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19. Curitiba's trinary road system. The inclusion of mixed land uses and affordable housing 

19. Curitiba's trinary road system. The inclusion of mixed land uses and affordable housing 

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Citations

... The trend continues today -in Europe (European Union states) alone, 74% of the population currently resides in urban areas (European Union, 2016). This causes enormous economic, societal, infrastructural, and environmental pressures from and on urban environments (Lucertini & Musco, 2020;Seto et al. 2014). Cities are not only one of the major contributors to climate change, but they will also be greatly affected by it (Kumar, 2021;Balaban, 2012). ...
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... This challenge mandates rapid and far-reaching transitions in energy, land, urban and infrastructure (including transport and buildings), and industrial systems [3]. Urban areas account for between 71% and 76% of CO 2 emissions from global final energy use and between 67-76% of global energy use [4]. Many international frameworks like the Sustainable Development Goals [5], the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction [6], Paris Climate Agreements [7], and the New Urban Agenda [8] require human settlements information to feed indicators to form the basis for an empirical-informed policy for global climate action. ...
... Global cities are a varied lot and their GHG emissions are influenced by economic and developmental status. For instance, cities in the Kyoto Protocol's Annex-I (developed) countries have lower per capita energy use and thus GHG emissions than national averages [4]. Analysis of 200+ countries/territories shows that GHGs demonstrate stronger correlation to their urbanization levels, than to their GDP [17]. ...
... How relevant is this to megacities as urban carbon GHGs are growing irrespective of their global 'North-South' disposition [31]? The development status becomes critical because there is robust evidence that the largest opportunities for future urban GHG mitigation are in developing countries where urban form and infrastructure are not locked-in, but often bear limited technical, financial, and institutional capacities to do so [4]. Thus it becomes vital to compare: (a) GHG structures of megacities at the continental level, and (b) Mitigation targets of individual megacities against their economic status. ...
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... While climate change has traditionally been studied at the global level, this report emphasized the importance of cities for reducing GHG emissions (i.e., climate change mitigation) and improving the capacity to deal with the adverse impacts of climate change (i.e., adaptation). Subsequently, for the first time in the history of IPCC reports, separate chapters were allocated to cities and human settlements in the fifth assessment report (IPCC AR5) published in 2014 (Seto et al., 2014). As discussed later, these efforts have effectively made climate change a key thematic area in the subsequent periods. ...
... In addition, the high concentration of humans and properties in cities necessitates taking urgent actions to adapt to climate change impacts that are projected to increase in frequency and intensity in the coming decades (Dodman et al., 2022). Accordingly, the importance of cities for climate change mitigation and adaptation was emphasized in important policy documents such as the IPCC AR5 and the Paris Climate Agreement (Seto et al., 2014). In addition, several global networks of cities, such as the "C40 Cities" (https://www.c40.org/) and the "Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy" (https://www.globalcovenantofmayors.org/) have been launched to expedite actions toward addressing the climate crisis in cities. ...
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... Finally, in the context of the climate crisis, the cycle of carbon and other GHG is a priority to be considered. Density, land use mix, connectivity, and accessibility are the key drivers of energy use and GHG emissions related to urban form, according to Seto et al. (2014). ...
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The buildings and construction sector is responsible for nearly 40% of the total greenhouse emissions (GHG). Considering 50% of the building stock that will exist in 2050 is yet to be built and most of it will be devoted to housing; the sector is a determinant and transformative force to strengthen sustainability, reducing CO2 emissions and environmental degradation worldwide. Most of the increase in construction and housing is set to occur in developing countries and mainly in cities in Asia and Africa. This global picture places new housing programs in the rapidly urbanising regions as potential agents of sustainable transformation, with positive outcomes for both communities and the environment. Investing in sustainable housing has significant and real value in reducing emissions, confronting climate change, and generating better planned, inclusive, and sustainable cities. The holistic benefit achieved with the implementation of carbon neutral and carbon negative technologies is often scattered, and an integrated view of it would be a key tool to support the development of sustainable housing programmes. Considering that technologies to decarbonize and render the construction sector more sustainable have already been developed, there is a need to contrast their applicability to different countries and contexts in order to verify their functionality and identify gaps for improvement. The recent decade has witnessed a significant improvement at the global level with regards to the application of the concept of sustainability to the built environment, this being demonstrated by the multiple sustainability ratings and frameworks being developed to certify building performance. Their adoption has been critically important in most regions in the so-called Global North, where countries have started enforcing them at a normative level. While these tools’ accuracy and comprehensiveness could be disputed, their importance in promoting a systematic standardisation of the adoption of sustainability measures in the built environment is endorsed. Nevertheless, the diffusion of such tools and frameworks across rapidly urbanising middle and low-income countries has been so far extremely limited. There are myriad reasons why this is the case: tools based for high-income country contexts, their complexity, the need for accurate data and specific capacity for their adoption and diffusion, the lack of contextual relevance with regards to the specific market, culture and behavioural dynamics, and more. The following paper aims at demonstrating the value of shifting toward sustainable building practices by a comparative analysis of existing global tools and certifications and their applicability to low and middle-income countries undergoing a rapid urbanisation process. It proposes a three-phased multi-stakeholders methodology. The outcome of these three phases is combined, providing a more appropriate definition of effective and operative guidelines and tools for sustainable housing in rapidly urbanising middle and lowincome regions.
