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Copulins. Copulins are chemicals secreted by a female's vagina. Chemically copulins are volatile C 2-C 5 aliphatic acids [40]. Huggins and Preti et al. 1976 [41] studied the chemical composition of copulins in 12 patients for 44 ovulatory cycles by means of gas chromatography tandem with mass spectroscopy to identify organic volatile components. These vaginal secretions contain mixture of aliphatic acids, alcohol, hydroxy ketones and aromatic compounds. Research since the mid to late 90 s has proven that copulins can affect and even control a male's brain. They have been shown to increase testosterone levels in men by 150% (Astrid Jutte study). This increase in testosterone may cause feelings of arousal in men if a woman is present. It is said that once a man smells copulins on a woman she is deemed to be more attractive. Whether or not human vaginal secretions contain a kind of sex pheromone (copulin) influencing male perception of females and inducing hormonal changes in males, is still

Copulins. Copulins are chemicals secreted by a female's vagina. Chemically copulins are volatile C 2-C 5 aliphatic acids [40]. Huggins and Preti et al. 1976 [41] studied the chemical composition of copulins in 12 patients for 44 ovulatory cycles by means of gas chromatography tandem with mass spectroscopy to identify organic volatile components. These vaginal secretions contain mixture of aliphatic acids, alcohol, hydroxy ketones and aromatic compounds. Research since the mid to late 90 s has proven that copulins can affect and even control a male's brain. They have been shown to increase testosterone levels in men by 150% (Astrid Jutte study). This increase in testosterone may cause feelings of arousal in men if a woman is present. It is said that once a man smells copulins on a woman she is deemed to be more attractive. Whether or not human vaginal secretions contain a kind of sex pheromone (copulin) influencing male perception of females and inducing hormonal changes in males, is still

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Since the beginning of the human existence on the earth reproductive biology remained a main concern of research because of its importance. It is widely recognized and demonstrated that odors play an important role in mammalian reproduction. A large number of studies have been carried out in humans, in order to investigate possible pheromones, thei...

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... These small fragrances of pheromones were extracted and their activities were identified which revealed that the small volume of pheromones can stimulate millions of moths. Pheromones are categorized in to four distinct classes: (1) releaser pheromones that initiate the instant behavioural responses in the receiver; (2) the primer pheromones that elicit the physiological alterations and ultimately result in a behaviour response; (3) the modulator pheromones are chemosensory signals that modify the effect on other species; and (4) the signaler pheromones provide a variety of information in the form of reproductive status, sex of the sender, age, and dominance to the receiver (Semwal et al., 2013). Various alarming pheromones of different insects have been identified, among these (E)-betafarnesene is best studied which is released by most of the aphids for signalling member of the same family to stop feeding, predation, and dispersion (Joachim et al., 2013). ...
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Evidence is raised daily of the varying climate and its impression on both plants and animals. Climatic changes influence all agriculture factors, which can potentially adversely affect their productivity. Plant activities are intimately associated with climate and concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Climate Change and Plants: Biodiversity, Growth and Interactions examines how plant growth characters influence and is influenced by climate change both in past and present scenarios. This book covers cutting-edge research of key determinants of plant growth in response to atmospheric CO2 enhancement and global warming. Features Discourses numerous areas of sustainable development goals projected by the UN as part of the 2030 agenda Highlights appropriate approaches for maintaining better plant growth under changing climatic conditions Presents diversity of techniques used across plant science Is designed to cater to the needs of researchers, technologists, policymakers and undergraduate and postgraduate students studying sustainable crop production and protection Addresses plant responses to atmospheric CO2 increases
... These small fragrances of pheromones were extracted and their activities were identified which revealed that the small volume of pheromones can stimulate millions of moths. Pheromones are categorized in to four distinct classes: (1) releaser pheromones that initiate the instant behavioural responses in the receiver; (2) the primer pheromones that elicit the physiological alterations and ultimately result in a behaviour response; (3) the modulator pheromones are chemosensory signals that modify the effect on other species; and (4) the signaler pheromones provide a variety of information in the form of reproductive status, sex of the sender, age, and dominance to the receiver (Semwal et al., 2013). Various alarming pheromones of different insects have been identified, among these (E)-betafarnesene is best studied which is released by most of the aphids for signalling member of the same family to stop feeding, predation, and dispersion (Joachim et al., 2013). ...
