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Conjectural reconstruction of the roof framing of structure B at Göbekli Tepe with (a) plan view and (b) cross section along the line A-B. Peripheral rafters are omitted from a, some pillars are conjectural, and scale is only very approximate (E. Banning)

Conjectural reconstruction of the roof framing of structure B at Göbekli Tepe with (a) plan view and (b) cross section along the line A-B. Peripheral rafters are omitted from a, some pillars are conjectural, and scale is only very approximate (E. Banning)

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Archaeologists have proposed that quite a number of structures dating to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and B in southwest Asia were nondomestic ritual buildings, sometimes described specifically as temples or shrines, and these figure large in some interpretations of social change in the Near Eastern Neolithic. Yet the evidence supporting the identif...

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Excavation by Development Archaeology Services at Westbourne, West Sussex, has uncovered a small pit containing an unusually fine assemblage of Neolithic Peterborough ware pottery, including one of only two complete Peterborough ware profiles found in the county to date. This paper discusses their internal and external relationships. Features and p...

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... Even so, the actual purpose of the Neolithic site remains uncertain. On the one hand, Göbekli Tepe has been associated with terms such as sanctuaries, ritual spaces, pilgrimage sites, and temples since its first discovery (Banning 2011). Klaus Schmidt, a German archaeologist who started to excavate the site in 1996 and continued until his death in 2014, developed this interpretation of Göbekli Tepe (Banning 2011). ...
... On the one hand, Göbekli Tepe has been associated with terms such as sanctuaries, ritual spaces, pilgrimage sites, and temples since its first discovery (Banning 2011). Klaus Schmidt, a German archaeologist who started to excavate the site in 1996 and continued until his death in 2014, developed this interpretation of Göbekli Tepe (Banning 2011). He emphasised and argued that these buildings can be considered as temples or ritual spaces instead of domestic settlements for several reasons. ...
... He emphasised and argued that these buildings can be considered as temples or ritual spaces instead of domestic settlements for several reasons. Firstly, he pointed out that the structures do not have any evidence to prove domestic use such as ovens, fireplaces, and other types of indicators (Banning 2011). Secondly, he stressed the differences between Göbekli Tepe and usual Neolithic house types (Banning 2011). ...
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Diversity in Archaeology is the result of the fourth Cambridge Annual Student Archaeology Conference (CASA 4), held virtually from January 14–17, 2021. CASA developed out of the Annual Student Archaeology Conference, first held in 2013, which was formed by students at Cambridge, Oxford, Durham and York. In 2017, Cambridge became the home of the conference and the name was changed accordingly. The conference was developed to give students (from undergraduates to PhD candidates) in archaeology and related fields the chance to present their research to a broad audience. The theme for the 2020/2021 conference was Diversity in Archaeology which opened our conference to multiple interpretations, varied presentations and sundry perspectives from different regions of the world. This volume consists of 30 papers which were presented in 7 different sessions. The papers present a great variety in both geography and chronology and explore a wide range of topics such women’s voices in archaeological discourse; researching race and ethnicity across time; use of diversified science methods in Archaeology; critical ethnographic studies; diversity in the Archaeology of Death; heritage studies; archaeology of ‘scapes’ and more.
... For example, scholars working in similar contexts containing burned houses beyond the Southwest such as the Pre-Pottery Neolithic Middle East (e.g., Banning, 2011;Finlayson et al., 2011;Hadad, 2019;Hodder, 2006a, b); the Burned House Horizon (Chapman, 2000;Chapman & Bisserka, 2007;Stevanović, 2002;Tringham, 2005); Neolithic Ireland (Smyth, 2006); Formative Mesoamerica (Flannery, 1976:16-24); and Agro-pastoral Periods of northwest Argentina (Gordillo & Leiton, 2015;Nielsen & Walker, 1999) may encounter analogous manipulations of animate materials. While archaeologists seldom worry they will encounter witches, malignant spirits, ghosts, or transgress tabooed places that is not the case for most people in most cultures in the history of the world (Douglas, 1970;Kapur, 1983;Mair, 1976;Middleton & Winter, 1963;Simmons, 1974;Walker, 1970). ...
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Magic and witchcraft, classic topics in the anthropology of religion, involve everyday things such as ashes, ceramics, minerals, shell, and projectile points. In many cultures, people attribute agency to such artifacts, as well as architecture, begging the question what is the archaeological record of such animate beings? To understand past human lifeways more fully, we need to explore the formation processes associated with the interaction between people and other non-human actors. For example, what might we learn from a burned pueblo whose rooms contain ash, projectile points, crystals, and other items? In this paper we argue that deposits in ritually closed pueblos of the North American Southwest, like many other Neolithic villages, likely contain purposely deposited objects in an effort to neutralize the anima left in these places and to prophylactically protect their former inhabitants from future witchcraft. We present Cottonwood Spring Pueblo, New Mexico, as a case study.
