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Crowing and comb size are dependent on testosterone. (a) In contrast with hens, roosters crow and have bigger combs. (b) While both control chicks and T-administered chicks emit distress calls, T-administered chicks also crow and have bigger combs (Fig. S2).

Crowing and comb size are dependent on testosterone. (a) In contrast with hens, roosters crow and have bigger combs. (b) While both control chicks and T-administered chicks emit distress calls, T-administered chicks also crow and have bigger combs (Fig. S2).

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Animals that communicate using sound are found throughout the animal kingdom. Interestingly, in contrast to human vocal learning, most animals can produce species-specific patterns of vocalization without learning them from their parents. This phenomenon is called innate vocalization. The underlying molecular basis of both vocal learning in humans...

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... is a testosterone-dependent vocalization. Mature roosters have bigger combs and can crow, while mature hens have smaller combs and do not crow (Fig. 1a). Chickens are social animals, and chicks emit a distress call when they are isolated from the group (Fig. 1b). However, as expected, when T is chronically administered to chicks through subcutaneous implantation of a silastic tube containing testosterone propionate, a prominent comb develops and the chicks begin to emit a crowing ...
Context 2
... is a testosterone-dependent vocalization. Mature roosters have bigger combs and can crow, while mature hens have smaller combs and do not crow (Fig. 1a). Chickens are social animals, and chicks emit a distress call when they are isolated from the group (Fig. 1b). However, as expected, when T is chronically administered to chicks through subcutaneous implantation of a silastic tube containing testosterone propionate, a prominent comb develops and the chicks begin to emit a crowing sound, which is clearly different from the sound of their distress calls (Fig. 1b, Supplementary Fig. S2a,b). For ...
Context 3
... call when they are isolated from the group (Fig. 1b). However, as expected, when T is chronically administered to chicks through subcutaneous implantation of a silastic tube containing testosterone propionate, a prominent comb develops and the chicks begin to emit a crowing sound, which is clearly different from the sound of their distress calls (Fig. 1b, Supplementary Fig. S2a,b). For this study, we therefore generated two experimen- tal groups that allow us to compare individuals that crow with individuals that do not. The first group included chicks and chicks administered T, while the second included hens and ...
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... expression analysis to identify genes that induce crowing. Although the dorso- medial nucleus of the ICo (DM) controls sound production in song birds, the DM has not been characterized anatomically in chickens 3 ( Supplementary Fig. S1). Therefore, we first developed a method to punch out the ICo ( Supplementary Fig. S3). ...
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... visualized the sound using Sony Sound Forge Audio Studio ver. 9.0 (Sony), and counted the number of chick crowing sounds emitted according to a previous study 9 (Figs 1A, S2). At day 5, we obtained brain samples 2 h before light-onset when rooster crowing was observed frequently 4,5 . ...

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