... Les phéromones sont des substances chimiques volatiles, strictement identiques au sein de la même espèce (Simard, 2014), qui induisent, chez les animaux, des modifications tant au niveau physiologique que comportemental (Semwal et al., 2013). Des études ont tenté de répliquer ces résultats au fonctionnement humain afin d'observer dans quelle mesure les phéromones jouaient un rôle dans l'attirance entre les hommes et les femmes. ...
... Les phéromones sont également captés par l'organe voméronasal qui serait inactif chez l'être humain (Simard, 2014 ;Trotier, 2011). Bien que la littérature sur les phéromones soit abondante (Mostafa et al., 2012 ;Semwal et al., 2013), leur rôle ainsi que celui des hormones dans le processus de séduction restent à l'heure actuelle assez controversés et fortement soumis aux modifications environnementales (e.g. pollution, pesticides). ...
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Résumé Contexte Outre le fait que la solitude soit un facteur de risque pour la santé de l’individu, de nombreux patients expriment leur difficulté à engager une relation amoureuse. La création d’un lien affectif passe nécessairement par une phase de séduction. Cet article a donc pour objectif de présenter un état des lieux des recherches menées sur la séduction afin de relever les habiletés qui peuvent être travaillées et ainsi améliorer les interventions thérapeutiques des professionnels. Matériel et méthode Analyse de la littérature de 1967 et 2017 dans les bases de données Scopus, PsycInfo et SciencesDirect en utilisant les mots clefs suivants : seduction, human, courtship, female, male et pheromone. Résultats La séduction est composée d’aspects physiologiques, a priori immuables, mais également d’aspects psychologiques sur lesquelles il est possible d’agir. Cependant, si les premiers aspects font l’objet d’une littérature abondante, les seconds sont quant à eux encore peu approfondis. Conclusion Actuellement, il existe encore peu d’article portant sur le versant psychologique et modulable de la séduction. Malgré tout, la littérature existante nous offre des pistes intéressantes sur les habiletés de séduction qui peuvent être travaillées afin de favoriser la rencontre amoureuse.
... Women might also react more positively on androstenone when they ovulate [37]. Androstenone is said to improve female mood, dampening nervousness and anxiety [38]. ...
... Pheromones in humans are mainly produced by apocrine glands and they can induce a behavioural response or physiological change [2,6,7]. Some of the most important human pheromones are androstenone, androstadienone, androstenol, androsterone, and estratetraenol [12]. In the majority of the studies synthetic human pheromones are used because of their accessibility. ...
... It was present in a higher concentration in sample 1w for women compared to sample 1m for men commercialized by the same manufacturer. The unbalanced use of this pheromone considering the target consumer's gender might be correlated with previous experimental findings, which accounted for the so called "beneficial effects" mostly in case of women, such as increase in heart rate, reduction of respiratory rate and a positive influence on their mood [12]. Moreover, in women exposed to vapours of androstadienone, an activation of hypothalamus is observed, which in case of males could not be recorded [8][9][10]. ...
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Currently there are many pheromone containing perfumes aggressively promoted by various websites. Because these products usually elude the control of any national or international authorities or regulating bodies they expose consumers to many potential frauds, and more importantly, to various health associated risks. The aim of the present study was to confirm the presence of pheromones, identify their nature and assess their relative concentration. Twelve commercially available perfumes claiming to contain human pheromones have been evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Synthetic human pheromones were identified only in seven perfume samples. Considering the obtained results and taking into account the numerous knowledge gaps regarding the effects of synthetic pheromones on human behaviour, potential gender-based effects and the absence of any quantitative study correlating hormone exposure and observed effect, the perfume manufacturers do not seem to follow any scientific protocol in the design and fabrication of these products.
