Figures
Explore figures and images from publications

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... while the group that learned from watching and hearing a demonstration remembered 50% of content, and the group that actually practiced a real experience, remembered the 90%. Dale's research emphasized a "Cone of learning", distinguishing the learning methods in passive and active categories. Graphical results of the Cone of Learning are shown in Fig. 1. Nevertheless the validity of the Cone of Learning depends on the subject's personal abilities. This is especially critical for persons with disabilities, especially subjects with learning disturbances or pathologies. Furthermore there is the tendency of individuals to have a certain resistance to change, not easy to overcome. In the ...
Context 2
... interaction with an audio device in the street even for a sighted user can be a risk for her/his safety. It is clear that the proper combination of multi-sensorial channels in a proper manner together with knowledge acquisition by real experience are important factors for more efficient learning: Dale's Cone of Learning confirms this, as shown in Fig. 1 (Section ...
Context 3
... a preliminary study, we analyzed interaction with Google Docs via JAWS (version 10, 11 and 12) on both the Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) and Mozilla Firefox browsers in order to understand the problems encountered by blind people when writing a document collaboratively, focusing on the login, document list and text editing Web pages. The design and implementation of a modified version of these Google Docs interfaces aimed to incorporate accessibility criteria enhancing user experience while maintaining the same appealing "look & feel" (Mori et al., 2011). ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
E-learning leads to evolutions in the way of designing a course. Diffused through the web, the course content cannot be the direct transcription of a face to face course content. A course can be seen as an organization in which different actors are involved. These actors produce documents, information and knowledge that they often share. We present...
Article
Full-text available
In under-development countries, technology helps people with special needs to succeed and continue their educational achievement and overcome life difficulties. Distance education is one of the most important products of modern technology, which provides home-education for those who have difficulty attending traditional schools for financial, secur...

Citations

... Hendy et al. [22] on the other hand developed a Command-Line-Interface tool for Microsoft Word, where the user could simply type the name of the control they wanted to access, instead of doing the same by manually navigating the application's interface. There also exist other similar works that have strived to improve the screen reader usability for word processing applications [10,34,38,43]. However, the scope of all these aforementioned works were limited to a few specific productivity applications, and as such did not generalize to arbitrary applications. ...
... Despite the importance of online collaborative tools, there is a dearth of studies that understand and address the concerns of people with visual impairments. Almost all existing works in this regard have focused on understanding the interaction challenges of blind screen reader users, and subsequently providing solutions to mitigate their problems [10,13,27,38,44]. For example, Mori et al. [38] proposed virtual overlays as a feasible solution to various screen reader-related usability issues. ...
... Giulio Mori et al. [13] proposed a solution for blind people facing problems in interacting with Google Docs UI via JAWS Screen Reader. Google Docs that allows one to work with different types of documents, can be used by blind people via Screen Reader. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Due to the lack of confidence and vision capability, it becomes very difficult for blind individuals to perform group activities with sighted persons. By use of modern technology, we can easily overcome this issue. Google Docs, Microsoft word add-in, and other available tools do not provide voice-based notifications about dynamic actions for the visually impaired in a shared environment. Communication is done through comments which are not helpful for blinds. Our cloud-based collaborative writing platform is designed especially for the visually impaired where they write, manage and share documents. Co-authors communicate and receive voice notifications about the activities along with popups. The basic objective of this research is to encourage blind people to participate in group-based authoring activities with each other and sighted people. For this purpose, a questionnaire was distributed among people of blind institutes. The results of the survey show that blind people highly need a collaborative platform.
... We selected these features and associated controls after interviewing 20 proficient blind users who indicated what activities they frequently performed in word processors, and what application controls they wished to be easily accessible. As also mentioned in section II, these features have also been individually explored by other works [6], [13]- [15]. ...
