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The fundamental role of copper and the recognition of its complexes as important bioactive compounds in vitro and in vivo aroused an ever-increasing interest in these agents as potential drugs for therapeutic intervention in various diseases. The vast array of information available for their bioinorganic properties and mode of action in several bio...

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... Results from the agar diffusion test together with those from MIC and MFC provided data for the evaluation of the most effective concentrations of copper (II) sulfate in inhibiting the growth of P. tracheiphilus. The antimicrobial activity of copper (II) sulfate is widely reported in scientific literature (Cady et al., 2011;Iakovidis et al., 2011;Bouson et al., 2017;Sinisi et al., 2019). Several studies highlighted that copper (II) sulfate is a plant protectant with a broad spectrum of activity toward a broad range of diseases caused by both fungi and bacteria (Al-Holy et al., 2010;Judet-Correia et al., 2011;dos Santos et al., 2019). ...
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The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Super absorbent polymer (SAP) containing copper (SAP-Cu) in controlling mal secco disease (MSD) of lemon caused by the fungus Plenodomus tracheiphilus. Super absorbent polymer containing copper was characterized by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and UV-VIS spectroscopy. In vitro tests were performed to determine the inhibitory effects of SAP-Cu against the pathogen on both potato-dextrose-agar medium and naturally infected lemon cuttings. Super absorbent polymer was able to absorb up to about 200 and 30 times its weight of ionized water and copper (II) sulfate solution (Cu2+ ions at the concentration 236 mM), respectively. The distribution of copper released on twigs after 24 h of contact with SAP-Cu was determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry with time-of-flight analyzer (ToF-SIMS). Super absorbent polymer containing copper significantly inhibited the viability of P. tracheiphilus in lemon twigs. Overall, the results of this study showed that the SAP could be a suitable carrier of antifungal compounds.
... Antimicrobial Result of the OV-Azo Ligand and Its Related Metal Complexes known mechanism of action through DNA interaction and cleavage, in which DNA is degraded by a Fenton-type reaction.64,65 Also, it targets the nucleic acids directly by the cleavage of DNA and RNA through the displacement of other metal ions. ...
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A Schiff base ligand of o-vanillin and 4-aminoazobenzene and its transition metal complexes of Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), and Zr(IV) were prepared under microwave irradiation as a green approach compared to the conventional method. The structures of new compounds have been characterized and elucidated via elemental and spectroscopic analyses. In addition, magnetic susceptibility, electron spin resonance, and electronic spectra of the synthesized complexes explained their geometrical structures. The thermal stability of Cu(II), Zn(II), and Zr(IV) complexes was studied by thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA). Coats−Redfern and Horowitz−Metzger equations were used to calculate the thermal and dehydration decomposition activities of proposed structures kinetically. Surface morphologies of the solid compounds were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size of prepared complexes was measured by using a particle size analyzer at a diffraction angle of 10.9°. The geometry structures of the synthesized compounds were verified utilizing electronic spectra, ESR spectrum, and magnetic moment value. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity. Also, the anticancer activity of the free Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were studied against two cell lines: human colon (HCT-116) and human liver cancer cells (HepG-2). The obtained results showed that the Cu(II) complex displayed the highest cytotoxic activity (IC 50 = 18 and 22 μg/mL for HepG-2 and HCT, respectively) compared to the free Schiff base ligand.
... Numerous copper complexes have been studied for anti-cancer activity, and some have been found to be effective both in vivo (in mouse tumor models) and in vitro (on cancer cell lines in culture). In addition, copper (II) complex appears to be a promising candidate for anticancer therapy, at which point there are many studies describing the synthesis and cytotoxic activity of copper (II) complexes (22,23). ...