... They have some analogies with doubts about the secular and ritual nature of prehistoric buildings in the Near East (e.g. Banning, 2011), and in the Aegean where, for example, the ritual and ceremonial role of Minoan and Mycenaean "palaces" is now highlighted, and associations between Iron Age cults and elite residences or multifunctional buildings are debated (e.g. Bintliff, 2012, pp. ...
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Starting with a brief review of different theories about the residential and defensive uses of Sardinian nuraghi (monumental stone towers), the author assesses their ritual significance and functions from the standpoint of architecture and design, similarities to other cult buildings, and associated features and finds. Evidence for cult activities in certain towers has grown in recent years and is widely accepted for the Iron Age (circa 950–700 BC) and later. By contrast, ritual practices are not often recognized for the much longer period of tower construction and usage in the Bronze Age (circa 1700–950 BC). This is attributable partly to the now dominant hypothesis of a transformation in the function and status of nuraghi in the Iron Age and an assumed separation between sacred and secular buildings in the nuragic period. The author challenges this perspective while discussing the contribution of ritual to the social, economic, and political uses of nuraghi in the Bronze Age.
... Например, площадь стоянки Абу Хурейра 1 и Мурейбет 1 составляла около 2500 кв. м (приложение Б, рисунок 3.1) [28, c. 283; 137, c. [30][31][32]. ...
... Ширина фундамента составляла около 20 см. Галька, гипс, известняк, песчаник применялись при строительстве фундаментов в седьмом и девятом слоях этого же памятника [102, с. [26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]. Дома с прямоугольной планировочной структурой, а также один из круглых домов в Кард Банахалке построены на фундаменте из известняка [38, с. 126-127]. ...
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for the first time developed a comprehensive systematization of the architecture of Northern Mesopotamia in the Neolithic era. A typology of development, planning structure of settlements, architectural objects has been developed, and the stages of development of the identified types during the pre-ceramic and ceramic Neolithic periods have been determined. The dependence of changes in architecture on the development of economic and natural-climatic systems has been established. A catalog of Neolithic sites of Northern Mesopotamia has been created. The significance and degree of influence of the Neolithic architecture of Northern Mesopotamia on the development of architecture in adjacent regions and in subsequent eras are determined. впервые разработана комплексная систематизация архитектуры Северной Месопотамии в эпоху неолита. Разработана типология застройки, планировочной структуры поселений, архитектурных объектов и определены этапы развития выделенных типов в периоды докерамического и керамического неолита. Установлена зависимость изменений в архитектуре от развития хозяйственных и природно-климатических систем. Создан каталог памятников неолита Северной Месопотамии. Определены значение и степень влияния неолитической архитектуры Северной Месопотамии на развитие архитектуры в сопредельных регионах и в последующие эпохи.
... The 'symbolic commonalities' among residents of different settled groups in northern Mesopotamia during the PPNA and PPNB have long since been noted (Benz and Bauer, 2013;Clare and Kinzel, 2020: 62;Dietrich et al., 2012: 684;Hodder and Meskell, 2011;Schmidt 2006;Stordeur, 2010). The large-scale symbolism of the 'Göbekli culture', which is now acknowledged to extend to a significant number of sites in the Urfa region of southeast Turkey, has somewhat taken the archaeological limelight (Banning, 2011;Borić, 2014;Busacca, 2017;Kuijt, 2005). The link between a florescence of symbolism and the Neolithic sits awkwardly in longer narratives of the Upper Palaeolithic (Watkins, 2017: 130) and particularly the story of portable art. ...
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Free download at: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1eTrf-JVbvBQA Among the artefacts of fundamental importance in the context of symbolism and iconography during the Neo-lithization process in northern Mesopotamia, there is much research about, and publication relating to, human figurines or statues, animal figurines or statues, figured stone objects, stone vessels, bone plaques, wall decoration (paint, relief, or incision) and stone pillars. While among these various research topics bone plaques have been noticeably less studied than other classes of small finds, they are gradually gaining importance. From the figurative and typological perspective, these objects carry importance for their visual characteristics and their regional variety, but it is notable that their typological differences and functions are still not well understood. This study opens a new debate about the techno-typological characteristics, regional distribution, and modes of use of these objects starting from a group of bone plaques recovered from burial contexts during the excavations of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic settlement of Boncuklu Tarla in southeast Turkey. Portable symbolic artefacts are found to show significant overlaps between materials, iconography and use as well as regional identities and temporal continuities in techniques and decoration.
