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Creatine Content in Select Foods 

Creatine Content in Select Foods 

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Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for toda...

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... about 1 to 2 g of creatine daily are produced in the body from the amino acids arginine, glycine, and methionine. Diet- ary sources (Table 5), including meat and fish, add another 1 to 2 g of creatine per day, although overcooking destroys most of the creatine (the 1 g of creatine in an 8-oz steak may fall to zero if that steak is well done). ...

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... Athletes who practice endurance disciplines such as running often use supplements that help improve their athletic performance (Rasmussen et al., 2008, Carlsohn et al., 2011. Supplements such as caffeine appear to have an effect on the performance of endurance athletes by stimulating the central nervous system and the release of epinephrine optimizing cardiovascular function. ...
... Its intake seems to influence the levels of central fatigue, mitigating these effects during endurance tests (Blomstrand et al., 1988). Creatine shows improvements in endurance athletes by playing a fundamental role in the production of phosphocreatine (Rasmussen et al., 2008). Another increasingly used supplement is hydrolysed collagen. ...
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The main purpose of this observational prospective pilot study was to evaluate the effects of hydrolysed collagen supplementation, in endurance training, in the performance of runners. A cohort of sixty-one subjects (women with an age = 44 ± 5 years; height = 1.65 ± 0.4 m; weight = 58.4 ± 5.2 kg; men with an age = 51 ± 3 years; height = 1.82 ± 0.2 m; weight = 74.4 ± 3.1 kg) received a collagen supplement (11 g / day) during 16 weeks. They performed a 21 kilometre endurance test (21KmET) at baseline and after 16 weeks of follow up. Squat Jump (SJ) and Counter Movement Jump (CMJ) tests were measured before and after each 21KmET and biochemical analyses and a bioimpedance were performed after each 21KmET. Subjects underwent three sport training sessions a week and a supplement intake during the follow up. Regarding the 21KmET time, there were significant differences between before and after supplementation intake (p < .05) and a higher pain perception was assessed with a visual analogue scale at the second 21KmET (p < .05). Significant improvements were observed in handgrip strength, SJ and CMJ after 16 week of supplement intake. Conclusions: A programmed endurance training improves the functionality of the runner in long-distance events and a periodic intake of hydrolysed collagen could help a better performance because it improves the conditions of muscles and joints.
... Creatine can also be sourced, however, in its natural form. Arguably more beneficial in its whole food form due to the additional nutritional value, creatine concentrations can range from 3-5 g/kg of raw meat [47]. Despite these natural sources of creatine, to successfully ingest the recommended "loading" dose of 20 g/day required to rapidly increase skeletal muscle stores [48,49], one would have to consume approximately 4 kg of meat per day. ...
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Creatine is an organic compound, consumed exogenously in the diet and synthesized endogenously via an intricate inter-organ process. Functioning in conjunction with creatine kinase, creatine has long been known for its pivotal role in cellular energy provision and energy shuttling. In addition to the abundance of evidence supporting the ergogenic benefits of creatine supplementation, recent evidence suggests a far broader application for creatine within various myopathies, neurodegenerative diseases, and other pathologies. Furthermore, creatine has been found to exhibit non-energy related properties, contributing as a possible direct and in-direct antioxidant and eliciting anti-inflammatory effects. In spite of the new clinical success of supplemental creatine, there is little scientific insight into the potential effects of creatine on cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of mortality. Taking into consideration the non-energy related actions of creatine, highlighted in this review, it can be speculated that creatine supplementation may serve as an adjuvant therapy for the management of vascular health in at-risk populations. This review, therefore, not only aims to summarize the current literature surrounding creatine and vascular health, but to also shed light onto the potential mechanisms in which creatine may be able to serve as a beneficial supplement capable of imparting vascular-protective properties and promoting vascular health.
