Corneal abrasions induced by a mascara wand, observed under blue light following sodium fluorescein instillation. 

Corneal abrasions induced by a mascara wand, observed under blue light following sodium fluorescein instillation. 

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Eye cosmetics are frequently applied among female populations of all age groups around the world. However, the migration of cosmetic products across the eyelid margin has been reported, and this is thought to exacerbate tear film instability and symptoms of dry eye. Furthermore, numerous adverse effects and complications have also been reported wit...

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... Ocular Demodex mites have a high affinity toward oil-rich environ- ments, such as the meibomian glands, and may also survive in oil-based cosmetic products and applicators. 6 Corneal trauma is a recognized potential complication from the use of mascara applicator wands (Figure 4). 40-42 Eyelid dermatitis and ocular surface irritation can also occur in response to several constituents within eye cosmetic formulations includ- ing fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, emollients, resins, nickel-containing pigments, and pearlescent additives. ...

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... Epidemiological studies have consistently reported a higher prevalence of dry eye in women (17). It is also thought to be an increasing trend for eye cosmetics users to develop dry eye symptoms, due to reduced tear film stability and lipid layer quality (18). It has been suggested that dry eye patients experience symptoms of dryness and discomfort when using eye cosmetics despite using tears regularly. ...
... This can result in faster tear breakage and evaporation time and exposure of the corneal surface to air. Some make-up materials, such as eyeliner, can also change the viscosity of the meibum, which adversely affects its tear stability (18). However, many users remove the products when they are uncomfortable with their daily use and do not report side effects (7,14). ...
... A study showed that both lipid eye drops and liposomal sprays appear to exacerbate the migration of cosmetic products across the eyelid margin. Although significant increases in lipid layer thickness were observed and, lipid formulations's clinical efficacy in improving tear film stability appeared (18). ...
... The application of eye makeup has been in practice for centuries and advancements in eyelash enhancing serums have gained popularity in recent years. The synthetic prostaglandins these products contain have also been linked to symptoms of dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction [43]. Since many of these lash-lengthening products and dyes are sold over the counter, they are not subject to the same FDA regulatory and reporting standards required of medical compounds. ...
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Background In the United States, women are at a higher risk of developing vision impairment or a serious eye disease (such as age-related macular degeneration, thyroid eye disease, or chronic dry eye disease) than men. Disparities in eye diseases due to biology widen even further when considering factors such as social determinants of health; gaps in research data, literature, and policy; insufficient provider and patient education; and limitations in screening and treatment options. Sex and gender disparities in eye health are clinically under-addressed and burdensome on both patient quality of life and the health care and economic systems, resulting in a pressing population health issue that negatively impacts women. Design The Society for Women’s Health Research convened a working group of expert clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates to review the current state of science regarding sex and gender disparities in women’s eye health, identify knowledge gaps and unmet needs, and explore better means to advance research, improve patient care, and raise awareness of key issues. Discussion The SWHR Women’s Eye Health Working Group identified priority areas in research, clinical care, and education to reduce disparities and improve patient care in women’s eye health. The working group recommends using a systems approach that incorporates a comprehensive research framework with a sex and gender lens to guide future work and that increases health care provider and public education, as well as engagement by expanding partnerships among ophthalmologic providers, researchers, and non-vision stakeholders.
... The application of eye cosmetics to increase beauty and attractiveness 10 may come at the cost of discomfort, allergic reactions, and ocular changes. 11 Eye make-up products are known to cause inflammation, 11,12 affect lipid layer quality and influence ocular comfort 12 and are key factors in the initiation and/or exacerbation of dry eye disease (DED). 13 Dry eye, a multifactorial condition, is characterized by symptoms of dryness and irritation of the ocular surface due to alterations in the quality or quantity of the tear film. ...
... The application of eye cosmetics to increase beauty and attractiveness 10 may come at the cost of discomfort, allergic reactions, and ocular changes. 11 Eye make-up products are known to cause inflammation, 11,12 affect lipid layer quality and influence ocular comfort 12 and are key factors in the initiation and/or exacerbation of dry eye disease (DED). 13 Dry eye, a multifactorial condition, is characterized by symptoms of dryness and irritation of the ocular surface due to alterations in the quality or quantity of the tear film. ...