... 24, and p. 137) Nevertheless, this definition appears to describe more the shell of ritual action, or its secondary or derivative aspects, and does not touch upon the internal states implied by these acts, these internal states being the vital core at the heart of "ritual." 42 For an overview of the scholarly discussion of Göbekli Tepe, see: (Peters and Schmidt 2004;Schmidt 2010;Banning 2011;Watkins 2019). 43 This is something well understood in applied psychology, particulary in the field of sport psychology, as the notion of "the quiet eye" represents a mechanism of eye control that can be mesured and trained, with a major impact on focus, attention, and concentration. ...
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This paper outlines a strain of French Spiritualism, a philosophical tradition extending from Maine de Biran, Félix Ravaisson, and Jules Lachelier to their reception in the work of Maurice Blondel and his protégé Henry Duméry. In receiving and transforming this tradition, Blondel and Duméry have helped to provide a distinct philosophical paradigm in philosophy of religion, capable of providing insight into the spiritual nature of the human being, both in how spirituality relates to the advanced stages of religious culture in addition to its primitive presence in spontaneous action. As a tradition consecrated to the study of human consciousness, and the operations of the mind [l’esprit], the French spiritualist tradition provides a rich conceptual matrix for analyzing the nature of human thinking and its relationship to action. In such an analysis of human thought, Maurice Blondel set up a moral psychology and metaphysical anthropology, highlighting how the consciousness of the human being is linked to the objective order of existence, both in its material form and in the intelligible realities behind the nature of existence. This philosophical matrix helps to show how religious practices, through embodied engagement with the material world, are effective at generating a consciousness of metaphysical or transcendent realities. As such, this philosophical paradigm provides the means for constructing a theory of ritual, where ritual acts with symbols and signs may be rendered intelligible as the sensible means for the cognitive expression of spiritual activity.
... Buried buildings, particularly the large structures of Göbeklitepe, have been on the agenda again in recent years. Structures uncovered at this site measure 20 meters wide and height of six meters, whereas the labor and planning required to bury them also renders this matter even the more remarkable (Schmidt, 2006: 227;2010;Banning, 2011;Kurapkat, 2012;Kinzel, Clare and Sönmez, 2021). ...
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Türk Arkeoloji ve Etnografya Dergisi Vol: 82, 2021 The practice of intentional burying of buildings is one of the controversial topics of Neolithic archaeology. Even though a consensus has not been attained on this matter, the number of buildings asserted as being intentionally buried is steadily increasing in Anatolia and in other parts of the Near East as well, exemplified both as domestic and special functions. The custom of burying buildings had its beginnings in the earliest phases of the Neolithic Period sustaining up to the latest stages, though considerably varying in the modalities of its implementation. The paper will introduce the buried structures recently excavated at the Neolithic site of Karahantepe. All structures exposed at present are special buildings, evidently intentionally filled in. The structure denominated as AB, being the most informative not only on the filling process but also on the final sealing process of the building, will be elaborated in some detail. Özet Neolitik Çağ'da binaların gömülmesine ilişkin uygulamalar 1960'lı yıllardan bu yana güncelliğini yitirmeyen tartışma konularından biridir. Yakın Doğu ve Anadolu'da binaların gömüldüğüne dair birçok örnek söz konusudur. Bu örnekler konut ya da özel yapılar olabildiği gibi yapı ve yerleşme bazında ele alınabilecek niteliktedir. Bina gömme Neolitik Çağ'ın erken evrelerinden sonuna kadar izlenebilen bir olgudur ve ortak özellikleri kadar yerleşmeler arasında farklı olan uygulamalarda söz konusudur. Burada yakın zaman önce kazılmaya başlanan Karahantepe yerleşiminde açığa çıkarılan gömülü yapılar üzerinde durulmaktadır. Yerleşmede şimdiye kadar açığa çıkarılan ve "özel yapı" olarak tanımlanan binaların hepsinin bilinçli olarak doldurulduğu anlaşılmıştır. Yazıda söz konusu yapılar tanıtılarak, kazısı tamamlanmış olan AB yapısı üzerinde ayrıntılı olarak durulacaktır.
