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Cultural Heritage Classification From UNESCO 

Cultural Heritage Classification From UNESCO 

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Culture and natural history are life aspects that represent characteristic of one nation. Many problems and challenges in managing cultural heritage data are emminent, such as: unintegrated database, incomprehensive inventory, limited access to public, and so forth. Various data, applications, and technologies of cultural heritage and natural histo...

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... national Cultural Heritage and Natural History (CHNH) has been done by many institutions. But, it was done separately and has no coordination among museum, library, community and other institutions. Whilst, information related to preserved CHNH, which contain cultural power of one nation, has been stored and disseminated over many institutions, organizations, and public. Many institutions, organizations, and public owned and preserved various cultural heritage and natural history collections. However, it is very difficult for public to find and identify CHNH information at a given specific location. Cultural heritage and natural history preservation contributes also to other aspects of life, such as: tourism, economy, content industry, security and defence, and business. Each cultural heritage has its tradition, strategic directive, and local wisdom, which can be inherited for next generations. Existing CHNH information has not been fully used to support those aspects. Beside that, CHNH information also can be used as a content for national character building and national unity strength. Furthermore, CHNH information also is needed as the sources of indigenous knowledge and world civilization. In order to integrate the storing, disseminating, and preserving of CHNH digital information, there is a need to develop an electronic CHNH (eCHNH) framework and implement it into a portal that can be shared and accessed from public and non-public domain. This framework ensure digital preservation of CHNH complies to all international standards and format. The eCHNH portal based on this framework ensures an integrated repository, and widely accessible by stakeholders. The next sections we will discuss related works, our proposed eCHNH framework based on Zachman Architecture Framework, eCHNH web portal, and conclusion. Culture is a human pattern or model which is learned and spread in our daily life. This pattern has been assimilated into all human social interaction aspects. Culture is also an important human adaptation mechanism. The meaning of “culture” can be described as the results of activities and human mind creations, such as : beliefs, arts, and customs, and human knowledge as social creature, that are used for understanding ecology and his / her experiences, and become his / her behaviour directives. UNESCO [8] divided cultural heritage into two categories: tangible and intangible cultural heritage (see Fig. 1). Tangible cultural heritage is divided into immovable heritage and movable heritage. Immovable heritage includes historical building, monument, archeological sites. Movable heritage includes paintings, sculptures, furnitures, wall paintings. Intangible cultural heritage consists of oral traditions and expressions, including language; performing arts, social habits, rituals, and festivals; science and habits related to nature and world; and traditional skills. Indonesia is one of the countries that has many ethnic groups living in various areas. Each area has its own characteristics in culture. These various cultural heritages have been created since prehistoric period and that must be preserved for the next generations. One of organizations that collect Indonesian cultural heritage is IACI (Indonesian Archipelago Culture Initiatives). IACI works together with TIKAR Foundation in creating “NATIONAL CULTURAL ENCYCLOPEDIA”. IACI has classified the existing culture into: traditional dances, ornaments, motive fabric, traditional musical instruments, traditional folklores, traditional musics and songs, traditional foods and beverages, rituals, performing arts, architecture products, traditional dresses, traditional weapons and battle equipments, ancient scripts and historical inscriptions. All these information has to be preserved. Preservation is an action that preserves cultural heritage objects and historical objects. According to UNESCO [5], the original condition from these objects must be maintained unchanged. Physical preservation can be conducted by using conservation, restoration, etc. As we need to preserve these objects phisically, we also need to preserve their information digitally. Digital preservation has been internationally developed by many institutions and has been assigned by UNESCO. Some guidelines has been proposed by UNESCO , such as [5], and [9]. In adition, there are many international standards and best practices that have been used for digital preservation in many institutions, like : UNESCO, ICOM, ICOMOS, ICCROM, IFLA, WWF, IUCN, et al. Beside culture heritage, we also need to preserve our natural history. Some dictionaries and experts have defined “natural history” as a study and description about organisms and natural objects, especially about their origins, evolutions, and their relations, including science about botany, zoology, mineralogy, geology, and paleontology. Botany is a branch of biology that concerns about plant’s life; science about plants. Zoology is science about animal’s life and classification of various animal morphologies around the world. Mineralogy is science about mineral. Geology is science about composition, structure, and history of the earth. Paleontology is science about fossils (animals and plants). From those definitions above, it can be concluded that natural history consists of local plants and animals, minerals, natural landscapes, and prehistorical objects and sites. Both cultural heritage and natural history information is scattered, uncoordinated, unformatted, and difficult to stored and to access. Hence we need to use ICT. In order to integrate the digital preservation of CHNH and make them accessible to users, it needs information and communication technology (ICT). Preserving a culture using ICT is called eCulture. According to Sanjin Dragojevi ć , et al [2], eCulture is formed as an impact of many serious challenges and changes that is experienced by modern society, such as: spread of knowledge, social interaction forms, education, economic practices, culture, and media. There are also many changes, like: information sources increased many times, and there are internet users that spend their times on reading and gathering on-line information. The challenges are: extinction on few traditional customs, and cultural diversity. ECulture is existed as one solutions for those challenges and changes. So eCulture can become a new cultural media and stores existing knowledge through culture heritage . Meanwhile, Alfredo M. Ronchi [8] defined eCulture as an eContent component that used for preserving and representing cultural heritage inline with future challenges, displaying important cultural assets clearly and informatively by using technology arts. Operationally, eCulture uses various media, including web based media and multimedia. Netherlands Council for Culture [6] explained that eCulture can be seen as ICT integration into important processes: production, distribution, presentation, preservation, and reusable cultural expression. Those processes form three aspects of eCulture : there is ICT application inside existing framework (digitisation of information); there is cultural innovation, that digital technology gives new form and combination from its contents and presentations; and there are facts that digitalization can build organizations and roles in organization’s culture, adopt the new functions and working methods. Those three ...

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... The authors would like to thank the SpringerOpen Portfolio regarding waiving the charge of article processing. 1 ...
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