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Costs of Doctor of Physical Therapy Education: Inflation-Adjusted Constant Dollar Amounts

Costs of Doctor of Physical Therapy Education: Inflation-Adjusted Constant Dollar Amounts

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Context 1
... tuition and total costs of the program are reported for the given years both in their unadjusted and CPI-adjusted (college tuition and fees) amounts. ese data are presented in Tables 6 and 7, and sample table outlining the calculation method- ology for the data is provided in Table 8. ...
Context 2
... inflation-adjusted 11-year change for public institutions is between 1.8% and 2.4%, (annual tuition, and total costs), while the private institutions actually have had a 16-17% reduction in those same values. If the inflation adjustments were not applied, the increase would be substantially different (Table 6 and 7). is information, however, is in direct alignment with recent concerns noted in regard to the substantial growth of the CPI in relation to college tuition and fees in the past 10 years compared to other CPI indices. ...

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... One issue that is absent from the discussions on public health workforce recruitment is student debt, which has been identified as having an impact on career choices in other fields. Student debt is significant in public health-related fields, according to a study on Doctor of Medicine, physical therapy, and pharmacy [15]. This type of debt has been shown to impact career choices in similar fields, notably in dentistry, according to a study by Nasseh and Vujicic [16]. ...
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... Existing data suggests few health care graduate students can complete their education without accumulating student loans. According to information collected by the College Board 84% of medical students and 90% other health science students graduate with debt (7). Average debt loads vary among professions: in US dollars, $200,000 for physicians (2019), $183,014 for veterinarians (2019), $40,000-54,999 for graduate level nurses (2017), $114,706 for physician assistants (2017), and between $83,000-124,000 for physical therapists (14)(15)(16)(17). ...
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Introduction/Review of Literature. Clinical educational experiences (CEEs) comprise approximately 30% of the total credit hours in the Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) curriculum and are essential to the clinical learning and performance of DPT students to achieve entry-level competence. There are no established standards in DPT education for the length and timing of CEEs to optimize students' clinical learning and performance. The purpose of our investigation was to assess the development of DPT students' clinical learning and performance at 3 DPT programs during 6-, 8-, 9-, and 16-week CEEs. Methods. An analysis of variance was conducted to assess the changes in DPT students' clinical learning and performance based on the following: (1) the length of CEEs, (2) the effect of the length and timing of CEEs, and (3) the length of the final CEEs. Subjects. Midterm and final evaluation Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument data were analyzed from 707 DPT students' CEEs. Results. The average change in DPT stu-dents' clinical learning and performance during CEEs was as follows: 6 weeks = 3.13 (SD = 2.3), 8 weeks = 3.20 (SD = 2.6), 9-weeks = 3.30 (SD = 2.5), and 16 weeks = 2.56. Significant difference in DPT students' clinical learning occurred during the 8-week (P = .03; P = .04) and 9-week (P = .04; P = .01) CEEs compared with the early 6-week CEEs and 16-week CEEs, respectively. Discussion and Conclusion. e greatest change in DPT students' clinical learning and performance occurred during 8-and 9-week CEEs and between the first and third full-time CEEs. Given the increasing costs of DPT education and student debt, the length of CEEs required to meet CAPTE standards and program goals should be further investigated. INTRODUCTION As part of the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) requirements , Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students are required to complete a minimum of 30 weeks of full-time clinical educational experiences (CEEs). 1 Full-time CEEs comprise approximately 30% of the total credit hours and are essential to the development of DPTstudents' knowledge, skills, and behaviors needed to achieve entry-level competence. 2,3 Although CAPTE mandates 30 weeks of full-time CEEs, there is considerable variation among DPT programs in the range of the (1) total number of weeks in full-time CEEs (range 30-56.6), (2) timing of full-time CEEs, (3) weeks allocated to each full-time CEE, (4) weeks allocated for the terminal full-time CEE (range 4-50), and (5) total number of weeks in the DPT curriculum (range 69-180). 