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Cumulative world plastic production from 1950 -2015

Cumulative world plastic production from 1950 -2015

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The study evaluated the impacts of plastic pollution on the sustainability of seafood value chain. The world aquaculture production in 2016 stood at 80.0 million tons of food fish, gradually declined by 0.3 million tons to 79.7 million tons in 2017, and rose to 81.4 million tons in 2018. Global aquaculture production maintained relatively steady in...

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Fish aggregating devices, named FADs, are floating objects typically used to attract and capture pelagic fish in industrial tuna fisheries. This study documents nine cases, involving 31 marine mammals of incidentally captured, killed or otherwise retrieved cetaceans and pinnipeds which were used, or presumably so, as bait with improvised Fish Aggre...

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... Plastic waste, such as plastic bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and plastic sacks and carpets made of polypropylene (PP), is manufactured in large quantities. According to [1], the total daily production of plastic waste is estimated to be 15.4 billion pieces. The daily use of plastic products such as bottles, polythene bags, food containers and crates, pallets, kitchenware, appliances, and toys are increasing day by day, causing many environmental concerns. ...
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It is well known that if plastic wastes are not well managed, it has a negative impact on the environment as well as on human health. In this study, recycling plastic waste in form of strips for stabilizing weak subgrade soil is proposed. For this purpose, a weak clay soil sample was mixed with 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.4% of plastic strips by weight of soil, and the experimental results were compared to the control soil sample with 0% plastic. Laboratory tests on the Standard compaction test, Unconfined compression test (UCS), and California bearing ratio (CBR) were conducted according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The results of the study reveal that there are significant improvements in the strength of weak soil stabilized with plastic waste strips. Accordingly, the Standard Proctor test shows that there is a small increment in the maximum dry density of the soil when it is mixed with plastic strips. The result from the CBR test shows that there is a significant increment of CBR value with the plastic strip content. The unconfined compressive strength test also shows that increasing the percentage of plastic strips from 0 to 0.4% resulted in increased strength of soil by 138% with 2 cm length plastic strips. Therefore, this study recommends the application of plastic strips for improvement of the strength of soft clay for subgrade construction in civil engineering practice as an alternative weak soil stabilization method.
... Plastics in the digestive systems of aquatic animals can cause harm or even animal death. This could also pose a problem for human health because humans might consume contaminated aquatic animals in their daily diet (Pahl et al., 2017;Rhodes, 2018;Awuchi and Awuchi, 2019;Akindele and Alimba, 2021;Alfaro-Nuñez et al., 2021;Mukheed and Khan, 2021). In Thailand, studies have been conducted on microplastics in marine fishes (Klangnurak and Chunniyom, 2020) and aquatic fishes (Kasamesiri, 2021)and found that microplastics or nanoplastics could pass through the food chain to the human body, thus affecting future human health. ...
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The waste created by single-use plastics is an important global issue, especially in marine environments, because they do not degrade in nature. This work aimed to study the biodegradability of bioplastic blown film, which may pose a solution to this problem. Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and polylactic acid (PLA) blown films were chosen for examination of their biodegradability when submerged in sand under the seawater and when floated on the seawater surface of our experimental setup. Bioplastics were observed in comparison with low-density polyethylene (LDPE), which is a petroleum-based plastic. PBS blown film exhibited a faster degradation rate than PLA blown film, while LDPE blown film did not degrade in the marine environment. The biodegradability of bioplastic blown film was confirmed by physical observation, a change in the chemical functional group measured by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and a test of the biochemical oxygen demand of the seawater after bioplastic degradation due to ingestion by bacteria in seawater.
... They also suffer from injuries, infections, reduce the ability to swim and internal injuries. Every year, thousands of seabirds, sea turtles, seals and other marine mammals are killed after ingested or entangled in plastic [3]. According to the United States environmental protection agency, the massive aquatic debris has been impacted at least 267 species globally, including 86% of sea turtles, 44% of seabirds, and 43% of marine mammals. ...
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Riverine plastic pollution has received worldwide attention due to numerous challenges associates with it. This study is premised on the need to reduce plastic leakage from land-based sources into the ocean. Geospatial technology was used to model plastic leakage in Sungai Pinang, Pulau Pinang. This study proposed a citizen-based approach because the plastic waste project requires public participation. Citizen science application was used for plastic waste tracking along the river stretch. Collected data was then used to analyze plastic waste hotspot at the study area. The hotspot map shows that area has higher plastic waste at the middle of the study area which related to residential and recreational areas. Waste collection route was analyzed using the geographical information system (GIS) tool which is Network Analyst to identify the most efficient route collection from the waste point to Pulau Burung sanitary landfill. This GIS-based research method can be applied to other regions and data on the distribution can be used elsewhere. This paper shows how plastic tracking can be used to obtain information on riverine plastic pollution. Our research demonstrated that a combination of citizen science and a GIS technique can be utilized to improve public participation in raising awareness of marine plastic pollution.
