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Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) protocol for the Center for Integrative Psychiatry (CIP). CBT, cognitive behavioral therapy; EBAM, evidence-based alternative medicine; ROA, routine outcome assessment. 

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) protocol for the Center for Integrative Psychiatry (CIP). CBT, cognitive behavioral therapy; EBAM, evidence-based alternative medicine; ROA, routine outcome assessment. 

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Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is subject to heated debates and prejudices. Studies show that CAM is widely used by psychiatric patients, usually without the guidance of a therapist and without the use of a solid working method, leading to potential health risks. The purpose of this study is to facilitate the judicious use of CAM alon...

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... include homeopathy and healing. 17 Based on an analysis of the results, we pro- duced the algorithm shown in Figure 1. This is the working method of the CIP. ...

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In Brazil, during the XX century, dozens of Spiritist psychiatric hospitals emerged seeking to integrate conventional medical treatment with complementary spiritual therapy. This combined inpatient treatment is largely found in Brazil, where many psychiatric hospitals stem from the Spiritist movement. The present report describes the use of these s...

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... Although these findings are consistent with international literature that discusses the absence, or inadequacy of, guidelines for psychologists on CM [65,66] it also highlights that psychology is not engaging with CM as much as other mental health professions such as [15,68]. The finding that there is no direct reference to CM in Australian psychology ethical guidelines is important because it highlights potential safety risks for all psychologists who have clients that use CM. ...
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    Background Psychologists, and their clients, are engaging with complementary medicine (CM). Increasing evidence for CM approaches, such as improved nutrition and St John’s wort, has led to their inclusion in the Royal Australian New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for mood disorders. This research aims to determine in what ways, and to what extent, Australian psychology regulatory bodies and associations consider CM relevant to psychology practice. Specifically, how these regulatory bodies and professional association’s ethical and practice guidelines engage with CM. Methods Documents from Australian regulatory bodies and professional associations, that relate to the governance or guidance of psychologists’ clinical practice, were systematically searched for key terms relating to CM. Results There were no direct references to CM in the 58 ethical and practice guidelines reviewed. There was also no reference to the relevance of CM to ethnocultural groups, such as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander traditional healing practices. Conclusion While other mental health care disciplines are working toward integrating CM, the discipline of psychology in Australia is not currently engaged in such developments. Given the exponential rise of CM use amongst those with mental health problems, psychology associations should consider developing resources and guidelines to assist psychologists in navigating CM in relation to clinical practice to help minimise risks, such as patient safety associated with concurrent CM use.
    ... CM is frequently used with the expectation on influencing the natural history of the disease; being in control of one's health; to manage and relieve symptoms, experience fewer side effects and also for illness prevention and/or boosting the immune system [14][15][16]. The prevalence of CM use is substantially higher in specific clinical populations such as patients in the oncology field (51%) [17], psychiatry (43%) [18,19] or children (30%) [20]. ...
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    Introduction Major life changing events such as the COVID-19 pandemic may have major impact on one’s health and general well-being. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictive factors, including gender specific differences, of Complementary Medicine (CM) use (including CM consultations, self-care management and self-help techniques) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 in the Netherlands. Methods CM use was studied among a random representative sample ( n = 1004) of the adult Dutch population using an online survey conducted from 22–27 May 2020. The survey included a modified version of I-CAM-Q and additional questions on demographic characteristics, reasons for CM use, perceived effectiveness and side effects. Results 68.0% of the participants reported to have used CM (CM consultations (13.3%), self-management strategies (59.4%), self-help techniques (30.0%)). Most frequently reported reason of CM use was to improve general well-being (61.6%), prevention and/or treatment of COVID-19 was only reported by 10%. Perceived effectiveness of CM was high and number of experienced side effects low. Being a women, worried to get infected with COVID-19, higher education and living in northern/ middle region of the Netherlands were predictive factors to use CM. Conclusions In the Netherlands, specific groups (e.g. women/ highly educated) use CM, mainly to improve general wellbeing, and seem to benefit of it during the first months of the pandemic. The high perceived effectiveness and low reporting of side effects should encourage medical professionals and policy makers for more openness towards considering CM as being part of an integrative approach to public health in times life changing events occur.