2,4 Currently, there are no established standards in DPT education for the length and timing of full-time CEEs to optimize the students' clinical learning and performance. e absence of established standards is not unique to DPT education. Although the American Occupational Therapy Association requires occupational therapy students to complete a total of 24 weeks of full-time level II fieldwork before graduation, there are no standards as to how that fieldwork is to be completed. 5 e American Speech-Language-Hearing Association requires speech-language pathology students to complete a minimum of 400 hours of supervised CEEs that are interspersed throughout the curriculum and unique to each program. 6 By contrast , CEEs for medical students occur in the final 2 years of the doctor of medicine curriculum , across diverse practice settings, and are the same length of time in each practice setting. 7 Assessing the development of DPT students' knowledge, skills, and behaviors at varying lengths and timing of full-time CEEs would provide much needed evidence to determine the optimal length of CEEs to maximize the students' clinical learning and performance. REVIEW OF LITERATURE The Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument (PT CPI) has long (1997) been used as physical therapy educations instrument of choice for assessing students clinical learning and performance. 8,9 As physical therapy education transitioned from a Masters degree to a Doctorate degree (DPT), the number of total weeks of CEEs increased. In 2004-2005, students in Masters of Physical Therapy programs completed an average of 27.9 weeks of full-time CEEs, compared with 35.7 weeks of full-time CEEs in DPT Mitch Wolden is an assistant professor at the University of Jamestown, Physical Therapy Program ,
... Physical therapy students who graduate with $120,000 or more in debt could fall into economic hardship, as defined as paying 20% or more of their monthly income in loan repayment. 5 is may influence students' choices in finding a setting that pays a higher income. Our study also supports the work of Ambler, 28 who found that 28% of entry-level physical therapists cited debt as a barrier to working in their desired practice setting. ...
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Introduction: As the cost of higher education rises, the debt associated with degree attainment also increases, including that of the Doctor of Physical Therapy degree. Research suggests that a relationship between financial debt and post-professional career aspirations may exist, and financial self-efficacy could attenuate debt-related stress. These relationships have not been studied in the health professions outside of medicine. Subjects: 139 participants among six health professions programs housed in one public, academic medical center. Methods: Surveys administered to participants provided Likert scale data for a multiple regression analysis. Results: 81% of students reported having a medium, large, or extreme amount of stress from the total amount of debt they are accruing. Over 70% of student responses indicated that the amount of student loan debt they expect to accumulate will influence their post-training career selection to some extent. The regression model indicated some predictive ability of stress from student debt. Two of the covariates, self-efficacy and career selection, were statistically significant. Self-efficacy accounted for 36% of the variance explained in students’ self-reported stress from debt by itself. Students’ career selection and stress were strongly associated, with career selection explaining 85% of the variance explained in students’ self-reported stress by itself. Discussion and Conclusion: Health professions students in a public academic medical center had a “medium amount” of stress, on average, from financial debt. Stress was associated with the amount of student loans students expect to accrue and their financial self-efficacy. Students also appeared to base their post-professional career aspirations, at least in part, on the stress they experienced from financial debt. Financial self-efficacy appears to be a promising moderator for debt-related stress.
... Furthermore, recently published studies of student loan debt in physical therapy have provided evidence supporting the concerns about increasing student debt. [2][3][4] These efforts by the profession to address student debt as well as the recent papers have raised concerns that student debt dissuades people from entering the profession, decreases the quality of life of new professionals, leads to stress and burnout, and increases attrition from the profession. The premise of this point of view paper is that the profession must take a holistic view of the economic, personal, and professional landscape new professionals encounter that includes a broad view of return on investment (ROI), and we must do that at the individual and societal levels if we are to address the impact student debt has on the work force in physical therapy. ...
