Concussion rates per 100 participants in combat sports

Concussion rates per 100 participants in combat sports

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Many sports have neurologic injury from incidental head contact; however, combat sports allow head contact, and a potential exists for acute and chronic neurologic injuries. Although each combat sport differs in which regions of the body can be used for contact, they are similar in competitor exposure time. Their acute injury rates are similar; thu...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... In other studies that have documented concussion rates in various martial arts, between 1.1% and 2.5% of injuries are concussions. [52][53][54] Concussion rates per 100 participants and per 1000 athletic exposures (whereby one bout is equal to two athletic exposures) are shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. The majority of the studies used to determine these concussion rates have involved prospective data collection; however, they have reported prospective data only for concussions that occurred during competition. ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
The characteristic of the handball game forces players to possess high level of many somatic parameters and motor abilities. It is important to find those which are the most important in the game. The main aim of the study is to find correlation between researched parameters and the level of technical and tactical skills. The subjects of the resear...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction. The high pace of development of professional and amateur sport in the modern world makes the actual question of optimization of the functional state of athletes, prevention, and resolution of injuries. Traumatism is an inalienable and negative part of professional and Olympic sports. The joint efforts of scientists and practitioners i...
Article
Full-text available
In order that the transformational process of the sport karate could be successfully modified for competitors with great mastery of skills by using the advanced model of training (physical and mental), a detailed analysis has to be done to check the efficacy of applied techniques that are judged by official referees at important European and World...

Citations

... an anonymous questionnaire was designed to fulfill the objectives of this study, regarding other questionnaires on earlier studies on Ma injuries. [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20] every injury was classified with the orchard Sports injury classification System (oSicS) version 8, 21 which categorizes injuries not only by body region but also by type. arithmetic mean and standard deviation were used for the descriptive statistics. ...
... for all Ma, injured subjects who did not rely on a physician preferred to seek health treatment in other kind of health professional as physical therapists, chiropodists or osteopaths. in the case of the athletes who sought medical care for a second injury, judokas and karatekas clearly still rely on medical diagnosis to treat their injuries (63% and 88%, respectively), but in wushu, the percentage of practitioners who prefer not to go to the physician is higher (57%) (p=0.009), and they declared that preferred to go lesions of peripheral nerves, few as suggested in previous studies. 20,32 Some serious bone injuries in the hands were found, being a subject of interest for other authors. 33,34 When studying sex, age and experience influence, we can see that while these are sports with a predominantly male presence, both men and women were injured at similar rates during first and following consecutive times. ...
... data on karate competitions is available, where the authors describe crushed and broken toes, 19 contusions, lacerations, sprains, strains, epistaxis, blisters 16,24 and open wounds. 31 for judo, the most common injuries are hematomas, 14 sprains and strains, 18,20 open wounds 31 and "injuries." 18 in wushu, epistaxis, lacerations, contusions and concussions were reported, but only at combat. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Martial arts are currently being practiced throughout the world by about 100 million people. Considering that sports injuries account for 20% of all emergencies treated in hospitals, this is an issue that should be further studied. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and type of injuries in Wushu, Judo, and Karate practitioners in Community of Madrid, Spain. Methods: A descriptive epidemiology study was carried out. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 457 men and women practicing Karate, Judo and/or Wushu, including injuries from the past five years, type of injury and occurrence during training or competition. Results: Injuries that disrupted training occurred in 56% of Judokas, in 36.7% of Karatekas, and in 38.9% of Wushu practitioners (WP). For Judokas, the most common injury site was "Shoulder/arm/elbow" (13.43%), for Karatekas, it was "Lower leg/foot/ankle" (9.95%), and for WP it was "Groin/hip/thigh" (9.45%) (p = 0.000). The most common injuries in Judo and Karate were "Ankle sprains and joint injuries" (4.98% and 3.98%), while for WP the most common injury were "Hamstring strains" (5.47%) (p=0.008). There was no relationship between occurrence of a first injury and sex, age or belt rank. Conclusions: Judo is the martial art with the highest percentage of injuries, followed by Wushu and then Karate.
