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Costs structure in road transport in studied entities according to company size in 2012 [percentage] Source: Author's elaboration 

Costs structure in road transport in studied entities according to company size in 2012 [percentage] Source: Author's elaboration 

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Article
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The problem of cost management in road transport enterprises is one of the most crucial ones for their efficient functioning. The enterprises functioning on the market are very different so it is important to analyse their costs structure in relation to their size. The author provides a discussion on road transport costs identification and problems...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... the cost structure in enterprises of dif- ferent operation scales, it should be noted that: the larger the company -the greater the share of fuel costs and the smaller the share of other costs depen- dent on the efficiency of the company management. The increase in scale of operations reduces the share of employment costs, repair costs, or the costs asso- ciated with penalties for delays in deliveries (Figure 2). On the other hand, the larger the company, the greater the desire to reduce the risk of business and so the costs related to the insurance of transport and insur- ance of transported goods account increase the share in the total costs. ...

Citations

... Transport and logistics companies with their vehicle fleet face great market competition challenges, which forces them to reduce their costs as much as possible. Fuel costs represent one of the main operating costs of the observed companies [2][3][4]. Increasing the fleet's energy efficiency is a long-term subgoal that contributes to the transport and logistics companies to achieve their main goal-increased profit and increased corporate sustainability [5]. Possible solution for reducing fuel costs, i.e. increasing the fleet's energy efficiency, which is considered in this paper, is to act on drivers and their driving style. ...
Article
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Due to the great market competition, transport companies face the need to reduce their vehicle fleet costs. The vehicle fleet managers’ actions on the driver’s driving style to achieve fuel consumption savings are measures to increase the fleet’s energy efficiency. The authors developed a model for evaluating driving style using a type-2 fuzzy logic system. The model comprehensively considers three parameters: engine speed, accelerator pedal position, and acceleration/deceleration. These parameters can precisely describe the driving style and additionally have a strong influence on fuel consumption. The model output is the driver’s score, representing the influence of driving style to fuel consumption. The model is tested in the company whose drivers have attended the eco-driving training course. Each driver’s driving style was monitored for 15 days to obtain trustworthy assessments regarding driving style. The result was twofold: firstly, we point out the importance of simultaneous observation of all three defined parameters to get reliable driver’s score in terms of driving style, and secondly, it is established that drivers have significantly different driving styles regardless of whether they have attended the same eco-driving training. The established differences in driving styles have a direct impact on the obtained differences in fuel consumption among drivers. The proposed model can significantly reduce fuel consumption depending on the driving style and increase the vehicle fleet’s energy efficiency.
... For many years, the European Freight Villages have been playing an important role in the transport sector. They are substantially involved in managing international supply chains (Kot, 2015, Svazas et al., 2019. Logistics trends have a huge impact on all freight villages located in Europe. ...
Article
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Being the initiator of the German and European Freight Village ranking, Deutsche GVZ-Gesellschaft (DGG) has the methodical know how to create the benchmarking studies. In this ranking approximately 100 Freight Village locations were analysed and evaluated. The research was based on the generation of an uniform understanding, which was focused on intermodality and the significant distinctive management structures. This data led to a qualitative and detailed overview. Because of the positive response, we were motivated to start the second ranking in 2015, as well as the update in 2019/2020. The results of the ranking show important basics and facts, which demonstrate the importance of the Freight Villages and strengthened their role as central, intermodal logistics nodes. Moreover, the responsible decision makers in the Freight Villages benefit from the results of the benchmarking. Many management companies use their placement in the ranking for public relations activities. Good placements or improvements are important instruments in marketing strategies.
... In summary, the existing literature often discussed route optimization and the optimization of transport trips and networks [53][54][55][56]. Based on a review of previous studies, an optimization method for the minimization of fuel costs, based on the optimization of the fuel supply, was not considered or developed. ...