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Student debt in physical therapy has received increasing attention since 2016 when the House of Delegates unanimously passed RC 11-16 that charged the APTA Board of Directors to evaluate student debt in physical therapy and develop a plan to address it. Recently published studies of student loan debt in physical therapy have provided evidence supporting the concerns about increasing student debt. Return-on-investment (ROI) is defined as a ratio between net profit over a period of time and cost of an investment at a point in time. In higher education, however, ROI has traditionally consisted of a more complicated formulation of economic and non-economic factors benefitting both the individual and the public. The consideration of all factors (economic and non-economic, individual and social) in the evaluation of ROI becomes particularly important in the professions, given the autonomy society affords the professions and the responsibility the professions have to provide a greater social good. Understanding ROI from economic and non-economic perspectives at the individual level is critically important if the profession is to meet its responsibility to society and fulfill its vision. The profession also must investigate ROI from a systems-level that includes how physical therapy education is financed, what the actual costs are for that education, and what the economic and non-economic returns are for those investments.
... 3,4 The current mean tuition cost for physician assistant (PA) and physical therapist (PT) programs is $80,000 to $90,000 over 2 to 3 years. [5][6][7][8] This amount is projected to increase steadily while the growth for entry-level salaries has begun to plateau. 6 PT and PA graduates are likely taking their first jobs at an annual salary level that is roughly equivalent to or less than their educational debt obligation. ...
... 6 PT and PA graduates are likely taking their first jobs at an annual salary level that is roughly equivalent to or less than their educational debt obligation. 5,7,9 This reality challenges students' ability to repay their loans at an acceptable debtto-income ratio and to effectively manage a relatively smaller percentage of their income. To complicate matters, these future healthcare providers face this dilemma with less financial literacy than their college-educated, non-medical peers. ...
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Introduction: The impact of student debt management on mental health, career choices, and advanced training in allied health professions is unknown. The purpose of this project was to pilot a survey that identifies students’ financial literacy and self-efficacy. Methods: A cross-sectional survey containing 43 items related to financial habits, savings knowledge, credit and borrowing strategies, and investment knowledge was administered to assess financial literacy, self-efficacy, and career plans in a group of health professions graduate students. Results: 134 of 268 surveys were completed by a variety of health professions. Financial habits and credit and borrowing categories scored the highest at 50% correct. Students scored the lowest on investment knowledge with an average of 25% correct responses. The overall mean self-efficacy score was 15.5 + 3.8. Three independent variables had a significant correlation of determination with overall financial literacy which included marital status, older age, and individuals who identified as white non-Hispanic. Similarly, identification as white non-Hispanic had a significant correlation of determination with financial self-efficacy, but there were no significant differences based on age or marital status. Conclusions: Allied health students demonstrate low financial literacy and self-efficacy. Health care educators should consider delivering educational content to address these deficits.
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Importance: Identifying the extent and predictors of burnout among occupational therapy practitioners is important so strategies can be developed to reduce burnout and mitigate associated consequences within the profession. Objective: To investigate the prevalence and determinants of burnout reported by U.S. occupational therapy practitioners. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Participants: Occupational therapy practitioners working in a wide range of clinical settings who spent at least 50% of their time in direct patient care and who had been employed continuously for more than 6 mo. Outcomes and Measures: The outcome of interest was burnout, which was measured using the Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishment subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey (MBI–HSS). Predictor variables included sociodemographic and workplace characteristics. The relationship between MBI–HSS subscale scores and predictor variables was jointly estimated using a multivariate multivariable linear regression analysis. Results: One hundred seventy-eight occupational therapy practitioners completed the survey. Higher perceived level of supervisor support, satisfaction with income, and educational attainment were associated with lower MBI–HSS subscale scores (ps = .001, .002, and .005, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: Burnout among occupational therapy practitioners can be conceptualized as an issue of workplace health and safety. Various stakeholder groups can consider potential systematic interventions involving measures to promote positive supervisor support in the workplace and salary negotiation skills for early-stage clinicians. Future research should explore broad interventions to reduce burnout among clinicians. What This Article Adds: We estimated the extent and predictors of burnout among U.S. occupational therapy practitioners. Future research, advocacy, and policy should address structural-level interventions to promote workplace cultures and conditions that can protect the occupational therapy workforce from burnout.