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... brine shrimp lethality assay has been used severally as a preliminary tool in toxicity testing of plant extracts. 13,24 The result of the toxicity evaluation of the plant extracts by brine shrimp lethality assay is as shown in Table 1. There was a dose-dependent increase in mortality of brine shrimps exposed to various concentrations of aqueous root bark extract of S. longepedunculata. ...
Context 2
... exposure of shrimps to sea water only did not cause any nauplii death. However, exposure of nauplii in each group to concentrations of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 µg/mL S. longepedunculata caused a percentage death of 0, 50, 70 and 100%, respectively (Table 1). LC50 is the concentration of a substance that is lethal to 50% of the organisms exposed to it in a toxicity test. ...

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Securidaca longepedunculata (SL) and Luffa cylindrica (LC) leaf extracts have been shown to exhibit significant antiulcer effect on ethanol-induced gastric lesions. This study examined the antiulcerogenic effect of chromatographic fractions of ethyl acetate extracts of the selected plants. The ethyl acetate extracts of (SL) and (LC) were fractionat...

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... Brine shrimp toxicity assay showed a LC50 of 25.1μg/mL and the Allium cepa assay revealed that 100mg/mL extract caused a reduction in Mitotic Index (MI) which was comparable to that of the standard drug, methotrexate. Securidaca longepedunculata has potential as a cytotoxic agent [39]. ...
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Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumours in women of reproductive age. It represents the most frequent gynaecological pathology among outpatients from the Department of Gynaecology in some teaching hospitals in Burkina Faso. Besides conventional treatments, there is a traditional medicine that is widely used by African populations. This study aims at investigating uterine fibroids management in traditional medicine. Materials and Methods: Structured interviews were administered to the traditional healer and her patients. Ultrasound examination reports were collected. The rationale for the use of the plants was discussed. Results: Trichilia emetical, Securidaca longepedunculata, Cassia sieberiana and Lannea acida were used to treat uterine fibroids. Decoction of the mixture from these plants was used as an oral drink, vaginal baths and sitz bath. In addition to the plants, abdominal expression to extract masses from the pelvis. The mean size of the uterus is 1694421mm vs. 1663637mm; the mean number of fibroids is 6.67 vs. 8; the mean size of fibroids is 3158.67mm 3 vs. 3216mm 3 and the mean size of the ovaries 1405mm 3 vs. 1774mm 3 before and after treatment respectively. Conclusion: The plants used by the traditional healer are involved in some pathophysiological pathways of uterine fibroids and justify their use. Further studies to investigate ultrasound outcome, anatomopathological examinations of extracted masses are needed. by reducing the size of the fibroids, controlling fibroid-related abnormal uterine bleeding, or definitively curing the fibroids. Available treatments include medical therapies, interventional radiology, and surgical procedures. Despite the advancement of medical and uterine-preserving treatment options in the past decade, hysterectomy remains the most commonly offered and chosen treatment by women with symptomatic fibroids [6,7]. In Africa, in addition to conventional treatments, traditional medicine, which is used by 80% of the populations [8] offers phyto-treatments for the management of leiomyomas [9-13]. These plants play important role as alternative medicine due to their low cost, perception of their minimal side effects, availability and knowledge about their use in the treatment of diseases. Many African plants have been shown to have Anti-Uterine Fibroid effects in animal models [11,13-17]. Some traditional healers are specialized in the management of gynaecological affections of women. In Bobo-Dioulasso, a very popular traditional healer is known to treat uterine fibroids and women fertility problems. She is receiving patients from all over West Africa. We aimed at studying the treatment uterine fibroids and its outcomes by a popular traditional healer in Bobo-Dioulasso.
... Extract of the stems, LC50 of 10.7 µg/mL, showed higher potency than the leaves extract and potassium dichromate with LC50 of 45.2 and 13.0 µg/mL respectively. In a similar study, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), one of the most frequently used anticancer drugs, gave an LC50 of 363 μg/mL on brine shrimps (Lawal et al., 2018). Our results revealed that the extracts of O. subscorpioidea leaves and stems showed greater potency than 5-FU. ...
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The search for novel, safe and effective anticancer agents has been a continuous and recurring objective in cancer research. Olax subscorpioidea is a medicinal plant used for ethnomedicinal treatment of cancer in Nigeria. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic, anti-mitotic and cytogenetic effects of methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of O. subscorpioidea. The cytotoxic activities were evaluated against brine shrimps (Artemia salina) nauplii and Allium cepa roots, while anti-mitotic and cytogenetic effects were assessed on Allium cepa meristematic cells. Cytotoxicity assays showed that the extracts demonstrated potent cytotoxic activities, having LC50 values of 10.7 and 45.2 µg/mL against brine shrimps and IC50 values in the range of 47.03 – 81.93 µg/mL on A. cepa roots. These activities were comparable to that of potassium dichromate and methotrexate used as positive control in each of the assays. Anti-mitotic results indicated that at a concentration of 10 µg/mL, the extracts demonstrated percentage mitotic inhibition (% M.I) of 35.95 – 70.12%, with greater or similar anti-mitotic effects to methotrexate at a concentration of 125 µg/mL, % M.I of 39.04 – 40.64%. Cytogenetic investigation revealed that the extracts showed chromosomal aberrations that were not considerably different from those observed in the negative control group. The current findings suggest that the plant extracts may contain cytotoxic and anti-mitotic compounds. Further research to investigate these extracts in more sophisticated test systems and to isolate and characterize their active principles is ongoing.
... The meristematic region in the roots of the Allium cepa plant undergoes repeated divisions which have been noted to be similar to the rate of cancer cell division in humans. The Allium cepa assay method is widely used for evaluating the anti-mitotic activity of compounds and therefore their antiproliferative potential [2,[12][13][14]. The decrease in the mitotic index in the roots tip of Allium cepa after treatment with the aqueous and alcohol extracts of T.fuscatus and P.aurita suggests these extracts have the ability to inhibit actively dividing cells. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the antimitotic and antiproliferation activities of crude acetone-methanol and aqueous extracts of two marine molluscs commonly found in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria; T.fuscatus and P.aurita, against human cancerous cell lines (DU145, Hep-2, and HCC1395) cell lines in vitro. The antimitotic activity of the extracts was evaluated using Allium cepa root meristematic cells. Antiproliferative activity of the plant extracts against the cancerous cell lines was compared with normal cell line (VeroE6). Doxorubicin was used as a positive control. Gene expression studies using qPCR for the proapoptotic genes, CASP3, CASP8 and P53 were also carried out. The alcohol extract of T.fuscatus (TFAC) exhibited the most promising activity against all the cancer cell lines tested (DU145 IC50 = 96.48 ± 1.36 μg/ml, HCC 1395 IC50 = 61.44 ± 2.45 μg/ml, Hep2 IC50 = 0.52 ± 0.36 μg/ml) and also had the highest selectivity index of 4.94, 7.78 and 921.97 for DU145, HCC 1395 and Hep-2 cells respectively. Furthermore, TFAC was the only extract that significantly upregulated the expression of caspase 3, caspase 8 and P53. Thus, these findings suggest potential exploitation of TFAC as an anticancer agent.