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Curt Richter and Phyllis Greenacre conducting an experimental study of the grasp reflex in human infants. (Reproduced by courtesy of the Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions.) 

Curt Richter and Phyllis Greenacre conducting an experimental study of the grasp reflex in human infants. (Reproduced by courtesy of the Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions.) 

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Psychobiology, Psychiatry, and Psychoanalysis: The Intersecting Careers of Adolf Meyer, Phyllis Greenacre, and Curt Richter - Volume 53 Issue 1 - Andrew Scull, Jay Schulkin

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... Abb. 1Diese später publizierten Arbeiten wurden nach Angabe der Autoren in München begonnen flächliche Ordnung der Patientenakten durch Phyllis Greenacre bewies jedoch, dass die Sterblichkeit bei den großen Eingriffen größer war als die reklamierten Erfolge[12]. Die Veröffentlichung dieser kritischen Untersuchung wurde von Adolf Meyer, dem früheren Mentor Cottons, lange Zeit verhindert[21]. Die Affäre führte aber zu einer der ersten interdisziplinären, systematischen, kontrollierten Studien[15,16,22], die von George Kirby initiiert wurde, der 1906 ebenfalls einige Monate bei Kraepelin in München verbracht hatte [8]. Die Stimmung wissenschaftlichen Aufbruchs und der Wille zum Durchbruch von der Theorie in die medizinische Praxis und bis in die Gesellschaft hinein trugen zu katastrophalen Konsequenzen bei, die sich nicht auf Deutschland beschränkten. ...
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Zusammenfassung Die Betriebsausflüge von Emil Kraepelins Königlich Psychiatrischer Klinik wurden unter den Mitarbeitern als „katatone Wanderungen“ bezeichnet. Im Jahr 1906 nahm eine erstaunliche Zahl deutscher und internationaler Gäste daran teil, Nicolas Achucarro, Henry Cotton, Eduard Flatau, Smith Ely Jelliffe, Gaetano Perusini, Edward Scripture, Maurycy Urstein und andere. Viele von Kraepelins Kollegen waren inspiriert von seinen Ideen und getrieben von wissenschaftlichem Enthusiasmus, der neben fachlichen Fortschritten in der Nervenheilkunde zu ganz unterschiedlichen Ergebnissen führte, von der Zahn- und Bauchchirurgie zu Psychoanalyse und Evidenz-basierter Medizin; von Rassenhygiene und Nationalismus zur Präsidentschaft des kommunistischen Rumänien.
... A notable psychiatrist of this time was Adolf Meyer who practiced psychiatry with an emphasis on psychobiology and the influence of environmental, constitutional, and developmental factors on mental health. Meyer endeavored to create comprehensive histories and physicals on his patients which included social, mental, physical, and developmental history [8,9]. With World War II, there was an influx of psychiatrists trained in psychoanalysis immigrating to the US. ...
... Henderson was also introduced to the staff meeting, a novel clinical practice brought by Meyer from the psychiatric teaching hospitals of Europe (Meyer, 1948: 19). Used as an educational and training exercise, staff meetings entailed a single examining psychiatrist directing questions towards the patient, while a stenographer, sitting silently, recorded word-by-word the conversation between patient and practitioner (Scull, 2009). Henderson found the staff meeting a 'magnificent training system for junior members of staff, not only because of the clinical material but also because of the skilled manner in which it was discussed by the more senior members of staff' (Henderson, 1964: 160). ...
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Charting a transatlantic movement of so-called ‘dynamic psychiatry’ during the early twentieth century, this paper reads against the grain of established historiographies. Comparing biographical and autobiographical sources with contemporary correspondence, a history is told which considers the evolution of psychiatric knowledge and clinical practices ‘from below’. Revealing a period and place when a ‘dynamic’ counter-culture challenged the established materialist views of Scottish psychiatry, the longevity of this challenge is considered in the concluding paragraphs.
... In creative individuals, certain tendencies toward a precocious mysticism or religious experiences have also been detected, sometimes with identifications with divine figures, and this can again be explained by means of the disavowal mechanism because of the mystic 51 Already widely mentioned above. En passant, following Harley and Weil (1990) and Scull and Schulkin (2009), we recall that Phyllis Greenacre ) was a notable American psychiatrist (with A. Meyer as advisor) and a psychoanalyst (with F. Wittels and E. Jacobson as supervisors), in friendship with E. Kris and H. Hartmann, who made important clinical and theoretical contributions to and insights into human development, to psychoanalytic training and therapy, and to creativity and fetishism. In particular, in the early 1950s Greenacre began to write on fetishism, observing that fetishists had an especially mutable bodily image. ...