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Copper is an essential metalloelement that plays key fundamental roles in both health and pathology, and is increasingly been implicated in molecular pathogenesis of many cancer types. It has shown promise as a replacement to cisplatin in coordination complexes presently in mainstream chemotherapeutic practices. In this study, two newly synthesized water-soluble ternary copper (II) mixed ligand complexes; complex 1 - (Cu(4-mphen)(tyr)(H2O)]NO3·2H2O)( C.1 ) and complex 2 - (Cu(5-mphen)(tyr)(H2O)]NO3·2H2O ( C.2 ) where (4-m= 4-methyl; 5-m = 5-methyl; phen-1, 10 = phenanthroline; tyr = tyrosine)), were investigated on adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell, A549 and non-cancerous human bronchial epithelial cell, BEAS-2B for their antiproliferative effects using the XTT assay (cytotoxicity), Comet assay (genotoxicity) and DCFH-DA assay (intracellular ROS) tests. C.1 was significantly more cytotoxic in A549 than C.2. Data from the Comet and ROS assay tests support each other. C.2 caused more copper-induced DNA damage, possibly through significant induction of ROS-mediated oxidative damage in the cancer cell, but a minimal insignificant ROS rise in normal cells. These results can only be preliminary and further studies are required to better understand the cellular effects and functional interactions of these agents, for an efficient therapeutic design and application.
... Copper, an essential trace element, is widely distributed in tissues and organs such as the liver, kidney and brain, and the body meets its requirement for copper mainly through daily dietary intake (25). Copper is involved in energy metabolism, immune function, antioxidant and energy metabolism in the body (26). ...
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... Ceruloplasmin is a Cu-containing glycoprotein produced in the liver and binds about 95% of the Cu in serum. This glycoprotein displays ferroxidase activity and catalyzes the conversion of ferrous to ferric Fe which is then transferred to transferrin (Iakovidis et al., 2011). Elevated IL-6 levels result in increased levels of ceruloplasmin, the major Cu-carrying protein in the blood (Di Bella et al., 2017). ...
... Despite this, the SARS-CoV-2 virus can remain active on Cu surfaces for up to 4 h (Govind et al., 2021). The behavior of the Cu complexes used for inactivation of the viral genome is controlled by their organic ligands (Iakovidis et al., 2011). Also, when individuals who consume Zn supplements on regular basis are infected with SARS-CoV-2, a severe Cu deficiency is likely to occur. ...
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... The coordination chemistry of this transition metal ion has received considerable attention due to its potential impact for bioinorganic chemistry. Copper(II) complexes were found to possess properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity, some of which are more pronounced compared to those of the non-coordinated ligands [1][2][3][4][5]. ...
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... Over and above these, Cu(II) complexes with s-triazine hydrazone derivatives have interesting magnetic and catalytic applications [42][43][44][45][46], as they play a catalytic role in numerous chemical and biological processes, concurrently performing an essential function in the immune system, nutrient metabolism, as well as serving as a metal cofactor bound to protein in the living body. Although copper is a trace metal, its numerous complexes are now gaining attention because of their prospective uses as antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory drugs with decreased unwanted effects and as anticancer medicines [47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54]. ...
... An ethanolic solution (10 mL) of DMAT (79.7 mg, 0.2 mmol) was added to48.32 mg of Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ·3H 2 O in (5 mL) ethanol. The clear deep blue solution was left for slow evaporation at room temperature. ...
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The two ligands 2-(1-(2-(4,6-dimorpholino-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)hydrazono)ethyl)aniline (DMAT) and 2-(1-(2-(4,6-dimorpholino-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)hydrazono)ethyl)phenol (DMOHT) were used to synthesize three heteroleptic Cu(II) complexes via a self-assembly technique. The structure of the newly synthesized complexes was characterized using elemental analysis, FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to be [Cu(DMAT)(H2O)(NO3)]NO3.C2H5OH (1), [Cu(DMOT)(CH3COO)] (2) and [Cu(DMOT)(NO3)] (3). X-ray single-crystal structure of complex 1 revealed a hexa-coordinated Cu(II) ion with one DMAT as a neutral tridentate NNN-chelate, one bidentate nitrate group and one water molecule. In the case of complex 2, the Cu(II) is tetra-coordinated with one DMOT as an anionic tridentate NNO-chelate and one monodentate acetate group. The antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of the studied compounds were examined. Complex 1 had the best anticancer activity against the lung carcinoma A-549 cell line (IC50 = 5.94 ± 0.58 µM) when compared to cis-platin (25.01 ± 2.29 µM). The selectivity index (SI) of complex 1 was the highest (6.34) when compared with the free ligands (1.3–1.8), and complexes 2 (0.72) and 3 (2.97). The results suggested that, among those compounds studied, complex 1 is the most promising anticancer agent against the lung carcinoma A-549 cell line. In addition, complex 1 had the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 13.34 ± 0.58 µg/mL) which was found to be comparable to the standard ascorbic acid (IC50 = 10.62 ± 0.84 µg/mL). Additionally, complex 2 showedbroad-spectrum antimicrobial action against the microbes studied. The results revealed it to possess the strongest action of all the three complexes against B. subtilis. The MIC values found are 39.06, 39.06 and 78.125 mg/mL for complexes 1–3, respectively.
