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Cumulative worldwide installed wind power capacity from 1990 to 2015, and annual installed capacity, in gigawatts (GW). Data Source: GWEC's Annual market update adjusted for offshore installed but non-connected capacity in Europe, and other minor adjustments. 

Cumulative worldwide installed wind power capacity from 1990 to 2015, and annual installed capacity, in gigawatts (GW). Data Source: GWEC's Annual market update adjusted for offshore installed but non-connected capacity in Europe, and other minor adjustments. 

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Over the last decade, the utilisation of renewable energy in the electricity sector, especially from solar and wind sources, is growing at a much faster pace than the rest of the economy in Europe and world-wide. The significant cost reduction of solar PV and wind power during this time and their zero fuel cost volatility have increased their attra...

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... 63.1 GW 6 [48] of new wind turbine capacity was installed in 2015, bringing the worldwide total installed wind capacity to around 433 GW (Fig. 6). If all this capacity was connected to the grid, it would produce about 862 TWh of electricity in an average year, assuming the 2015 world average capacity factor of 2,150 h or 24.5%. With global electricity consumption calculated at 19,481 TWh in 2014 [49] and assuming a 2% increase in 2015, wind contributed that year approxi- mately ...

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... Wind power generation has many advantages, such as low pollution and convenient use, and has become an important part of the new energy industry [1,2]. However, the inertia and anti-interference ability of a high wind power proportion system are poor, which seriously affects the stability and power quality of the power grid. ...
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Based on the energy storage type of hydraulic wind turbines (HWTs) and in view of the unit frequency drop problem under high wind power proportion conditions, this paper proposes a method of primary frequency control under maximum power point tracking (MPPT). HWT power output is affected by wind speed randomness and volatility. In addition, traditional wind turbines do not have inertial adjustment ability, leading to a decrease in the frequency stability of the power system caused by the increase in wind power permeability. In the paper, a hydraulic energy storage system and synchronous generator are combined to carry out primary frequency modulation, and a mathematical model of the hydraulic energy storage system, the hydraulic main transmission system, and the generator active power regulation system after grid connection is established. By analyzing the load changing rules of power systems and frequency fluctuation caused by the power system load after the wind turbine is grid-connected, the variable parameter frequency modulation compensation control strategy of combined turbine-energy storage systems is established, and simulation verification under different load fluctuations is carried out, verifying the effectiveness of the frequency modulation control strategy, which achieves a good control effect for improving the frequency modulation ability of hydraulic wind turbines.
... Public subsidies have made Europe a major player in PV development particularly through feed-in-tariff (FIT) schemes [13]. The significant rise of installed power allowed a noteworthy reduction in investment costs and a gradual reduction of subsidies. ...
... Robust standard errors are shown in parenthesis. 13 ...
Article
The development of photovoltaic (PV) systems in Southern Europe has been boosted by favourable sunshine levels but also by the policies implemented. Europe's ambitious plans for a green transition require new power to be installed but also new consumption habits that tend to be more responsible. The transformation of cities goes through the emergence of prosumers and the percentage of self-consumption is the variable that determines the profitability of PV systems. This work is based on an online energy survey conducted in two southern European countries (i.e. Italy and Spain), in which both expectations and behaviour of consumers with regards to solar energy are compared between countries. Among other things, interviewees were asked to quantify the introduction of a subsidy for self-consumption. Interestingly, results show an average of 4 cent€/kWh and 3 cent€/kWh for Italy and Spain, respectively. Additionally, the survey allowed eliciting the price subjects believe one ought to pay for both fossil fuel-based and renewable energy, resulting in a green premium of 10 cent€/kWh and 8 cent€/kWh for Italy and Spain, respectively. Finally, the crucial role played by policies in shaping consumers’ perceptions emerged as decisive in fostering the development of PV systems in European countries.
... Currently, the seriousness of global warming is emerging around the world, and many countries are making various efforts to reduce CO 2 emissions, the cause of global warming, through the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change [1]. Historically, nuclear power generation has been converted from the traditional fossil fuel-based energy system to reduce the burden of fossil fuel depletion and environmental problems and is playing a leading role in the global electricity market. ...
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Renewable energy is being adopted worldwide, and the proportion of offshore wind turbines is increasing. Offshore wind turbines operate in harsh weather conditions, resulting in various failures and high maintenance costs. In this paper, a condition diagnosis model for condition monitoring of an offshore wind turbine has been developed. The generator, main bearing, pitch system, and yaw system were selected as components subject to the condition monitoring by considering the failure rate and downtime of the wind turbine. The condition diagnosis model works by comparing real-time and predictive operating data of the wind turbine, and about four years of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) data from a 2 MW wind turbine was used to develop the model. A deep neural network and an artificial neural network were used as machine learning to predict the operational data in the condition diagnosis model, and a confusion matrix was used to measure the accuracy of the failure determination. As a result of the condition monitoring derived by inputting SCADA data to the designed system, it was possible to maintain the failure determination accuracy of more than 90%. The proposed condition monitoring system will be effectively utilized for the maintenance of wind turbines.
... Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the major driver of global warming, and most of the GHG emissions into the atmosphere since industrialization has been due to fossil fuel use [1]. Conventional energy sources, such as fossil fuels, remain dominant in global power generation [2]. Global efforts are being made to reduce fossil fuel use and shift to utilizing renewable energy for power generation. ...
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Heavily industrialized East Asia, with its high greenhouse gas emissions, must inevitably increase renewable energy production to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement. Photovoltaics (PV), a widely utilized renewable energy source, is directly affected by the weather and climate. This study conducted the first analysis of current and future PV potential (PVpot) changes over East Asia using the ERA5 reanalysis and multiple high-resolution regional climate model simulations. The recent PVpot over East Asia did not exhibit any notable changes, but the future PVpot of the multi-model ensemble is predicted to decrease by −4.3% (winter) to −1.5% (summer) on average with excellent inter-model agreements. Results demonstrated that the widespread increase in near-surface air temperature causes the overall PVpot decrease (around −2.0%) over East Asia across all seasons. Interestingly, surface down-welling shortwave radiation increases in summer, offsetting temperature-induced PVpot decreases (by about 0.7%) while it declines in winter and spring, intensifying the warming-driven PVpot decrease (by approximately −1.4% to −2.3%). Further, the changes in the number of rainy days are associated with the changing patterns of surface down-welling shortwave radiation, indicating the importance of reliable projections of precipitation. Wind speed exerts a negligible effect on the future PVpot change.
... In regard to renewable energy sources, it is necessary to study how these systems perform and evolve in both time and space [20][21][22][23]. For example, a detailed investigation of alternative energy sources in Sweden revealed that solar irradiance and wind speed are negatively correlated with one another on both hourly and annual scales [24]. ...
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The generation, consumption, and transmission of distributed energy produced by a microgrid are becoming increasingly important topics in scientific research. As a power source that partly relies on renewable energy, microgrids play a vital role in the global energy network. In this study, the underlying principles and management techniques of microgrids are introduced. Microgrids can reduce the carbon footprint of the energy production process. This study also provides insight into how decision-makers can confidently mitigate the uncertainties inherent in this kind of renewable energy system by proposing an optimization algorithm for microgrid energy management. By investigating several commercial microgrid cases, a mathematical model that allows the user to arrive at the optimal trade-off between energy generation and carbon production in a given scenario is created. Careful analysis of energy transactions and distributed energy sources indicates that energy blockchain technology is a valuable asset for expanding the use of clean energies, reducing carbon emissions in power and optimizing microgrid power management. Finally, the challenges of microgrid energy management and potential transaction models for the energy blockchain are discussed.
... The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) pointed out in its Emissions Gap Report 2019 that total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy production and industrial activities reached 37.5 Gt in 2018, with total carbon dioxide emissions increased by as high as 2% [31]. And 65% of the total carbon emissions were from using fossil fuels [32]. Massive GHG emissions have exacerbated global warming, wreaking havoc on human society and the environment [33]. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has created significant challenges for energy transition. Concerns about the overwhelming emphasis on economic recovery at the cost of energy transition progress have been raised worldwide. More voices are calling for "green" recovery scheme, which recovers the economy while not compromising on the environment. However, limited academic attention has been paid to comprehensively investigating the implications of COVID-19 for global energy transition. This study thus provides a comprehensive analysis of the dynamics between energy transition and COVID-19 around the world and proposes a low-carbon energy transition roadmap in the post-pandemic era. Using energy data from the International Energy Agency (IEA), we first summarized and reviewed the progress of energy transition prior to COVID-19. Building on prior progress, we identified the challenges for energy transition during the pandemic from the perspectives of government support, fossil fuel divestment, renewable energy production capacity, global supply chain, and energy poverty. However, the pandemic also generates opportunities for global energy transition. We hence also identified potential opportunities for energy transition presented by the pandemic from the perspectives of price competitiveness, policy implementation efficiency, and renewable energy strengths. We further provided an in-depth discussion on the impact of current worldwide economic recovery stimulus on energy transition. Based on the identified challenges and opportunities, we proposed the post-pandemic energy transition roadmap in terms of broadening green financing instruments, strengthening international cooperation, and enhancing green recovery plans. Our study sheds light on a global low-carbon energy transition framework and has practical implications for green recovery schemes in post-pandemic times.
... The majority of these alternatives are perceived as costly. Hence, to address these concerns, the COP26 held in Glasgow in 2021 pledged to provide $100 billion per year to developing nations [5]. These financial resources will give the developing countries equitable opportunities to adopt newer technologies to mitigate the ill effects of climate change. ...