    ... A national health survey conducted in the United States showed that 4.5% of the population had used CAM in attempts to treat their sleep problems [13]. In another study, 43% of individuals attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic in the Netherlands reported having used CAM [14]. The use of CAM to treat sleep and mood conditions is probably most frequent in Asian countries, in which some CAM (e.g., traditional Chinese medicine) originated [15,16]. ...
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    ... Commonly used methods, alongside chiropractic care and naprapathy which should arguably not be seen as CAM but as part conventional care (SOU 2019(SOU :15, 2019, are massage, acupuncture, various nutritional supplements and natural remedies and self-help practices such as yoga (SOU 2019(SOU :15, 2019. CAM use has been found to be more common among women and persons with high education, in Sweden (Hornborg, 2012;SOU 2019SOU :15, 2019Wemrell et al., 2017) and internationally (Hansen & Kristoffersen, 2016;Hoenders et al., 2011;Rhee et al., 2017;Solomon & Adams, 2015;Taylor, 2010). However, reliable research into the prevalence of CAM use in Sweden is sparse (SOU 2019(SOU :15, 2019. ...
    ... While the amount of research on CAM has increased, the results are largely inconclusive (Institute of Medicine (U.S.), 2005; SOU 2019:15, 2019). Several efforts toward gathering information and research about different CAM methods, not least for use in the context of mental health problems, have been made (Cochrane, 2019;Ernst, 2006;Hoenders et al., 2011;Lake & Spiegel, 2006;Mischoulon & Rosenbaum, 2008). ...
    ... A major argument used against CAM methods, and against their integration into conventional healthcare and tertiary education, concerns the scientific evidence of their effectiveness (SOU 2019(SOU :15, 2019. While some argue that CAM can and should be evaluated according to the principles of evidence based medicine (EBM) (Hoenders et al., 2011), others argue that such demands are unjust due to the relative lack of financial resources invested in CAM (Sarris, 2012), and due to a lack of evidence underpinning many practices used in conventional care (Hoenders et al., 2011). It is further claimed that many forms of CAM are not suitably evaluated by means of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), i.e., the gold standard of EBM and of Western biomedical notions of truth (Gale, 2014). ...
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    ... Many factors need to be considered when determining whether to first recommend a Western medical treatment or a CAM modality. On the assumption that established Western medical treatments are more substantiated than the majority of CAM modalities Hoenders et al. have argued that CAM modalities should be recommended only when conventional Western medical treatments have previously been tried "or at least advised as suggested by guidelines and protocols (Hoenders, Appelo, van den Brink, Hartogs, & de Jong, 2011)." In other words, Western medical treatments should always have precedence over CAM approaches. ...
    Chapter
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    ... Nonconventional medicine includes therapeutic lifestyle changes and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) (Hoenders, 2013). Complementary medicine comprises diagnostics, treatments, and prevention strategies based on theories accepted in biomedicine and substantiated by some scientific evidence (two or more randomized controlled trials [RCTs]), but for various (cultural or practical) reasons are no part of biomedicine (Hoenders et al., 2011). Alternative medicine comprises diagnostics, treatments, and prevention strategies using other than the basic concepts of biomedicine. ...
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    ... Nonconventional medicine includes therapeutic lifestyle changes and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) (Hoenders, 2013). Complementary medicine comprises diagnostics, treatments, and prevention strategies based on theories accepted in biomedicine and substantiated by some scientific evidence (two or more randomized controlled trials [RCTs]), but for various (cultural or practical) reasons are no part of biomedicine (Hoenders et al., 2011). Alternative medicine comprises diagnostics, treatments, and prevention strategies using other than the basic concepts of biomedicine. ...
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    ... It is important that 55% of survey respondents reported that depression and anxiety were successfully treated at their clinics using integrative therapies. Along these lines, Hoenders et al 62 have developed guidelines for integrative mental health care using algorithms to identify optimal treatment protocols for common psychiatric disorders. Future innovations in mental health care should incorporate evidence-based integrative protocols employing a flexible, patient-centered collaborative care model with the goal of more effectively and more cost-effectively addressing complex medical and psychiatric disorders that respond poorly to available conventional treatments and the usual model of care. ...
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    ... Een uitzondering in Nederland is het Centrum voor Integrale Psychiatrie (CIP) van Lentis in Groningen. Vanuit de kernwaarden van een individuele behandeling, patiëntenvoorkeuren en veiligheid, is er een duidelijk protocol ontwikkeld onder welke condities complementaire zorg, als aanvulling op de reguliere zorg, kan worden toegepast [28]. Het kan de moeite waard zijn de leerervaring van het CIP te evalueren en te vertalen naar aanbevelingen voor beleid in andere sectoren. ...
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    ... The INIMH Board members have also written and published several papers in the area of IMH e.g. [8][9][10][11][12] and many members educate the public, clinicians, and academics about the theory and practice of IMH. ...
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