... pyridine thiosemicarbazones, not only can show significant anticancer activity, but can also induce the apoptosis of cancer cell directly via multiple mechanisms, such as telomerase activity inhibition and activating apoptic pathway through protein regulation (cyclin and cyclin dependent kinases down regulation and cyclin dependent kinase up regulation) [56]. The copper(II) complexes with planar structure have been found to show high efficiency to DNA damage or nuclease activity [57] mainly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production where ligands of the complexes are believed to neutralize the charge of metal ions, enhance lipophilicity of the complexes to facilitate their transport via cell membrane and bind to DNA or interact with proteins [58]. Copper complexes have been found to show significantly different mechanism of action than that of standard drug cisplatin e.g. ...
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The anticancer activity of 5-Nitroisatin-4-(1-(2-pyridyl)piperazinyl)-3-thiosemicarbazone (Nitistpyrdlpz) and its Cu(II) complex against breast cancer cell lines; MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and epidermoid carcinoma; A431 showed that the complex contributed to reduce the percentage of cell viability toward all the tested cell lines but remarkable contribution toward MDA-MB-231 cell line. The IC 50 values of the complex and free ligand were found in the range of IC 50 0.85-1.24 µM and IC 50 3.28-3.53 µM, respectively. Among those cell lines, the complex may be the better anticancer agent toward MDA-MB-231 because of its action at micromolar concentration (IC 50 0.85 µM). The anticancer potency of ligands can be increased by substitution on parent isatin and pyridyl piperazinyl rings as well as their coordination to metal ions.
... Copper deficiency can cause many medical impediments. The diverse roles of copper have attracted the researcher's attention to explore the biological and medicinal applications of copper-based compounds [15]. ...
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Pefloxacin-based mixed ligand Cu(II) complexes with substituted isatin of type [Cu(Isatin)(Pefloxacin)Cl] were synthesized, and characterized by EPR, mass, FT-IR, electronic spectrometry, metal content, magnetic moment, and conductance measurement. The g factors g [Formula: see text] > g [Formula: see text] > 2.0023 observed in EPR suggest a square-pyramidal environment of ligands around the copper metal. The compounds were screened for diverse biological activities. The compounds inhibit efficiently the cell proliferation of HCT 116 cancer cells. To take the insight of anticancer activity mechanism, we investigated compound-1 for further cellular assay-based biological activities like trypan blue assay, cell morphological alteration assay, colony formation assay, cell apoptosis, and cell necrosis assay. The compound-1 induced distinct morphological alteration in cells, inhibits cell viability, decreases % plating efficiency, and decreases the clonogenic ability of the HCT 116 cells. The cell death mechanism was confirmed by annexin V-FITC / PI assay and LDH release assay. The positive annexin V/PI stained cells in presence of compound-1 and the absence of a significant amount of lactate dehydrogenase suggest cell apoptosis mechanism for anticancer activity of compounds. We also screened compounds for in vitro antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Synthesis, characterization, antibacterial, anticancer, and cytotoxicity activities of pefloxacin based Cu(II) complexes were studied. The compound -1 is more potent than standard anticancer drugs and it induced apoptosis to the HCT 116 cells.
... The study of the coordination chemistry of copper has become very important in current times, this is due to the fact that the complexes formed with this metal present multiple properties of interest [1][2][3][4] in the industrial field [5][6][7], biological [8][9][10][11] and pharmacological [12]. For its part, copper is an essential trace element in the body, being present in the metallo-enzyme EC-SOD (extracellular superoxide dismutase) dependent on Cu and Zn responsible for the dismutation of O 2 . ...