilities it offers. Additionally, the use of ICTs in everyday life influences its adoption by indigenous households. ...
Chapter
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This chapter explores the role played by Information and Communication Technology tools in the management of indigenous Knowledge in general. Of importance to note, therefore, is the fact that the emergence of Information and Communication Technology tools has opened new avenues in Indigenous Knowledge Management (IKM) which have the potential of playing important roles in the society by making the valuable knowledge available to everyone who recognizes and uses it. Given the nature of indigenous knowledge which is commonly exchanged through personal communication and demonstration exemplified as deriving from the master to the apprentice, from the parents to the children, from the one neighbour to the other and so on. Information and Communication Technology tools appear to be providing as a solution in forestalling the possible extinction of IK.
... Today, information communication technologies (ICTs) offer unprecedented opportunities to enhance educational systems, improve policy formulation and execution, and expand the range of opportunities for income generation and social change among socially disadvantaged groups e.g. the poor and people living in remote locations are often represented in both of these groups (Randoll 2011, Mayerhofer & Taylor 2010, Randoll, Fleissner, Stevenson & Gardner 2013, Thapa and Saebo 2014. Their experiences of using ICTs are often different than in other communities (Radoll 2010(Radoll , 2011. One of the reasons for this is that knowledge of traditional culture is an important A major obstacle to the deployment of ICTs in remote Indigenous communities has been the costs of establishing and maintaining reliable infrastructure (ACMA 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Indigenous communities across the world have been suffering disadvantages in several domains, e.g. erosion of land rights, language and other cultural aspects, while at the same time being discriminated against when prepared to integrate into the dominant cultures. It has been argued in the literature that information communication technologies (ICTs) have the potential of contributing to addressing some of these disadvantages – both in terms of rebuilding what has been eroded and facilitating integration into non-Indigenous societies. In trying to understand how ICTs can be useful for these processes, it is important to do so from a conceptual framework that encompasses the multi-dimensionality of the issues faced by Indigenous communities. The conceptual frameworks frequently used in the ICT literature tend to focus on adoption, use and diffusion of technologies rather than how the use of ICTs affects the livelihoods of the users, which is the focus of this paper. The conceptual framework is informed by the capability approach (CA), in particular by the five freedoms identified in the seminal work of Amartya Sen (2001), “Development as Freedom” (DaF). Data were collected from a purposive sample in an Indigenous community in Bangladesh, using a qualitative method to map how ICTs had affected the lives of these community members The findings suggest that the participants perceived that ICTs had made positive contributions, particularly the benefits they gained from learning how to use computers in the domains that are relevant from the perspective of the five freedoms espoused in DaF. The findings reported in this paper are useful for policy formulation in Bangladesh. As the study is contextualised in a transitional economy setting and can therefore not be generalised, but we believe that the conceptual framework has much to offer future research designed to understand how ICTs can improve the livelihoods of Indigenous individuals and communities.
Chapter
This chapter explores the role played by Information and Communication Technology tools in the management of indigenous Knowledge in general. Of importance to note, therefore, is the fact that the emergence of Information and Communication Technology tools has opened new avenues in Indigenous Knowledge Management (IKM) which have the potential of playing important roles in the society by making the valuable knowledge available to everyone who recognizes and uses it. Given the nature of indigenous knowledge which is commonly exchanged through personal communication and demonstration exemplified as deriving from the master to the apprentice, from the parents to the children, from the one neighbour to the other and so on. Information and Communication Technology tools appear to be providing as a solution in forestalling the possible extinction of IK.