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... Fue combinando este trabajo docente con distintos cargos clínicos como patólogo del del Eastern Hospital for the Insane en Kankakee, Illinois (1893) seguido por su nombramiento en el Worcester State Hospital for the Insane en Worcester, Massachusetts (1895), su cargo como director del Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals en Nueva York (1902), y nalmente su puesto en 1908 como Director de la Clínica Psiquiátrica Henry Phipps, inaugurada en 1913. A todos estos cargos y puestos docentes, hay que sumarle su implicación en numerosas actividades organizativas y editoriales tanto en psiquiatría como en psicología; con un marcado papel institucionalizador. (Carnes, 2002;Grob, 1983, Scull y Schulkin, 2009Shorter, 1997). ...
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Resumen El psiquiatra Americano de origen suizo Adolf Meyer (1866-1950) es considerado uno de los psiquiatras más innuyentes de la primera mitad del siglo XX. Entre su amplia correspondencia, se encuentran los hombres más eminentes en el terreno de la psiquiatría y de la psicología de su época. En este trabajo examinaremos la correspondencia entre A. Meyer y uno de los psiquiatras y psicólogos españoles más eminentes, Emilio Mira (1896-1964) con el de hacernos idea de la signiicación del español para su homólogo americano. Para obtener una imagen completa, estudiaremos las cartas que se intercambiaron, incluyendo la correspondencia corporativa en la que ambos estuvieron implicados. Además consideraremos las anotaciones relevantes de los diarios de Meyer y sus notas de trabajo. Concluiremos que Meyer tenía a Mira en alta estima profesional y conocía directamente sus trabajos, en parte como consecuencia de que ambos compartían muchos de sus supuestos teóricos, epistemológicos y aplicados. Abstract Swiss-born American Adolf Meyer (1866-1950) is considered one of the most innuential psychiatrists of the half of the 20th century. Among his extensive correspondence the names of the most eminent men in the psychiatric and psychological of his time appear. paper examines the correspondence between A. Meyer and one of the most important Spaniard psychologist and psychiatrist E. Mira (1896-1964), as a way to have a insight
... In some authors' opinion, Meyer was the most prominent and influential American psychiatrist in the first half of the 20th century (Grob, 1983;Leys 1991;Scull, 2005;Scull & Schulkin, 2009;Shorter, 1997). Born in Switzerland, he graduated from medical school at the University of Zurich in 1892 and that same year, emigrated to the United States. ...
... In some authors' opinion, Meyer was the most prominent and influential American psychiatrist in the first half of the 20th century (Grob, 1983;Leys 1991;Scull, 2005;Scull & Schulkin, 2009;Shorter, 1997). Born in Switzerland, he graduated from medical school at the University of Zurich in 1892 and that same year, emigrated to the United States. ...
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In the early twentieth century, the Swiss-born psychiatrist Adolf Meyer (1866-1950) played a major role in defining and institutionalizing the field of mental hygiene. In addition, he was actively involved in establishing American Psychiatry and Psychology as allied, but professionally and academically independent disciplines. From his highly visible position as professor of psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University and director of the prestigious Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic, Meyer assumed a preeminent place in the American Psychological scene. From that position, he also exerted a profound influence internationally. This paper examines Meyer’s correspondence with certain Spanish authors in order to glean some insight into the significance of the Spaniards to their American counterparts. It is concluded that Meyer had a deep knowledge of the work of Ramon y Cajal, Nicolas Achúcarro, Gonzalo Rodríguez Lafora, and Emilio Mira. Furthermore, Meyer knew first-hand the political circumstances that forced most of them into exile, and worked with some American initiatives to support Spanish doctors and scientists during and after the Spanish Civil War.
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During the first half of the twentieth century, advances were accelerated and the field expanded dramatically, making very difficult the narration of events and developments in a simultaneous temporal and cause-and-effect relationship. The twentieth century begun with the publication of the ‘Interpretation of Dreams’ by Sigmund Freud and the first half concluded with the development of the ECT and psychosurgery.
Chapter
There can be little doubt that Sigmund Freud had a major impact on the public’s perception of psychosomatic illnesses, yet his model of the conscious and unconscious mind had relatively little impact on the treatment of psychosomatic symptoms. Overall, psychoanalysis is not very helpful for treating psychosomatic symptoms, and it is not available to the vast majority of people. On the other hand, common-sense psychotherapy based on positive suggestion, reassurance and stress management has proven very effective in a wide variety of settings. The major wars of the twentieth century provided a dramatic example of the effects of chronic stress on the health of human beings. Late in the century, the new medical subspecialty, psychosomatic medicine, documented the importance of chronic stress for most medical conditions including hypertension, heart disease and even cancer. The result was a new biopsychosocial model of medicine. With this historical context, we can now address the biological and psychosocial factors that cause psychosomatic symptoms.