... Androstenone Detected in June in stem of Daucus carota (Simons & Grinwich, 1989) One of the most important human pheromones, found in male and female urine and sweat (Semwal, Kumar, Teotia, & Singh, 2013) Apigenin Coriandrum sativum (Rajeshwari & Andallu, 2011) Improved steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression and steroidogenic sensitivity of ageing Leydig cells in vitro (Li et al., 2011) Portulaca oleracea (Xu, Yu, & Chen, 2006) Inhibited oestrogen synthetase (aromatase) in vitro (Kellis & Vickery, 1984) Isolated from the acidic hydrolysate of an alcoholic extract of the fruits of D. carota L. (El-Moghazi, Ross, Halim, & Abou-Rayya, 1980) Produced adverse effect on spermatogenesis in adult male mice (Li et al., 2010) Apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (cosmosiin) was isolated from Achillea santolina (Urmanova & Komilov, 1999) Strongly inhibited the hyaluronidase activity extracted from cynomolgus monkey spermatozoa (Li et al., 1997) Benzyl isothiocyanate ...
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Male sexual dysfunction is a serious problem which has an impact on the quality of life. In Jordanian folk medicine, 56 plant species were reported to be used by males to improve sexual potency and as aphrodisiacs. The aim of this study was to search for scientific evidence justifying their folk use. Of the 15 studied plants, only five were found to enhance spermatogenesis. The other 10 were reported to decrease spermatogenesis at least by one study. The majority of the studied plants possessed a protective effect on testis in different in vivo models as well as antioxidant activities. The effect of these plants on steroidogenesis and the hypothalamic-gonadal axis was also reviewed. The effect of only five plants was studied on sexual behaviour enhancement and three of them were active. Three of the four studied plants enhanced erection. The mechanism of action of active constituents isolated from the studied plants was also investigated. In conclusion, many plants used in Jordanian folk medicine decreased or had no effect on spermatogenesis in animal models. These plants have antioxidant and/or adaptogenic effects, and this may result in a beneficial action on male reproductive system.
Article
The existence of pheromones in humans is controversial, partly because of definitional difficulties and partly because of the question of possible chemical substances. The synthetic compound Methyl dihydrojasmonate (Hedione) is potent to bind to vomeronasal-type 1 receptors (VN1R1s) and activate limbic areas of the brain in a sex-specific manner. However, one of the most important definitional points for a human pheromone effect has not yet been investigated, i.e., whether smelling Hedione, a model of pheromone, has a behavioral effect. We tested in females whether Hedione leads to altered perception of male social stimuli. Each of the included women were sensitive to Hedione and were tested around the time of ovulation in three consecutive sessions, during each they were exposed to either Hedione or Phenylethyl alcohol or Odorless air. We measured the speed of male face recognition (implicit priming task) and collected ratings of facial attractiveness and likeability of men (explicit task). Only about half of the women tested were sensitive to Hedione. Those women did not show any effect of Hedione exposure in the implicit priming task and moderate, but non-significant effects in the explicit task. We therefore assume that Hedione is not a potent model of pheromone in humans and this observation may be due to the fact that the artificially produced substance is not suited for signaling the proximity of other humans. Furthermore, the high rate of Hedione-specific anosmia leads to the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of individuals has a poor V1NR1 receptor expression.
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Debate continues over the existence of human sex pheromones. Two substances, androstadienone (AND) and estratetraenol (EST), were recently reported to signal male and female gender, respectively, potentially qualifying them as human sex pheromones. If AND and EST truly signal gender, then they should affect reproductively relevant behaviours such as mate perception. To test this hypothesis, heterosexual, Caucasian human participants completed two computer-based tasks twice, on two consecutive days, exposed to a control scent on one day and a putative pheromone (AND or EST) on the other. In the first task, 46 participants (24 male, 22 female) indicated the gender (male or female) of five gender-neutral facial morphs. Exposure to AND or EST had no effect on gender perception. In the second task, 94 participants (43 male, 51 female) rated photographs of opposite-sex faces for attractiveness and probable sexual unfaithfulness. Exposure to the putative pheromones had no effect on either attractiveness or unfaithfulness ratings. These results are consistent with those of other experimental studies and reviews that suggest AND and EST are unlikely to be human pheromones. The double-blind nature of the current study lends increased support to this conclusion. If human sex pheromones affect our judgements of gender, attractiveness or unfaithfulness from faces, they are unlikely to be AND or EST.