... Greenpeace International (2018) recorded that in a survey of 2006 called Plastic Debris in the World's Oceans, over 267 distinct animal species were estimated to have encountered plastic debris entanglement and ingestion (Godswill and Gospel, 2019). It is evaluated that at least 400,000 aquatic species will die annually because of pollution from plastic in the oceans (Godswill and Gospel, 2019). ...
... Greenpeace International (2018) recorded that in a survey of 2006 called Plastic Debris in the World's Oceans, over 267 distinct animal species were estimated to have encountered plastic debris entanglement and ingestion (Godswill and Gospel, 2019). It is evaluated that at least 400,000 aquatic species will die annually because of pollution from plastic in the oceans (Godswill and Gospel, 2019). The Ocean Conservancy found that plastic waste pollution affects at least 600 different wildlife species (Mallos, 2010). ...
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This study investigates the transport of air pollutants around the Yangtze River Delta with an aim to identify if there would be a relationship towards health effects during the COVID-19 lockdown period. It is well-known that due to lockdown, the number of socio-economical activities are reduced and hence there is an observable reduction in air pollution. We would like to investigate if this consequential reduction of air pollution would lead to improvement in health amongst its population. A number of integrated methodologies are utilized, including collection and correlation of statistical data and numerical modeling to correlate the mortality rates difference with and without COVID-19 lockdown. In particular air quality changes during the COVID-19 lockdown period are compared with similar periods of the previous years using Brute Force Method. It is found that in general there is significant reduction in air-pollution related mortality, like stroke, ischemic cardio diseases, obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer and acute lower respiratory infection are all reduced as a result of relative improvement in PM2.5 level during the lockdown period. Further investigation of the trajectories suggests that these PM2.5 originate from afar with multiple sources, and do not suggest COVID-19 are transported to the region via long-range transport. Our results demonstrate the need for more stringent policy measure to tackle air pollution as it has strong evidence that it increases mortality rate.
... The emergence of polymers as a result of the requirements of the current era, which is witnessing a remarkable development in various life fields, has led to the common thinking that the world without polymers is impossible, because of their excellent properties that keep pace with the scientific development that is occurring, compared to other materials like (metals, ceramic), which are easy to manufacture, resistant to oxidation and corrosive solutions, such as acid and base solutions, let alone that they are prone to discoloration [7]. Plastic waste is different and diverse, as plastic is used in various medical fields, which results in enormous plastic waste that must be utilized Single-use, especially [8]. Plastic materials create a major cumulative problem over time, which generates thousands of tons of waste after its use [9].Waste is generally known as materials that have lost their value, for example, medical waste, which includes plastic waste [10]. ...
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Particles of waste from plastic medical syringes (WPMS) are recycled with a polymeric adhesive from unsaturated polyester resin (UPS) to manufacture structural profiles at the lowest cost, and that could be used in various applications such as buildings, furniture manufacturing, toys, etc. The manual molding method was used in preparing the models for testing with the following volumetric fractions (0%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%), and with a granular size of (0.45mm) of WPMS). Some tests were performed on the prepared samples, including mechanical ones, tests included are (tensile test, bending test, and hardness test), in addition to the physical test, which is (thermal conductivity),The results of the mechanical tests showed an increase in the values of mechanical properties of (tensile strength, the flexural modulus, and hardness) as the volumetric ratios of (WPMS) particles increased. Whereas, the thermal conductivity values decreased as the volumetric ratios of (WPMS) particles increased. Given that this is the first time that this type of waste is used in manufacturing structural profiles at a low-cost in exchange for less harms to the environment. Keywords: Waste, Recycling, low-cost structures, plastic syringes, unsaturated polyester adhesive.
