Criteria for tastes to fulfil to be classified as either basic tastes, or within a new taste subgroup. At the first criteria that a taste does not fulfil it is placed on the left-hand side of the model in the 'NO' section, those that fulfil the criteria remain on the right-hand side in the 'YES' criteria. * ENaC knockout mice have eliminated taste and neural responses to NaCl providing evidence for ENaC as the salt taste receptor [90], human studies have not yet confirmed the ENaC channel for salt taste detection. For the receptor criterion the ENaC receptor for salt taste, albeit in mice, has supporting evidence. * Type III sour sensing cells have been shown depolarise and reach action potential due to influx of H+ ions, providing evidence for sour taste detection, the specific proton channel responsible for this remains to be confirmed [45].

Criteria for tastes to fulfil to be classified as either basic tastes, or within a new taste subgroup. At the first criteria that a taste does not fulfil it is placed on the left-hand side of the model in the 'NO' section, those that fulfil the criteria remain on the right-hand side in the 'YES' criteria. * ENaC knockout mice have eliminated taste and neural responses to NaCl providing evidence for ENaC as the salt taste receptor [90], human studies have not yet confirmed the ENaC channel for salt taste detection. For the receptor criterion the ENaC receptor for salt taste, albeit in mice, has supporting evidence. * Type III sour sensing cells have been shown depolarise and reach action potential due to influx of H+ ions, providing evidence for sour taste detection, the specific proton channel responsible for this remains to be confirmed [45].

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Applied taste research is increasingly focusing on the relationship with diet and health, and understanding the role the sense of taste plays in encouraging or discouraging consumption. The concept of basic tastes dates as far back 3000 years, where perception dominated classification with sweet, sour, salty, and bitter consistently featuring on ba...

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... seems reasonable for new basic tastes, including umami, to consider if they belong in the same category as sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. Below is a summary of the evidence of umami as a basic taste, including an overview of basic and new tastes, against the proposed taste criteria, see Figure 1. ...

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Background Taste disorders in general, and dysgeusia in particular, are relatively common disorders that may be a sign of a more complex acute or chronic medical condition. During the COVID-19 pandemic, taste disorders have found their way into the realm of general as well as specialty dentistry, with significance in screening for patients who potentially may have the virus. Types of Studies Reviewed The authors searched electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar) for studies focused on dysgeusia, ageusia, and other taste disorders and their relationship to local and systemic causes. Results The authors found pertinent literature explaining the normal physiology of taste sensation, proposals for suggested new tastes, presence of gustatory receptors in remote tissues of the body, and etiology and pathophysiology of taste disorders, in addition to the valuable knowledge gained about gustatory disorders in the context of COVID-19. Along with olfactory disorders, taste disorders are one of the earliest suggestive symptoms of COVID-19 infection. Conclusions Gustatory disorders are the result of local or systemic etiology or both. Newer taste sensations, such as calcium and fat tastes, have been discovered, as well as taste receptors that are remote from the oropharyngeal area. Literature published during the COVID-19 pandemic to date reinforces the significance of early detection of potential patients with COVID-19 by means of screening for recent-onset taste disorders. Practical Implications Timely screening and identification of potential gustatory disorders are paramount for the dental care practitioner to aid in the early diagnosis of COVID-19 and other serious systemic disorders.