Article
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Due to globalization and increased market competition, forwarding companies must focus on the optimization of their international transport activities and on cost reduction. The minimization of the amount and cost of fuel results in increased competition and profitability of the companies as well as the reduction of environmental damage. Nowadays, these aspects are particularly important. This research aims to develop a new optimization method for road freight transport costs in order to reduce the fuel costs and determine optimal fueling stations and to calculate the optimal quantity of fuel to refill. The mathematical method developed in this research has two phases. In the first phase the optimal, most cost-effective fuel station is determined based on the potential fuel stations. The specific fuel prices differ per fuel station, and the stations are located at different distances from the main transport way. The method developed in this study supports drivers' decision-making regarding whether to refuel at a farther but cheaper fuel station or at a nearer but more expensive fuel station based on the more economical choice. Thereafter, it is necessary to determine the optimal fuel volume, i.e., the exact volume required including a safe amount to cover stochastic incidents (e.g., road closures). This aspect of the optimization method supports drivers' optimal decision-making regarding optimal fuel stations and how much fuel to obtain in order to reduce the fuel cost. Therefore, the application of this new method instead of the recently applied ad-hoc individual decision-making of the drivers results in significant fuel cost savings. A case study confirmed the efficiency of the proposed method.
... However, it seems that there are few studies to include urban traffic in the scope of TAS. Kot [23] discussed the determination of road transport costs and related issues based on the transport services of road transport in Poland and certain EU countries and quantified the specific costs of road transport. ...
Article
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Gate and yard congestion is a typical type of container port congestion, which prevents trucks from traveling freely and has become the bottleneck that constrains the port productivity. In addition, urban traffic increases the uncertainty of the truck arrival time and additional congestion costs. More and more container terminals are adopting a truck appointment system (TAS), which tries to manage the truck arrivals evenly all day long. Extending the existing research, this work considers morning and evening peak congestion and proposes a novel approach for multi-constraint TAS intended to serve both truck companies and container terminals. A Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) based multi-constraint TAS model is formulated, which explicitly considers the appointment change cost, queuing cost, and morning and evening peak congestion cost. The aim of the proposed multi-constraint TAS model is to minimize the overall operation cost. The Lingo commercial software is used to solve the exact solutions for small and medium scale problems, and a hybrid genetic algorithm and simulated annealing (HGA-SA) is proposed to obtain the solutions for large-scale problems. Experimental results indicate that the proposed TAS can not only better serve truck companies and container terminals but also more effectively reduce their overall operation cost compared with the traditional TASs.
... Operation of the transport system, selection of suitable means of transport, their compliance with the loading equipment have an impact on the evaluation of the transport system performance but also of the whole company [18,19]. ...
Article
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This article is devoted to modelling of the extracted raw material removal from a mining area to the entry point for the next technological process. Two approaches were chosen for the process modelling. The first approach is regarded to traffic modelling by using available mathematical equations, based on capacity conversion and calculation of loading equipment efficiency. The second approach of modelling is computer simulation within the simulation system ExtendSim8. The modelling of the transport system and the determination of its efficiency were performed at the same conditions. The examined transport system was consisted of two lorries and one loader. The article presents the results of calculations and the results of simulation experiments, which also verified the results obtained by calculations. Calculations of the transport system performance and simulation experiments were performed for two time periods, for a time of 1 h and 6 h during a shift from three different loading places, which were 500, 1100 and 1450 m away from a place of unloading. The results obtained by both approaches are comparable. The main contribution, novelty, of this article is the modelling of the process in a quarry operation (loading and removal of mineral resources) not only on the basis of available mathematical formulas but also the application of simulation in the simulation tool EXTENDSim8, performing simulation experiments for specified conditions and their comparison with calculated values. Simulation is a suitable tool for determining and subsequently planning of the performance of both existing and projected transport systems.
... Once transport efficiency indicators are defined and measured, it is easier to identify measures aiming at improving efficiency. Some other authors focus on cost analyses which include operational costs, environmental costs, fines, insurance, repairs, salaries, and depreciation among others [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper uses data from a major logistics service provider in Gothenburg (Sweden) to (i) identify the different activities in a typical urban distribution tour, (ii) quantify the time required by drivers to perform each of these activities, and (iii) identify potential initiatives to improve time efficiency. To do so, the authors collected GPS data, conducted a time-study of the activities performed by the drivers for a week, conducted a focus group with the drivers, and a set of interviews with managers. The results show that driving represents only 30% of the time, another 15% is spent on breaks, and the remaining 55% is used to perform activities related to customer service, freight handling, and planning. The latter are subdivided into multiple activities, each taking a small amount of time. A focus group with the drivers and some interviews revealed several initiatives to improve time efficiency. Most initiatives can bring small gains, but when aggregating all potential time savings there is a big potential to improve overall time efficiency. Initiatives with highest potential and low cost are: providing better pre-advice on upcoming customers, improving route planning, having hand-free cell phone use, and enhancing handling equipment.