... This thus brings lines of research for future studies on trace element bioaccumulation in capture fisheries species in SIDS.If establishing a baseline on trace element concentrations in capture fisheries resources is important, many things remain to be done before reaching sustainability in the consumption of these resources. This thesis was focused on trace element content, either essential, potentially essential or non-essential, but capture fisheries resources also contain significant levels of other nutrients like proteins and essential fatty acids, and of other contaminants like persistent organic pollutants) and plastics(Rochman et al. 2015;Godswill and Gospel 2019). It is thus important to increase knowledge on the occurrence of these compounds in capture fisheries resources from SIDS in order to have a global view of what are the risks and benefits associated with the consumption of these resources. ...
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Food security, that is guarantying food supply and quality while sustainably managing resources, is closely linked to knowing the biology and ecology of consumed species. In a context of global changes that are threatening seafood safety, it is thus necessary to establish baselines on marine ecosystem functioning, as well as nutrient availability and contamination occurrence in seafood. This is all the more important in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), where populations rely on marine resources for their subsistence, and where capture fisheries resources are the main sources of proteins and micronutrients (i.e. essential trace elements) in local populations’ diet. In spite of the importance of tropical systems in ensuring food security, they remain largely understudied compared to polar and temperate systems. This thesis thus aims to better understand the functioning of tropical marine systems, and to establish a baseline on micronutrient availability and metal(loid) contamination in a wide diversity of capture fisheries resources from the Seychelles (Western Indian Ocean), a tropical SIDS. By investigating trace element concentration patterns at the inter- and intraspecific levels, it was possible to identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing trace element bioaccumulation in tropical capture fisheries resources. We thus highlighted the importance of considering different scales (individual, species, and ecosystem) to better understand essential trace element availability and non-essential trace element occurrence in seafood.
... This thus brings lines of research for future studies on trace element bioaccumulation in capture fisheries species in SIDS.If establishing a baseline on trace element concentrations in capture fisheries resources is important, many things remain to be done before reaching sustainability in the consumption of these resources. This thesis was focused on trace element content, either essential, potentially essential or non-essential, but capture fisheries resources also contain significant levels of other nutrients like proteins and essential fatty acids, and of other contaminants like persistent organic pollutants) and plastics(Rochman et al. 2015;Godswill and Gospel 2019). It is thus important to increase knowledge on the occurrence of these compounds in capture fisheries resources from SIDS in order to have a global view of what are the risks and benefits associated with the consumption of these resources. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Food security, that is guarantying food supply and quality while sustainably managing resources, is closely linked to knowing the biology and ecology of consumed species. In a context of global changes that are threatening seafood safety, it is thus necessary to establish baselines on marine ecosystem functioning, as well as nutrient availability and contamination occurrence in seafood. This is all the more important in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), where populations rely on marine resources for their subsistence, and where capture fisheries resources are the main sources of proteins and micronutrients (i.e. essential trace elements) in local populations’ diet. In spite of the importance of tropical systems in ensuring food security, they remain largely understudied compared to polar and temperate systems. This thesis thus aims to better understand the functioning of tropical marine systems, and to establish a baseline on micronutrient availability and metal(loid) contamination in a wide diversity of capture fisheries resources from the Seychelles (Western Indian Ocean), a tropical SIDS. By investigating trace element concentration patterns at the inter- and intraspecific levels, it was possible to identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing trace element bioaccumulation in tropical capture fisheries resources. We thus highlighted the importance of considering different scales (individual, species, and ecosystem) to better understand essential trace element availability and nonessential trace element occurrence in seafood.
... To circumvent the pollution crisis the recycling of plastic waste is carried out nowadays, but a very small fraction as compared to production can be recycled rest is landfilled [6]. It takes 1000 of years of decompose, also release toxic gases like Sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide if we attempt to get rid of it by burning [7]. All types of plastic used by humans in daily life eventually becomes waste. ...
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Concrete and plastic are a major source of environmental contamination and unsustainability. This study has been employed to come up with the eco-friendly concrete by using the plastic waste to promote the sustainability. Gamma radiations were used to enhance the micro-structure of plastic waste to increase the mechanical properties of resulting concrete. The crystallinity and chemical properties of regular and irradiated plastic were studied using x-ray diffraction (Xrd) and x-ray fluorescence (Xrf), respectively. Enhancement in the crystallinity and chemical properties were observed in the irradiated plastic. Different compositions by weight were opted for replacement of cement and fine aggregate for both regular and irradiated plastic waste with silica fume and superplasticizers. A set of experiments were performed on concrete and the effect of plastic waste on the compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete was examined. Untreated replacement of plastic waste has shown to decrease the compressive strength and anomalous behavior was observed in case of split tensile strength. Both the mechanical properties were enhanced by replacing the cement and fine aggregates with irradiated plastic waste including silica fume and superplasticizers. This study contributes towards sustainable development of green concrete by lowering the carbon emissions and overcoming the fine aggregate scarcity problem. Moreover, as plastic is ductile and inclusion of plastic in concrete lowers the overall weight of the structure; impact of an earthquake is reduced.