... 15,16 Several reviews have addressed the effect of eye cosmetic constituents on the ocular surface, leading to various ocular conditions. 11,12,17,18 However, the multifactorial nature of DED makes it difficult to link a particular ingredient-driven mechanism to this condition. In addition, there are common mechanisms behind several ocular surface diseases. ...
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Dry eye disease (DED), a multifactorial condition of the tear film and ocular surface, is one of the leading reasons for patients seeking eye care. Despite the multiple toxic ingredients of eye make-up products and their long-term application close to the ocular surface, few studies have analyzed their role in initiating and worsening DED. Females and the elderly experience the highest prevalence of DED and may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of eye make-up. The multifactorial nature of DED and common mechanisms behind several ocular surface diseases make it difficult to link a particular ingredient-driven mechanism to DED. Therefore, here, we list potential responses to eye cosmetics that may be involved in DED development. The first part of this review introduces the anatomy of the eye and DED, the second section explains the classification of eye cosmetic products, and the final part discusses the undesired effects under physical, pathogenic, and chemical insults.
... [1][2][3] There are reports of two kinds of surface application, first on periocular skin just external to lash line, second on muco-cutaneous junction along lid margin (called lightlining). 4 Various ocular side effects are lead toxicity, evaporative dry eye, reduced Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), ocular inflammatory changes are well established [5][6][7] in literature specially in contact lens users. We report a rare case where conjunctival ulceration and scleral thining was noted after using surma. ...
... Many cosmetics that are applied to the eyes, such as eye shadow, show adverse effects on eyelids. Kajal and Mascara, an eye cosmetic can cause harmful impacts, particularly Pseudomonas aeroginosa corneal infections; it can also contain mercury and lead, which results in adverse health issues [15]. ...
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... Исследования, касающиеся изучения влияния косметических средств, которые наносят на край века, свидетельствуют о том, что данные средства могут негативным образом воздействовать на глазную поверхность и слезопродуцирующую систему. Так, применение подводки для глаз при нанесении ее на маргинальный край века, где открываются устья протоков мейбомиевых желез, может привести к развитию их дисфункции и синдрому сухого глаза [7][8][9]. ...
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... 3,63,96 The manufacture and supply of Western cosmetics, such as eyeliner, mascara and eye shadow, are more stringently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA and by European Union law; 67,197 however, despite rigorous safety assessments, these cosmetics may affect the ocular surface via a number of different mechanisms. 254 Migration of cosmetics from the periocular skin and eyelid margin onto the ocular surface is the main cause of cosmetic-associated ocular surface disease, causing blockage of meibomian glands and destabilisation of the tear film lipid layer, predisposing to evaporative dry eye disease. Migration is dependent on multiple factors, including cosmetic viscosity and hydrophilicity and blink frequency. ...
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The popularity and variety of temporary and permanent periocular aesthetic treatments has increased over the past decade. Patients frequently present to eye clinics with ocular complications and side effects following these treatments, their severity ranging from ocular irritation from dry eyes to visual loss from vascular occlusion. A careful, thorough history is essential, as many patients may not associate aesthetic procedures with ocular complications, and some may be embarrassed to disclose this information. All ophthalmologists should understand the potential ocular sequelae of these treatments and be able to initiate treatment in sight-threatening cases. Wesummarises the current literature on ophthalmic complications of the most common periocular aesthetic treatments.
... Similar to the present study, the female sex has been linked to less stable tear film as well as an increased severity and frequency of dryness symptoms in comparison with male sex [44]. Several factors, including low androgen and high estrogen levels in reduced lacrimal and meibomian gland function, have previously been pointed out in addition to the use of eye makeup products by females [67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74]. ...
