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Cumulative incidence of organ support and treatment limitations. a Combined mechanical ventilation (MV) and non-invasive ventilation. b Mechanical ventilation (MV). c Vasoactive drugs. d Non-invasive ventilation (NIV). e Treatment limitations. f Renal replacement therapy (RRT)

Cumulative incidence of organ support and treatment limitations. a Combined mechanical ventilation (MV) and non-invasive ventilation. b Mechanical ventilation (MV). c Vasoactive drugs. d Non-invasive ventilation (NIV). e Treatment limitations. f Renal replacement therapy (RRT)

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... in vulnerable and 6 days (IQR 3.0-13) in frail patients (p < 0.001). Table 2 shows models revealing the association between frailty and outcome even after controlling for comorbidities and disease severity and treatment strategies. Frailty was associated with increased use of treatment limitations and reduction in respiratory support as shown in Fig. 2 (cumulative incidences in Additional file 9). The use of treatment limitations was significantly higher in frail patients compared to fit patients and vulnerable patients (20-day cumulative incidence was 26% (95% CI 23-29) for fit patients, 40% (33-47) for vulnerable patients and 43% (95% CI 37-48) for frail patients (p < 0.001). The ...

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Probably the most frequently reported outcome in healthcare in general, and in intensive care in particular, is survival or its counterpart mortality. Obviously, other patient-centered outcomes are very often connected and even dependent on a patient that survives. It makes no meaning to talk about quality of life in patients not surviving the ICU stay, but for survivors post-hospital discharge, other issues than merely survival become more and more important.