... Increased LPL activity in the muscles aer training represents an adaptive advantage that facilitates the supply of energy and increases muscle oxidative capacity which is associated with high lactate threshold , which is characteristic of elite athletes in endurance sports ( ). Analyzing supplements for endurance athletes Antonio and Stout stated that the mechanism of action of colostrum as a supplement through insulin-like growth factor, which stimulates the activity of LPL and inhibits the activity of insulin in fat cells, increases the metabolism of fats and increases the level of free fatty acids in the blood that are necessary for endurance training (Antonio, & Stout, 2002). From the literature it is known that deletions in the LPL gene, LPL S447X truncated variant, lacking the last two amino acids is associated with increased enzyme activity LPL, so it can be assumed that the carriers of these variants of the LPL gene could be successful in endurance sports. ...
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The genetic and environmental factors and their interaction contribute to sports performance. So far, it has been identified a large number of genetic markers associated with sports performance and risk of sports injuries. Sports genomics is a relatively young scientific discipline and the necessary additional complex research on a large number of participants is required before scientific results in this field could be applicable in practice. At present, the application of tests based on genetic information for sport talent identification or recommendations for personalized training, in order to achieve optimal sport performance, is not scientifically justified. It is also necessary to carefully consider all the ethical issues related to such testing in children.
... Thus, the combination of reduced BCAAs and elevated fatty acids in the blood causes more tryptophan to enter the brain and more serotonin to be produced, leading to central fatigue [ 72 , 73 ]. Due to these metabolic processes, it has been hypothesized that BCAA supplementation can help delay central fatigue and maintain mental performance in endurance or extremely long-lasting physical activities [ 67 ]. ...
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Female athletes tend to choose their supplements for different reasons than their male counterparts. Collegiate female athletes report taking supplements “for their health,” to make up for an inadequate diet, or to have more energy. Multivitamins, herbal substances, protein supplements, amino acids, creatine, fat burners/weight-loss products, caffeine, iron, and calcium are the most frequently used products reported by female athletes. Many female athletes are unclear on when to use a protein supplement, how to use it, and different sources of protein (whey, casein, and soy). This chapter addresses essential amino acid and branched chain amino acid supplementation. Along with recommendations for protein supplementation, creatine supplementation is discussed. Not all female athletes are concerned with building muscle. Burning fat is also a major concern for the female athlete. This may result in the athlete turning to products marketed for weight control (i.e., ginseng or ephedra). A product legal for over-the-counter (OTC) sales, however, can be illegal for athletic competition (i.e., ephedra). Competitive athletes should be aware of the banned substance list for their governing body and that OTC products are not currently regulated by the FDA. This lack of regulation can lead to OTC products that are contaminated with banned substances.
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A collaborative study was undertaken in which five international laboratories participated to determine amino acid fingerprints in 39 authentic nonfat dry milk (NFDM)/skim milk powder (SMP) samples. A rapid method of amino acid analysis involving microwave-assisted hydrolysis followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (UHPLC-UV) was used for quantitation of amino acids and to calculate their distribution. The performance of this rapid method of analysis was evaluated and was used to determine the amino acid fingerprint of authentic milk powders. The distribution of different amino acids and their predictable upper and lower tolerance limits in authentic NFDM/SMP samples were established as a reference. Amino acid fingerprints of NFDM/SMP were compared with selected proteins and nitrogen rich compounds (proteins from pea, soy, rice, wheat, whey, and fish gelatin) which can be potential economically motivated adulterants (EMA). The amino acid fingerprints of NFDM/SMP were found to be affected by spiking with pea, soy, rice, whey, fish gelatin and arginine among the investigated adulterants but not by wheat protein and melamine. The study results establish an amino acid fingerprint of authentic NFDM/SMP and demonstrate the utility of this method as a tool in verifying the authenticity of milk powders and detecting their adulteration.