... Urban areas are associated with >67% of energy consumption and 71% of associated greenhouse gas emissions (Seto et al., 2014). Space conditioning and lighting for urban buildings account for over 40% of the total energy use in the US (US Department of Energy, 2015). ...
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Studies have shown that urban vegetation can be an effective strategy for reducing energy consumption in urban buildings by regulating the microclimate and shading solar radiation on building surfaces. However, an understanding of the potential energy savings of vegetation morphological planning at the urban scale is still lacking, particularly regarding the quantitative correlation between urban vegetation morphology and its impact on urban building energy use. The morphology of the metropolitan area in Nanjing, a typical hot summer/cold winter city in eastern China, was statistically analyzed, and 40 urban building-vegetation morphological prototypes were extracted. Using the proposed co-simulation technique for urban microclimate and urban building energy, the summer and winter building energy consumption of the prototypes were simulated. A quantitative analysis was conducted on the relationship between urban vegetation morphology indexes and building energy consumption. The results indicate that strategically planned urban vegetation morphology can significantly reduce urban building energy consumption. In the summer, vegetation close to the geometric center of the site, uniformly distributed and highly mixed with buildings, can significantly reduce the building energy consumption; in the winter, the opposite is true. The presented findings provide designers and planners with strategies for incorporating urban vegetation morphology design into the construction of energy efficient cities.
... Urban areas can account for around 70% of CO 2 emissions from global energy use (Seto et al., 2014). Hosting more than half of the world's population, cities concentrate most of the built assets and economic activities, reinforcing their vulnerability to climate change. ...
Chapter
Climate change is expected to affect the most diverse regions of the world in diverse ways, posing additional challenges to managers and populations in the countryside and in the cities. In this chapter, we adopt climate anomaly scenarios considering the variables such as maximum temperature, consecutive days of rain, and number of dry days, to select municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon that are likely to face great climate changes in the region. We then analyzed socioeconomic data, producing clusters for groups of municipalities based on the neural network self-organizing maps. Our findings reveal that an analysis of the cities from a nexus perspective shows the impact of climate change in urban development and, at the same time, urban development impacts on the natural resources. The results depict Brazilian Amazon municipalities’ vulnerability – they have the lowest level of basic sanitation, waste management, adequate storm drainage, and human development index that makes their population particularly vulnerable to face the climate crisis. Furthermore, impacts can be particularly disastrous for 30 Amazonian municipalities by their critical condition due to climate change and their socioeconomic and water demand index. Our results can be useful for managers of municipalities that may reach critical states due to climate change and serve as an alert to the urgency of adaptation and management strategies.
... Urban areas can account for around 70% of CO 2 emissions from global energy use (Seto et al., 2014). Hosting more than half of the world's population, cities concentrate most of the built assets and economic activities, reinforcing their vulnerability to climate change. ...
Chapter
Cities are dependent on hinterlands – whether local or global – for water, energy, and food (WEF) to sustain urban activities. With the projected growth of urban population and consumption, the demand for natural resources tends to increase. Moreover, climate change will potentially increase the insecurity of the availability of WEF in cities. Decision-makers in cities are often faced with the very challenging issue of resource management due to scarcity of resources that generates conflicts among stakeholders. Therefore, the risks associated with rapid urbanization and climate change have highlighted the need to reconfigure the development of cities to optimize and reduce the use of resources in order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Nevertheless, various approaches have been developed in the last decades to improve the WEFN. Thus, this chapter presents challenges and opportunities for improving the governance of cities over WEF systems and the nexus among them. Using the WEF nexus framework, cities would benefit from a transition toward a circular economy that uses renewable resources and designs cyclical and efficient systems. This would encourage innovative responses and effective partnerships toward smarter cities able to tackle climate change.
... Urban areas can account for around 70% of CO 2 emissions from global energy use (Seto et al., 2014). Hosting more than half of the world's population, cities concentrate most of the built assets and economic activities, reinforcing their vulnerability to climate change. ...
Chapter
The urban water-energy-food (WEF) nexus approach in cities represents a pathway for coping with trade-offs in the search for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The scientific literature on the WEF nexus has grown enormously since 2012. Recently, it has become more diversified with the evolution of new topics and expanded scope, demonstrating the inherent complexity associated with nexus thinking and placing this methodology at the science-0policy-society interface. Cities are central to the sustainability agenda and have been at the core of plans and strategies implementation since United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED 92). Thus, applying the nexus in urban contexts allows the exploration of local complexities and uncertainties and the engagement of different social actors to produce actions that transcend scales and dialogue with global concerns, such as climate change. Unquestionably, the urban nexus stimulates multilevel and intersectoral governance, contributing to coping with the challenges and contradictions of the SDGs. Innovations, understood in a broad sense as doing things differently, are essential to moving the WEF nexus from theory into practice. Here we explore nexus discussions via cases involving urban-rural relationships, circular economy, institutional perspectives, logistics, urban food production, and food waste reduction and analyze the consequences for urban climate mitigation and adaptation.