Conference Paper
Visual 'point-and-click' interaction artifacts such as mouse and touchpad are tangible input modalities, which are essential for sighted users to conveniently interact with computer applications. In contrast, blind users are unable to leverage these visual input modalities and are thus limited while interacting with computers using a sequentially narrating screen-reader assistive technology that is coupled to keyboards. As a consequence, blind users generally require significantly more time and effort to do even simple application tasks (e.g., applying a style to text in a word processor) using only keyboard, compared to their sighted peers who can effortlessly accomplish the same tasks using a point-and-click mouse. This paper explores the idea of repurposing visual input modalities for non-visual interaction so that blind users too can draw the benefits of simple and efficient access from these modalities. Specifically, with word processing applications as the representative case study, we designed and developed NVMouse as a concrete manifestation of this repurposing idea, in which the spatially distributed word-processor controls are mapped to a virtual hierarchical 'Feature Menu' that is easily traversable non-visually using simple scroll and click input actions. Furthermore, NVMouse enhances the efficiency of accessing frequently-used application commands by leveraging a data-driven prediction model that can determine what commands the user will most likely access next, given the current 'local' screen-reader context in the document. A user study with 14 blind participants comparing keyboard-based screen readers with NVMouse, showed that the latter significantly reduced both the task-completion times and user effort (i.e., number of user actions) for different word-processing activities.
... In contrast, the tactile sensory channel is ideal for repeated information . Buzzi et al. (2012) also noted that a user can be easily distracted while listening to auditory information. In addition, memorization while listening can be very difficult. ...
... Many researchers have indicated research gaps in e-learning tools for blind people. For instance, Buzzi et al. (2012) showed that learning tools and collaborative tools are rarely designed for good usability and user experience (UX) for blind users. Collaborative tools are difficult or not at all usable for blind users. ...
... No learner can dominate the conversation by taking a disproportionate amount of time allocated for discussion (Tennyson and Jorczak, 2011). According to Buzzi et al. (2012), m-learning collaborative tools for blind students can seize opportunities by considering a student's time, pace, knowledge levels and objectives, active participation, and collaboration with other students, awareness of other students such as who is collaborating, what they are doing, when and where they are doing it, and providing educational content across different sensory channels. Besides, interactions between blind students and students without disabilities can increase the perception of less exploited internal sensory representations for both blind and sighted students. ...
... The methods used for data collection were the structured and semi-structured interviews (Creswell, 2007) and participant observation (Barbier, 1977). Interviews with blind students were conducted to obtain information about their smartphone usage, such as when they use smartphones, number of hours of use per day, and is it used for academic purposes. ...
Article
Full-text available
When designing educational technologies for blind people, we need to consider technological and pedagogical strands. From the pedagogical point of view, m-learning has the potential to benefit blind students. Regarding the technological aspect, m-learning is an appropriate approach for blind students. Motivated by the adequacy of m-learning and the scarcity of works involving m-learning experiences for blind students, we present an exploratory study to uncover important information when blind users interact with mobile applications, focusing on the educational and technological perspectives. We investigated the interactions of nine blind users with mobile devices to unveil their technology-related singularities in the educational context. Based on the familiarity of blind users, some interaction design patterns have proven to be easy to use after conducting a usability and user experience test on a prototype. The results also highlighted the relevance of educational mobile applications to provide greater independence to blind users. This paper contributes towards improving the current awareness of the accessibility aspect of m-learning collaborative tools, and reveals the aspects of interactions and needs of blind students.
... Given the widespread use of collaborative writing tools in higher education settings and professional work, understanding what makes collaborative writing practices accessible or inaccessible is an essential step towards reducing potential inequities. Limited prior work has examined the accessibility of collaborative writing tools, but the work that does exist suggests that collaborative features on both Google Docs and Microsoft Word pose significant difficulties to screen reader users [26,75]. Further, people with vision impairments often must cope with and find workarounds for accessibility issues with pervasive technologies. ...
... Related to the present paper, prior work has begun to examine accessibility of collaborative writing; however, much of this research focuses on collaboration tools. A usability study with visually impaired individuals found that collaborative features (e.g., revision histories, tracking changes, awareness indicators, etc.) on both Google Docs and Microsoft Word were very difficult to access via a screen reader [26,75]. Specifically, screen reader users had difficulty understanding the context of the revisions and comments in a document and accepting/rejecting changes [75]. ...
