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Csikszentmihalyi’s 3-channel flow model 

Csikszentmihalyi’s 3-channel flow model 

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This paper describes research into making e-learning activities motivating and engaging, yet still producing effective learning. Flow is used as an underlying theory to explore student behaviour during online instruction. In this study, 59 students worked through a learning exercise in physics while two different methods were employed to measure fl...

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... measurement approach that addresses these issues is derived from the early representations of flow that recognised the importance of perceived challenges and skills during an activity (Csikszentmihalyi 1975). These are presented on a two-dimensional plot in Fig. 1. This 2-d space is divided into three regions labelled 'anxiety', 'boredom' and 'flow'. Flow is represented by experiences where the perceived challenges are equal to the perceived skills. Other researchers have further divided this space into four, eight and even sixteen regions. This model illustrates that, for a learner to stay 'in ...
Context 2
... by experiences where the perceived challenges are equal to the perceived skills. Other researchers have further divided this space into four, eight and even sixteen regions. This model illustrates that, for a learner to stay 'in flow', flow must be regarded as a dynamic process. A learner might begin at the lower left end of the 'flow channel' (Fig. 1) with skills that can almost cope with a challenge and strive to improve those skills to meet that challenge; this is the start of the learning process. Ideally, the challenge should then be increased to prevent the learner's improved skills making the challenge appear too easy, as is represented by the region labelled 'boredom'. As ...
Context 3
... whose main focus was on the task ('learners') and another group whose main focus was on the artefact ('unlearners'). The indications of flow provided by these plots are commensurate with the learning gains of the groups. It is noted that the 'learners' indicated increasing challenge-skills measures resulting in movement up the flow channel of Fig. 1, whilst the 'unlearners' maintained balanced challenge-skills measures, consistent with an artefact that offered no increased challenges during the ...

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... Budding research suggests that new technologies can "envelop" the learner in a virtual learning environment and can be extremely fow-inducing to increase learning (Pearce, 2005;Scoresby & Shelton, 2007). Recent research has also found that fow may play a unique role in business education, especially during simulation games that can enhance learning and leadership skills. ...
... According to the literature on the online flow (Esteban-Millat et al., 2014), enabling optimum online navigation is a distinctive trait of flow that can extend students' online sessions (Hsu et al., 2012b) and improve the educational performance (Kiili, 2005;Pearce, 2005). The online English learning environment is a field of particular significance, chosen as a consequence of its increasing significance in the delivery of services created by educational organizations. ...
... The online English learning environment is a field of particular significance, chosen as a consequence of its increasing significance in the delivery of services created by educational organizations. Throughout navigation across an online English learning atmosphere, learners might encounter flow experiences (Pearce, 2005;Choi et al., 2007;Joo et al., 2012). This is deemed necessary to that extent as it establishes an optimum experience through which users understand that the challenges encountered by them are in equilibrium with their skills. ...
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... The second conceptualization, a newer one, pays attention to the artifact and the interaction between the user, a task, and an artifact (Finneran and Zhange, 2003). This study examines flow experience as a process (Pearce, 2005) of voice interaction with VA, and excludes the effect of artifact, a mobile device. When the effect of artifact and interaction between consumer and artifact is eliminated, flow experience describes an experience that is accompanied by consumers' sense of control, focused attention (Csíkszentmihályi, 1997;Hoffman and Novak, 1996), leading to curiosity to engage in exploratory behavior (Ghani and Deshpande, 1994;Webster et al., 1993;Webster et al., 1994). ...
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... During navigation through an online learning environment, students may experience feelings of flow (e.g. Choi, Kim, & Kim, 2007;Joo, Lim, & Kim, 2012;Pearce, 2005;Shin, 2006). This is considered desirable (Pearce, 2005) insofar as it constitutes an optimal experience during which students realize that the challenges faced are in balance with their skills (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). ...
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Chapter
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Flow theory has had a major influence on game scholars’ and designers’ understanding of the psychology of enjoyment of digital games and how that enjoyment might contribute to learning. However, a fuller understanding of how flow is experienced in social play is needed because digital games are increasingly played in groups, because theories of game-based education increasingly prioritize cooperative learning methods and goals, and because there has been surprisingly little study of whether flow contributes to learning. This chapter synthesizes the relevant literature to conceptualize how games might foster flow and cooperative learning through social play. It also proposes a theoretical model and lays out a research agenda that can help guide future studies of social gameflow and learning, and inform the design of educational games and learning contexts.
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