... Transport is by its high share in the logistics functions of enterprises an integrating element of logistics systems, i. management of material circulation, storage, packaging, transhipment, distribution and transport. In order to manage these tasks, it seems advantageous to cumulate them in a certain area into a single place where the interrelationships between transport and other sub-systems can be managed more efficiently and faster than if they were decentralized [12]. Suitable places for such services are the points of concentration of goods flows, resp. ...
... Suitable places for such services are the points of concentration of goods flows, resp. places of important crossings of transport routes, where there is a change in the direction of goods streams, which clearly include the reloading points of the railways [10,12]. ...
... • eliminating the disadvantages of direct road transport, • waiting at the border, since the combined transport trains are already equipped with customs at the combined transport terminals, which are recognized as border customs offices, • driving bans on public holidays, public holidays and at night do not apply to road vehicles carrying collection and distribution from combined transport terminals, • road tax relief for vehicles used for collection and distribution from combined transport terminals • no need for transport permits for international road transport, • independence from road and weather conditions [12,13]. ...
... It is important to note that the truck is idling during the queueing at the terminal gate, they will consume fuel, resulting in fuel costs. The way for micro and small enterprises to reduce total costs is correct to supply chain management [1], while the main cost structure of larger enterprises is fuel cost [2]. Reducing fuel costs can effectively reduce total costs of larger enterprises. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aiming at the truck scheduling problem between the outer yard and multi-terminals, the appointment optimization model of truck is established. In this model, the queue time and the operation time of truck during the appointment period of different terminals are different. Under the restriction of given appointment quotas of each appointment period, determine the arrival amount of trucks in each appointment period. The goal is to reduce carbon emissions and total costs, improve the efficiency of truck scheduling. To solve this model, hybrid genetic algorithm with variable neighborhood search was designed. Firstly, generate chromosomes, and the front part of the chromosome represents the demand for 40 ft containers and the back part represents the demand for 20 ft containers. Then, the route is generated according to the time constraint and appointment quotas of each appointment period. Finally, the neighborhood search strategy is adopted to improve the solution quality. The validity of the model and algorithm were verified by an example. A low-carbon scheduling scheme was obtained under truck appointment system. The results show that the scheduling scheme under truck appointment system uses fewer trucks, improves the efficiency of delivery, reduces the total costs, and it takes into account the requirements of low carbon.
... According to Zbigniew et al. [9], transport is one of the key sectors of the European economy based on knowledge and ecology. Kot [10] states that transport is an inherent component that is associated with all economic and public activities and enables the mobility of people; therefore their functioning and development has a universal character. Furthermore, he claims that transport is one of the subsystems of logistics system. ...
Article
Full-text available
Transport is one of the key sectors of the European economy. Effectiveness of transport companies depends mainly on the changes in the given environment. Transport companies differ from other types of companies especially in higher focus on ecology, not storing the services offered or high cost investments. The aim of each business is generally the increase of the value of the company. The objective of this contribution is thus to identify the value drivers of a transport company in the Czech Republic, provided that the value of the company is measured by means of the EVA equity indicator. The data set contains complete financial statements of 1500 transport companies in the Czech Republic for the year 2016. For each company, the EVA equity value is calculated. For the analysis, the Statistica software and the method of artificial neural networks are used. 1000 neural networks are generated, out of which 5 showing the best results are retained. In total, 12 variables are chosen that enter/play a part in the process of the company value creation. Based on the sensitivity analysis, the most important components of the variable are the financial result, consumption of material and energy and the profit on ordinary operations.
... They were active, calculating, and rational consumers who carefully allocated scarce resources to the purchase of goods and services in such a manner as to maximize the utility that was obtained. New practices in familiarizing green air traveling might not have delivered comfort for the consumers to obligate themselves to, until its cost and benefit analysis was confirmed satisfactorily [68]. ...