... A recent meta-analysis by Lystad reported that MMA fighting resulted in an overall injury incidence rate of 228.7 injuries per 1000 athlete exposures; and, of these injuries, using the four studies used in this calculation, the percentages attributed to concussions were 2.0, 3.8, 10.0 and 20.4% [3]. Other studies not included in the Lystad et al. study have shown concussion rates ranging from 15.4 per 1000 athlete-exposures [4] to 0.7-250.6 per 1000 athlete-exposures for various combat sports [5]. One study by Buse found that the proportion of MMA fights stopped because of head impact was higher than in other full combat sports [6]. ...
... In boxing, punches directed at an opponent's head during a fight pose a risk of serious neurologic and facial injuries [1]. Eye injuries account for 14% of all injuries in this sport [2], and retrospective data indicate that injuries with varying degrees of temporary or permanent eye dysfunction occur in 41% to 76% of boxers [3][4][5]. ...
Article
Objective: Injuries with varying degrees of temporary or permanent visual dysfunction are common in boxing. This study presents clinical diagnostic information regarding the functional integrity of the visual system in elite amateur boxers. The objective of this study was to assess the presence of normal or abnormal pattern visual evoked potentials (VEP). VEP in boxers were analyzed in relation to the non-athletic group and years of boxing activity. Methods: Clinical examination involved 31 boxers (21 male and 10 female) and 31 controls homogeneous in terms of age and gender. Pattern-reversal VEP elicited by checkerboard stimuli with large (LC) and small checks (SC) under monocular condition were applied. The latency and amplitude of N75, P100 and N135 components of the VEP waveform were analyzed. Absolute values and interocular differences of P100 latency and N75-P100 amplitude were used in determining VEP abnormalities. Results: Individual analysis showed prolonged P100 latency in both eyes in one male boxer. Interocular P100 latency differences beyond 8 ms were observed in three male boxers. The N75-P100 amplitude of four boxers exceeded the normal range in both eyes for the LC stimulation and one boxer for the SC stimulation. Interocular N75-P100 amplitude differences beyond the normal range in two cases for both the LC and the SC stimulation were confirmed. There was a positive correlation between years of boxing activity and N75 latency in SC (R=0.480, p<0.05) and N75-P100 amplitude in LC (R=-0.370, p<0.05). Conclusion: Long-term boxing training may cause impairments in neural conductivity in the visual pathway. VEP seem to be a valuable tool in the neurophysiological diagnosis of visual function in contact sports. They can be recommended as a systematical examination for boxers during training processes for the indication and reduction in the incidence of vision-threatening injuries.
... For example, Zazyrn et al found that the risk of injury from boxing was less than football, rugby, soccer, and hockey when incidences were calculated per 1000 hours of training and competition. [22][23][24][25][26] Although when examining the incidence of head injuries in boxing compared with other combat sports, it is important to consider the source of data. Many previous studies on injury incidence in boxing have been retrospective, or based on patient-reported injuries, subjecting them to potential for recall and reporting bias. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: We sought to investigate the incidence and characteristics of traumatic brain injuries [mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI)] presenting to the emergency department as a result of boxing, wrestling, and martial arts (MA). Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study of MTBI in combat sport athletes who were evaluated in emergency departments in the United States. Setting: Patient data were taken from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Participants: All patients with MTBI from 2012 to 2016, which occurred during participation in boxing, MA, or wrestling. Interventions: None. Main outcome measures: The incidence of combat sport-related MTBI presenting to emergency departments in the United States. Results: The mean annual incidence of MTBI due to wrestling was significantly larger (269.3 per 100 000 person-years) than boxing (85.6 per 100 000 person-years) and MA (61.0 per 100 000 person-years) (P < 0.01). The average age at injury was significantly lower for wrestling compared with boxing and MA (15.0 years [SD ± 3.9] vs 21.7 years [SD ± 8.2] vs 19.9 years [SD ± 10.5]; P < 0.01). A significantly larger proportion of MTBIs (95.3%; P < 0.01) in patients younger than 20 years were related to wrestling, compared with boxing (55.8%) and MA (54.1%). Most patients with combat sport-related MTBIs were treated and discharged (96.3%), with only 1.7% of patients being admitted and 0.6% of patients being held for observation. Conclusion: Combat sports athletes are at high risk of sustaining an MTBI. Such athletes presenting to the emergency department for combat sport-related MTBI were more likely to be male and younger than 20 years. Of these athletes, wrestlers experience the highest incidence of MTBI-related emergency department visits.