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This study evaluated to what extent tear film break-up time (TFBUT) could discriminate pathological scores for other clinical tests and explore the associations between them. Dry eye patients (n = 2094) were examined for ocular surface disease index (OSDI), tear film osmolarity (Osm), TFBUT, blink interval, ocular protection index (OPI), ocular surface staining (OSS), Schirmer I test, meibomian expressibility, meibomian quality, and meibomian gland dysfunction. The results were grouped into eight levels of break-up time (≤2, ≥3, ≤5, ≥6, ≤10, ≥11, ≤15, and ≥16) with or without sex stratification. Receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to study TFBUT’s discriminative power and the associations among the tests, respectively. Above and below each TFBUT’s cut-off, all of the parameters indicated significant difference between groups, except OSDI (cut-off 15 s) and Osm (cut-offs 5 s–15 s). At TFBUT cut-off of 2 s, sex difference could be detected for OSDI, Osm, and OSS. OPI presented the strongest discriminative power and association with TFBUT in sharp contrast to Osm, holding the poorest discriminative power with no significant correlation. The remaining parameters were within the poor to very poor categories, both with regard to discrimination and correlation. In conclusion, patients with lower TFBUT presented with more severe DED parameters at all four defined cut-off values.
... The association between cosmetic usage and dry eye has revealed a migration of the product onto the surface of the eyes, and this, coupled with the chemistry of compounds used in such preparations, is associated with tear film instability, leading to dry eye. [26] Headache disorders are more commonly seen in females [27] and may account for a few of the symptoms such as sensitivity to light, headache, glare, blurring of vision. The higher incidence of symptoms in females is similar to findings of most of the previous studies. ...
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Purpose: Since the declaration of the lockdown due to COVID-19, the usage of digital devices has gone up across the globe, resulting in a challenge for the visual systems of all ages. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of the lockdown on digital device usage, and consequently, the ocular surface health implications and circadian rhythm abnormalities related to digital eye strain. Methods: An open online survey was sent through various social media platforms and was open for a period of 2 weeks. Results: A total of 407 usable responses were obtained; the average age of respondents was 27.4 years. Typically, 93.6% of respondents reported an increase in their screen time since the lockdown was declared. The average increase in digital device usage was calculated at about 4.8 ± 2.8 h per day. The total usage per day was found to be 8.65 ± 3.74 hours. Sleep disturbances have been reported by 62.4% of people. Typically, 95.8% of respondents had experienced at least one symptom related to digital device usage, and 56.5% said that the frequency and intensity of these symptoms increased since the lockdown was declared. Conclusion: The study highlighted the drastic increase in use of digital devices after the initiation of the COVID-19 lockdown, and along with it, the slow deterioration of ocular health across all age groups. Awareness about prevention of digital eye strain should be stressed, and going forward, measures to bring these adverse effects to a minimum should be explored.
... Eyes are known as 'The Window of our Soul' [3]. Eye cosmetics have been used since prehistoric times to emphasize and highlight the eyes to enhance perceived attractiveness and beauty [4]. Eye makeup has been used since long time to improve personal appearance, to get better selfworth or attract the interest of others. ...
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Study aimed to prepare and evaluate carbon based kajal formulation and carry out its comparative evaluation with the marketed formulations of kajal. Initially, carbon soot was deposited on Aloe vera mucilage spreaded on a copper plate, in specifically designed apparatus. Subsequently, sun dried plate was allowed to expose to the flame of cow ghee for 1 hr. Soot which was deposited on the copper plate was scrapped and Characterization of Soot by SEM, TEM, FTIR, XRD and EDX was carried out and kajal was prepared by adding few drops of cow ghee to it. The kajal was compared with the five marketed kajal formulations available in India, on the basis of physical characteristics their antibacterial potential was also assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Original Research Article Randive et al.; JPRI, 32(13): 62-74, 2020; Article no.JPR.59287 63 All the formulations exhibited almost similar physical characteristics. The prepared kajal showed pH (7.06±0.13). The antimicrobial activity of the marketed formulations was comparatively less than that of freshly prepared exhibiting zone of inhibition 13.05±0.11, 20.08± 0.13 and 22.06±0.18 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and E. coli respectively. EDX spectra, revealed that the cow ghee soot have the weight percentage of carbon and copper as 79.20 and 17.10% respectively and Confirmed the absence of Lead (Pb). The eye irritation test (OECD 405) also showed no any irritation, redness, watering of the eye or swelling was not observed for prepared formulation in test animal. Prepared Kajal can be safely used for beatification and also in the treatment of eye diseases especially in pediatrics.