... Specifically, screen reader users had difficulty understanding the context of the revisions and comments in a document and accepting/rejecting changes [75]. Even accessing basic features in word processors (e.g., creating, formatting and resizing documents, understanding table content, searching text, navigating through different menu options) was challenging for screen reader users at the time of the research [26,30,61]. Researchers have introduced several proof-of-concept prototypes to address these limitations [26,30,75,91]. ...
Article
Collaborative writing tools have become ubiquitous in today's world and are used widely in many professional organizations and academic settings. Yet, we know little about how ability-diverse teams, such as those involving people with and without vision impairments, make use of collaborative writing tools. We report on interviews with 20 academics and professionals who are blind or visually impaired and perform collaborative writing with sighted colleagues. Our findings reveal that people with vision impairments perform collaborative writing activities through four interconnected processes, which include learning an ecosystem of (in)accessible tools, adapting to complexities of collaborative features, balancing the cost and benefit of accessibility, and navigating power dynamics within organizations. We discuss how our analysis contributes to theories of accessibility in collaboration and offers practical insights for future collaborative system design.
... In CSCW applications, to make the work worthy and effective, all aspects of cooperative work, i.e., interaction, cooperation, collaboration, awareness, and coordination, are necessary [10]. The most important factors are an awareness of and interaction with the applications themselves [11,12]. The system must provide an interactive interface that is easily operable by users and can give complete awareness about the actions and events happening in the collaborative environment. ...
... A system, which allows its users to work jointly on a single goal/task even if they are located in different places, is called a collaboration software [11,57]. If the goal is to write a single shared document, then this is called co-authoring [58]. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is often uncomfortable for disabled individuals, especially those with vision impairment, to conduct educational activities in collaboration with people that have perfect vision. This can be because of the former’s lack of confidence, vision capability, and acceptance. Information and communications technology (ICT) has played a vital role in giving support to people with visual impairments so that they can overcome their issues. This study proposes innovative solutions that address the challenges faced by partially or completely visually impaired people. It provides an interactive and intelligent interface, which they may use to perform educational activities, such as editing, writing, or reviewing documents, in collaboration with people without visual impairments. The system provides high-quality awareness features by sending them instant voice notifications about the actions and events occurring in the shared environment. A speech-recognition engine has been integrated into the system to allow users to interact with the application through voice commands. The system is evaluated through experiments, where people with visual impairment and people without visual impairment were engaged in collaborative writing. The obtained results are encouraging. The users showed curiosity in the system and were able to focus on the productive task instead of their disability.
... Web technology applications in education are on the rise these days. Unfortunately, growing design of multimedia-based instruction's contents are not increasing at the same rate with respect to visually impaired individuals (Gulen,2012)& (Buzzi, 2012) It is said that learning tools or advanced assisting technologies(such as voice readers, speech synthesisers and keyboards) are generally not designed to be effectively used by visually impaired users. For instance; the misappropriation and difficulty of simultaneously editable documents to the visually impaired, the in-accessibility of formatting tool boxes and other interactive elements (like menus) or list of documents can be mentioned. ...
... The use of computers and the Internet have deep impact in the classic methods of teaching and learning [1,2]: e.g. introducing the concept of distance learning as a great opportunity for studying unfettered by constraints of time and space [3,4]. In addition, acquisition of new skills and knowledge is not only affected by an individual's mental schemes or beliefs, but also by their interaction, cooperation and collaboration with others [3]. ...
... introducing the concept of distance learning as a great opportunity for studying unfettered by constraints of time and space [3,4]. In addition, acquisition of new skills and knowledge is not only affected by an individual's mental schemes or beliefs, but also by their interaction, cooperation and collaboration with others [3]. The fast development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has been improving human learning. ...
Chapter
Cognitive theorists believe that the learning process involves the integration of events into actives organizational structures termed schemata. Schemata serve a number of functions in human cognition: schemata regulates attention, organizes searches of the environment and “fill the gaps” during information processing. Thus, the mind uses schemata to selectively organize and processes all the information individuals receive from the world. This perspective fits e.g. in teaching blind and deaf people alongside of children with special education needs. The aim of the research developed until the moment was to prove that the full integration of the concept of teaching and learning in the light of cognitive theories.