... Ривастигмін є так званим псевдозворотним інгібітором холінестерази, має високу селективність щодо G 1 -ізоформи ацетилхолінестерази, яка чинить дію переважно у корі та гіпокампі, а також блокує бутиролхолінестеразу, активність якої підвищується при ХТЕ, в тому числі в ділянці амілоїдних відкладень. Більше того, у міру прогресування деменції в уражених зонах підвищується активність бутиролхолінестерази, відповідно, ривастигмін може справляти додатковий нейропротекторний ефект, збільшуючи час життєдіяльності нейронів [13]. ...
... A recent meta-analysis by Lystad reported that MMA fighting resulted in an overall injury incidence rate of 228.7 injuries per 1000 athlete exposures; and, of these injuries, using the four studies used in this calculation, the percentages attributed to concussions were 2.0, 3.8, 10.0 and 20.4% [3]. Other studies not included in the Lystad et al. study have shown concussion rates ranging from 15.4 per 1000 athlete-exposures [4] to 0.7-250.6 per 1000 athlete-exposures for various combat sports [5]. One study by Buse found that the proportion of MMA fights stopped because of head impact was higher than in other full combat sports [6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of visual acuity loss with head movement in actively training mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters. Methods Vestibulo-ocular reflex function of 22 asymptomatic, male MMA fighters (age = 29.2 ± 5.1) was assessed by taking the difference between static visual acuity and the dynamic visual acuity test, in both yaw and pitch planes. Results The mean static visual acuity testing logMAR was -0.173 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.114). Mean dynamic visual acuity test values decreased with head movement to 0.196 logMAR (SD = 0.103) in yaw; p < 0.001, and to 0.283 logMAR (SD = 0.133) in pitch; p < 0.001. Conclusion MMA fighters had a decay, beyond normal ranges, in visual acuity during head movement. These decreases may suggest vestibulo-ocular reflex impairment and were unrelated to self-reported concussion history. These results should be cautiously interpreted since there was not a control group.
... These collisions may lead to injuries, including concussions. 2 The general epidemiology of concussions in boxing and other combat sports has been studied but, owing to the wide variations in karate styles and competition levels, the incidence of concussions has been only grossly defined, within a range of 0.9-5.5% of the total number of injuries. 3 Nevertheless, the incidence of concussions in Olympic top-level karate competition is unknown and, as has been stated by other authors, in order to develop evidence-based, sport-specific management guidelines, detailed information is required about the magnitude, nature and causes of concussion within individual sports. 4 There are variations in the definition of concussion, and various guidelines have been proposed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although it is well known that injuries occur in combat sports, the true incidence of concussions is not clearly defined in the literature for karate competition. Aim To determine the incidence of concussions in top-level (World Karate Federation World Championships) karate competition. Methods Injuries that took place in 4 consecutive World Karate Championships (from 2008 to 2014) were prospectively registered. A total of 4625 fights (2916 in the male category and 1709 in the female category) were scrutinised, and concussions were identified and analysed separately for frequency (rate per fight) and injury risk. Results A total of 4 concussions were diagnosed by the attending physicians after carrying out athlete examinations. Globally, there was 1 concussion in every 1156 fights, or 0.43/1000 athlete-exposures (AE). In male athletes, the rate of concussion was 1/5832 min of fighting, and in female athletes, it was 1/6836 min. OR for concussion in women is 0.57 (95% CI 0.06 to 5.47; z=0.489; p=0.6249) and risk ratio for concussions in men is RR 1.478 (95% CI 0.271 to 8.072), p=0.528, representing a higher risk of definite concussions in men than in women, but not statistically significant. There is not a significantly higher risk of concussions in team competition (no weight limit) when compared with individual competition (held with strict weight limits for each category). Conclusion The risk of concussions in top-level karate competition is low, with a tendency for an increased risk for men and for competition without weight limits, but not statistically significant with respect to women or individual competition.