... Despite lack of conclusive knowledge defining the purpose of the site, the very age of Göbeklitepe has prompted experts in history and archaeology to reconsider the entirety of what they once accepted as indisputable. As a result of what the excavations have revealed, experts have had to revise their theories on megalithic structures, the transition from huntergather to farming, domestication, early human's abstraction, and social complexity (Banning 2011;Schmidt 2011;Dietrich et al. 2012). This newfound knowledge of early man has also attracted attention from the aesthetic and literary disciplines, inspiring artists, writers, and filmmakers to explore themes on Göbeklitepe. ...
... However, this notion of a temple was challenged by later archaeologists. Banning (2011) asserts that it could be a multi-resident dwelling for non-nuclear families (e.g. clans) and each animal depiction could be a symbol for the clan ruling over that section for various reasons other than only domestic ones (e.g. ...
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This study examines pre-eminent Turkish cartoonist Fırat Yaşa’s graphic novel Tepe (The Hill), first published in 2016. Set in the prehistoric period in what is now the Göbeklitepe archaeological site in Turkey, the graphic novel revolves around a friendship between a man and a deer. This study offers examples of Turkish graphic novel literature and varied illustrated books as frames of reference to better understand the symbols and cultural practices concerning man/animal relationships that influence the story. It also explores the role that Göbeklitepe plays as a place, period, and architectural style in man/animal encounters, illustrating how the pillars/columns and the carving found there are reinterpreted as motifs for death of all life forms. The novel’s illustrations depicting the entanglement of humans and nature emphasise that no one, not man, animals, or animalistic man, is above being vulnerable. The novel disrupts the visually and verbally human-centred perspective, both by portraying various experiences of different species and by emphasising the uncanny ritualistic performances set in one of the oldest sanctuaries ever to be discovered. As such, this graphic novel is an illustrative example of ecological inquiry via cultural heritage with an emphasis on the evolving relations between man and animals.
... T-shaped pillars and anthropomorphic pillars of stone, save for the fragment of an anthropomorphic pillar from Tell Abr 3 in northern Syria (Yartah 2004(Yartah , 2013, were discovered in the region of Şanlıurfa (middle Euphrates) in Turkey, at Göbekli Tepe, Taşlı Tepe, Sefer Tepe, Hamzan Tepe, Karahan Tepe, Kurt Tepe, Ayanlar Höyük, Kılışik, and Hurbetsu (Schmidt 2012;Hauptmann 2012;Çelik 2014, 2016, 2017Çelik, Güler, and Güler 2012;Moetz and Çelik 2012;Verhoeven 2001;Kodaş 2015). The T-shaped and anthropomorphic pillars brought to light at Göbleki Tepe and its environs are more megalithic/monumental in size (Schmidt 2012;Hauptmann 2012;Kodaş 2015;Claire et al. 2019); they are used as load-bearing posts (Banning 2011). They are likewise important for the iconography of this period thanks to the numerous motifs engraved thereon. ...
Article
Villages of the Preceramic Neolithic in the Near East are marked by a new style of construction, created to play a new, essential function. Indeed, it is in this period that, outside of residential habitations, communal buildings make their first appearance in the heart of Near Eastern villages. It is without doubt one of the first clear, historical attestations of social differentiation/organization in architecture. Truly, reflections on such constructions lead one to attribute to them adjectives aimed at encapsulating their supposed functions, such as “collective,” “communal,” “monumental,” “public,” “cultic,” “storage structures,” or even “megalithic”. The terminology here reflects considerably varying interpretations, often complementary and essentially derived from the architectural data, as the buildings reveal ground plans and internal structures that are quite distinct.
... Furthermore, both show a notable absence of evidence for domestic occupation. Although defining the relationship or distinction, if any, between 'sacred' and 'profane' in the Neolithic of the Near East has been the subject of intense debate (Kuijt 2005;Banning 2011), it appears that the mustatil tradition may represent an early example of such a delineation, facilitating preliminary inferences regarding the development of cult ideology in Neolithic north-western Arabia. ...
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Northwestern Arabia is marked by thousands of prehistoric stone structures. Of these, the monumental, rectilinear type known as mustatils has received only limited attention. Recent fieldwork in AlUla and Khaybar Counties, Saudi Arabia, demonstrates that these monuments are architecturally more complex than previously supposed, featuring chambers, entranceways and orthostats. These structures can now be interpreted as ritual installations dating back to the late sixth millennium BC, with recent excavations revealing the earliest evidence for a cattle cult in the Arabian Peninsula. As such, mustatils are amongst the earliest stone monuments in Arabia and globally one of the oldest monumental building traditions yet identified.