... The accumulation of these waste materials in huge quantities is causing both environment and financial problems. According to Awuchi (2019), the average plastic waste generation is estimated at 15.4 billion pieces per day. The most prevalent waste materials are plastic waste materials. ...
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Recently, the use of plastic products, such as polyethylene (PE) bottles and polypropylene (PP), has been significantly increased, which may lead to many environmental issues. Therefore, it is important to find methods to manage these waste materials without causing any ecological hazards. One of these methods is to use plastic wastes as soil stabiliser materials. In this study, PE and PP have been used in the form of fibres. The effect of the stabilisation was evaluated through carrying out standard laboratory tests. These tests have been conducted on natural and stabilised soils with four fibre contents (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%) of the soil weight. The tests included the standard compaction test, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test, and resilient modulus (Mr) tests. In all these tests, the fibre content was added in two lengths, which were 1.0 cm and 2.0 cm. Laboratory test results revealed that the plastic pieces decrease maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) of the stabilised soils, which are required for the construction of embankments of lightweight materials. In addition, there was a significant improvement in the UCS of soils by 76.4 and 96.6% for both lengths of PE fibres and 57.4% and 73.0% for both lengths of PP fibres, respectively. Results of the CBR tests demonstrated that the inclusion of plastic fibres in clayey soils improves the strength and deformation behaviour of the soil especially with 4% fibre content for both lengths 1.0 cm and 2.0 cm, respectively, to a figure of 185 to 150% for PE and PP, respectively. Furthermore, the results of the Mr tests demonstrated that the mechanical properties improved to an extent. For an increase in fibre content, the resilient modulus increased by about 120% at 4% fibre content for PE. However, for PP, improvement in resilient modulus declined at 3% fibre content. Therefore, for soil stabilisation with fibre material, optimum fibre content shall be sought.
... Pesticides could leach through the soil and move into the groundwater, and can also linger in food products, resulting in Awuchi, Chinaza Godswill; Awuchi, Chibueze Gospel; Ukpe, Aniefiok Emem; Asoegwu, Chisom Rachael; Uyo, Chijioke Ndukwe; Ngoka, Kelechi Enyinnaya-Environmental Impacts of Food and Agricultural Production: A Systematic Review death in humans and wildlife (EPA, 2011). A range of agricultural chemicals are used in agriculture and food production, and some end up becoming pollutants through use, ignorance, or misuse (OMAFRA, 2018;Chinaza and Chibueze, 2019a;Chinaza and Chibueze, 2019b). The erosion of topsoil, which may contain chemicals such as pesticides and herbicides, can be carried from farms to other places (OMAFRA, 2018). ...
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The systematic review focused on the environmental impacts of expansion of agriculture and food production which has been one of manmade largest impacts on the environment. Expansion of agriculture has transformed natural habitats and is one of the largest pressures for biodiversity: out of the 28,000 species assessed to be threatened with extinction on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, agriculture is listed as the threat for 24,000 of them (85.71%). The exponential increase in population in recent decades has increased the agricultural land conversion practice to meet the demand for foods which has in turn increased the impacts on the environment. The environmental impacts of agriculture vary due to the wide range of agricultural practices employed all around the world. Consequently, the environmental impacts depend on the production practices and the agricultural system used by the farmers. There are two types of indicators of the environmental impacts of agriculture: effect-based and means-based. The environmental impacts of agriculture involve a range of factors from the soil, to the air, water, animal and soil varieties, plants, people, and the food itself. Some agricultural related environmental effects include climate change, deforestation, greenhouse gas and CO2 emissions, genetic engineering, dead zones, irrigation problems, soil degradation, pollutants, and waste. Over 50% of the habitable land worldwide is used for agriculture. If pastures used for grazing are combined with land used to grow the crops for animal feed, livestock accounts for around 77% of global farming land. There are some measures to limit the negative impacts of agriculture and food production on the environment. Conservation tillage is an alternative method of tillage for farming that is more sustainable for soil and surrounding ecosystem. Sustainable agriculture employs the idea that agriculture should take place in a way such that we will continue to produce what is required without infringing on the capacity for future generations to do same.