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The use of enzymes from the brush border membrane (BBM) in simulated gastrointestinal digestion of milk proteins has been evaluated. With this purpose, the resistant sequences from casein and milk whey proteins after INFOGEST in vitro digestion with and without BBM have been analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. The use of BBM revealed additional cleavages to those found with pancreatic enzymes, although the number of total identified peptides decreased due to the reduction of the peptide size. These new cleavages were mainly attributed to the activity of amino- and carboxy-peptidases, which was also reflected in the higher concentration of free amino acids found in the gastrointestinal digests with BBM. The peptidome of the simulated gastrointestinal digests was compared with that previously obtained in digests aspirated from human jejunum after oral administration of the same substrates. The addition of BBM did not change significantly the peptide profile, although it allowed the identification of peptides found in human digests. However, none of the models was able to reproduce the large variety of peptides found in vivo. In addition, in vitro transepithelial transport of six β-casein derived peptides resistant to gastrointestinal digestion, including the opioid β-casomorphin-7, was also evaluated. The results point to the importance of the nature of the N- and C-terminal end for the transport rate through the Caco-2 cell monolayer. Therefore, the use of BBM as a supplementary step after simulated pancreatic digestion can be considered in bioavailability studies since the final sequence can determine the absorption of peptides.
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Due to its high nutritional value and increasing consumption trends, plant-based proteins were used in a variety of dietary products, either in their entirety or as partial substitutions. There is indeed a growing need to produce plant-based proteins as alternatives to dairy-based proteins that have good functional properties, high nutritional values, and high protein digestibility. Among the plant-based proteins, both lentil and quinoa proteins received a lot of attention in recent years as dairy-based protein alternatives. To ensure plant-based proteins a success in food applications, food industries and researchers need to have a comprehensive scientific understanding of these proteins. The demand for proteins is highly dependent on several factors, mainly functional properties, nutritional values, and protein digestibility. Fermentation and protein complexation are recognised to be suitable techniques in enhancing the functional properties, nutritional values, and protein digestibility of these plant-based proteins, making them potential alternatives for dairy-based proteins.
Article
Physicochemical characteristics of whey protein concentrate (WPC35, 35% protein), whey protein isolate, sodium, and calcium caseinate powders were studied by storing them at 25, 35, and 45 °C and 11, 44, and 85% relative humidity (RH) for 21 days. Monolayer moisture content (Mo) in these powders increased with increasing protein content. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of all of these powders decreased with increasing RH at all storage temperatures. Lactose crystallization occurred in WPC35 at 85% RH at all temperatures and 44% RH and 45 °C, and this caused caking. Caking was also observed in whey protein concentrate and isolate, and sodium and calcium caseinate powders at 85% RH and 45 °C, despite having low (0.2–1.5%, w/w) lactose content. Surface fat content was higher in powders stored at higher temperatures and RH. All powders developed browning, which was especially pronounced at 85% RH. These findings help better understand the temperature and humidity dependent behavior of whey protein and casein powders during storage.
Chapter
Female athletes tend to choose their supplements for different reasons than their male counterparts. Collegiate female athletes report taking supplements “for their health,” to make up for an inadequate diet, or to have more energy. Multivitamins, herbal substances, protein supplements, amino acids, creatine, fat burners/weight-loss products, caffeine, iron, and calcium are the most frequently used products reported by female athletes. Many female athletes are unclear on when to use a protein supplement, how to use it, and different sources of protein (whey, casein, and soy). This chapter addresses essential amino acid and branched chain amino acid supplementation. Along with recommendations for protein supplementation, creatine supplementation is discussed. Not all female athletes are concerned with building muscle. Burning fat is also a major concern for the female athlete. This may result in the athlete turning to products marketed for weight control (i.e., ginseng or ephedra). A product legal for over-the-counter (OTC) sales, however, can be illegal for athletic competition (i.e., ephedra).competitive athletes should be aware of the banned substance list for their governing body and that OTC products are not currently regulated by the FDA. This lack of regulation can lead to OTC products that are contaminated with banned substances.