... A potentially more important interpretation of this finding could be that the older participants have been affected more by the years of concussive and subconcussive blows in competition and training, reducing their ability to withstand strikes. Not only does this put them more at risk of losing, but it could be a severe detriment to their long term health (Heilbronner et al., 2009;Zazryn et al., 2009). This is an ongoing concern for MMA, as well as other combat and contact sports (Bernick & Banks, 2013), and this study provides evidence of the possible effect cumulative blows has on long term performance, which could potentially be linked to the overall health of the sport's participants. ...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropometry and chronological age have been demonstrated to have an effect on individual performance in competitive sport, with the relationship between stature and wingspan being found to be selective criteria in many sports, although evidence for this in MMA is negligible. In this study, n = 278 professional MMA bouts were analysed with the winners and losers being compared in terms of chronological age, stature, wingspan, stature-to-wingspan ratio (S:W) and method of win/loss using paired samples t tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, one way ANOVAs, Kruskal-Wallis tests (all ≤ .05) and Bayes Factor (BF 10). The results showed that for the most part anthropometric differences have no effect on who wins the bout, but taller bout losers are most likely to lose via strikes. The exception to this is at welterweight where taller participants were most likely to win, but with an anecdotal BF 10. Also at welterweight, participants with greater wingspans were most likely to lose via submission. Across the full cohort and several competitive divisions, it was found that older participants are significantly more likely to lose, and are also significantly more likely to lose via strikes. Participants who won via decision were found to be significantly older than those who won via strikes or submission.
... A potentially more important interpretation of this finding could be that the older participants have been affected more by the years of concussive and sub-concussive blows in competition and training, reducing their ability to withstand strikes. Not only does this put them more at risk of losing, but it could be a severe detriment to their long term health (Heilbronner et al., 2009;Zazryn et al., 2009;Bernick and Banks, 2013). This is an ongoing concern for MMA, as well as other combat and contact sports, and this study provides evidence of the possible effect cumulative blows has on long term performance, which could potentially be linked to the overall health of the sport's participants. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Anthropometry and chronological age has been demonstrated to have an effect on individual performance in competitive sport, with the relationship between stature and wingspan being found to be selective criteria in many sports, although evidence for this in MMA is negligible. In this study, n = 278 professional MMA bouts were analysed with the winners and losers being compared in terms of chronological age, stature, wingspan, stature-to-wingspan ratio (S:W) and method of win/loss using paired samples t tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, one way ANOVAs, Kruskal-Wallis tests (all ≤ .05) and Bayes Factor (BF 10). The results showed that for the most part anthropometric differences have no effect on who wins the bout, but taller bout losers are most likely to lose via strikes. The exception to this is at welterweight where taller participants were most likely to win, but with an anecdotal BF 10. Also at welterweight, participants with greater wingspans were most likely to lose via submission. Across the full cohort and several competitive divisions, it was found that older participants are significantly more likely to lose, and are also significantly more likely to lose via strikes. Participants who won via decision were found to be significantly older than those who won via strikes or submission.
... The "German boxing association", in which most boxing physicians are organized, demands a lot on professional boxers, their trainers and managers, for the provision of heavy injuries. Every boxer has to undergo extensive physical and neurocognitive examinations, before being admitted to this organization [20]. This is also valid for matches that were lost on "K.O.". ...