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India is a leader when it comes to agriculture. A significant part of the country's population depends on agriculture for livelihood. However, many of them face challenges due to using unreliable farming techniques. Sometimes the challenges increase to the extent that they commit suicide. Besides, India is highly populated, and its population is steadily increasing, requiring its government to grow its GDP and increase its energy supply proportionately. This paper reviews integrating solar farming with agriculture, known as Agrivoltaics, as a Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) option for Indian farmers. This study is further supported by the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of agrivoltaics. Using the SWOT analysis, this article presents how agrivoltaics can make agriculture sustainable and reliable. This paper identifies rural electrification, water conservation, yield improvement, sustainable income generation, and reduction in the usage of pesticides as the strengths of agrivoltaics. Similarly, the paper presents weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to agrivoltaics in India. The research concludes with the findings that agrivoltaics have the potential of meeting multiple objectives such as meeting global commitments, offering employment, providing economic stability, increasing clean energy production capacity, conserving natural resources, and succeeding in several others. The paper also includes a discussion about the findings, suggestions, and implications of adopting agrivoltaics on a large scale in India.
... The total photovoltaic installed capacity in the EU countries is 130.67 GW in 2019. The largest installed capacity is in Germany with 49 GW, which accounts for almost 38% of the total energy in photovoltaic installations in the European Union [19][20][21]. Despite the growing interest in photovoltaics in the EU Member States, almost 80% of the installed capacity belongs to only five countries: Germany, Italy, Great Britain, France and Spain. The nominal operation of a photovoltaic installation depends on the available quantity of solar energy. ...
... An indicator specifying the random nature of the clouds effect is taken into The total photovoltaic installed capacity in the EU countries is 130.67 GW in 2019. The largest installed capacity is in Germany with 49 GW, which accounts for almost 38% of the total energy in photovoltaic installations in the European Union [19][20][21]. Despite the growing interest in photovoltaics in the EU Member States, almost 80% of the installed capacity belongs to only five countries: Germany, Italy, Great Britain, France and Spain. ...
Article
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Increasing restrictions on the emission of greenhouse gases by the standards and the European Union’s policy aims at increasing the share of renewable energy sources in the energy mix of the Member States. Subsequently, we observe a rapid increase in the installed capacity of the renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are currently the fastest growing sectors of energy generation, specifically the photovoltaic sector. In 2005, the total installed capacity in photovoltaic installations in the European Union was about 2.17 GW, while in 2019 it was already over 130 GW. Currently, due to many forms of incentive governmental measures the construction of photovoltaic installations is rapidly increasing with installations mounted on private houses and buildings. The article presents selected issues concerning the failure modes of photovoltaic installations and a comparative assessment of the estimated and the real measured electrical production of an operational photovoltaic installation. The Solar-PV power plant design approach proposed in the paper considers the failure modes to enhance the plant’s reliability.
... They contribute to a large extent to sustainable development as they reduce the reliance on fossil fuels and play an important role in greenhouse gas emission decrease. In this context, it is also worth noting the significant growth of photovoltaic (PV) and wind technologies [1][2][3]. Among solar photovoltaic uses, water pumping is one of the most promising applications, with many economic and environmental benefits compared to traditional options and enabling the development of low carbon irrigated agriculture [4]. ...
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The suitability of a strategy for distributing the power generated by a photovoltaic pumping system equipped with two equal pumps working in parallel is proven. This strategy aims to improve energy management and consists of feeding a single pump with all the power generated until it exceeds a threshold value from which the power distribution must be at 50% between the two pumps. This pumping method was compared with the operation mode usually applied in parallel PV pumping facilities (50% of the power always assigned to each pump). A system equipped with two 0.75 kW pumps was employed. The assessment of the facility's performance under the two alternative working conditions and several pumping heads was conducted using simulation techniques. Both the pumped annual volume and the annual efficiency of the motor-pump group increased when the strategy was applied compared to operation with power distribution at 50%. This increase was greater the higher the head (6.21% at H = 18 m vs. 57.60% at H = 48 m for pumped annual volume and 6.42% at H = 18 m vs. 57.51% at H = 48 m for annual efficiency). The halving of the irradiance threshold and the improved efficiency (36.4% vs. 34.8%) may explain this increase.
... Substantial research efforts have been made to improve renewable energy production to achieve the sustainability goal initiated by the European Union to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emission by 20% in 2030 [11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. In addition, the tremendous increase in demand for energy in recent times as a result of rapid industrial development and population growth also confirm that the development of renewable and sustainable energy systems is a top priority in many countries of the world today. ...
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Modeling and simulation (M&S) is a well-known scientific tool that could be used to analyze a system or predict its behavior before physical construction. Despite being an established methodical tool in engineering, only a few review articles discussing emerging topics in M&S are available in open literature, especially for renewable and sustainable energy systems. This review critically examines recent advances in modeling and simulation in the energy sector, with few insights on its approaches, challenges, and prospects in selected renewable and sustainable energy systems (RSES). In addition, the concept of model validation in RSES is systematically discussed based on in-sample and out-of-sample approaches, while potential data sources with crucial elements for model validation in RSES are highlighted. Furthermore, three major groups of sustainable energy system models that play important roles in supporting national and international energy policies arepresented, to bring to light how the modeling of energy systems is evolving to meet its challenges in the design, operation, and control of RSES. This review also presents a comprehensive assessment of the current approaches, challenges, and prospects in modeling the behavior and evaluating the performance of RSES. Finally, areas that need further research and development in renewable and sustainable energy system modeling are also highlighted.