FIGURE 1 - uploaded by Luca Chiaraviglio
Content may be subject to copyright.
Comparison of the ICNIRP and the Italian EMF limits, on a logarithmic scale and versus frequency.

Comparison of the ICNIRP and the Italian EMF limits, on a logarithmic scale and versus frequency.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
The deployment of 5G networks will necessarily involve the installation of new Base Station (BS) equipment to support the requirements of next-generation mobile services. In a scenario where there exist already many sources of ElectroMagnetic Fields (EMFs), including overlapping 2G/3G/4G technologies of competing network operators, there is a growi...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... the following, we measure the QoS through the RSRP metric. We proceed as follows: (i) we collect the RSRP of the serving BS of the current operator, together with the coordinates of the measurement device, across the TMC area and the neighboring districts; (ii) we apply a uniform grid over the considered area, with a pixel resolution of 30 m; (iii) we consider the measurement points falling inside each pixel, and we compute the RSRP of the pixel as the average of its points; (iv) we repeat (i)-(iii) for each operator. Fig. 10 reports the obtained results. We recall that the RSRP is a measure of the quality of the reference received signal. According to [48], the Signal To Noise (SNR) ratio may be proportional to the values of RSRP. In our cases, different zones of TMC are exhibiting very low values of RSRP (e.g., lower than or equal to -110 dBm), thus suggesting that the QoS offered to users is pretty low in these zones. We have also manually verified this aspect, by experiencing frequent dropped calls, and difficulty in accessing to the Internet appli- cations. Nevertheless, there are also some zones experiencing good RSRP values (i.e., higher than -90 dBm). By comparing Fig. 10 with Fig. 8 we can note that these zones are in general close to the BSs installed in the neighboring districts. Finally, we point out that the obtained measurements are taken outdoor at street level. We expect that the RSRP values measured inside buildings (and in particular at lower floors) are even worse that those reported ...
Context 2
... the following, we measure the QoS through the RSRP metric. We proceed as follows: (i) we collect the RSRP of the serving BS of the current operator, together with the coordinates of the measurement device, across the TMC area and the neighboring districts; (ii) we apply a uniform grid over the considered area, with a pixel resolution of 30 m; (iii) we consider the measurement points falling inside each pixel, and we compute the RSRP of the pixel as the average of its points; (iv) we repeat (i)-(iii) for each operator. Fig. 10 reports the obtained results. We recall that the RSRP is a measure of the quality of the reference received signal. According to [48], the Signal To Noise (SNR) ratio may be proportional to the values of RSRP. In our cases, different zones of TMC are exhibiting very low values of RSRP (e.g., lower than or equal to -110 dBm), thus suggesting that the QoS offered to users is pretty low in these zones. We have also manually verified this aspect, by experiencing frequent dropped calls, and difficulty in accessing to the Internet appli- cations. Nevertheless, there are also some zones experiencing good RSRP values (i.e., higher than -90 dBm). By comparing Fig. 10 with Fig. 8 we can note that these zones are in general close to the BSs installed in the neighboring districts. Finally, we point out that the obtained measurements are taken outdoor at street level. We expect that the RSRP values measured inside buildings (and in particular at lower floors) are even worse that those reported ...
Context 3
... a regulation perspective, many countries in the world adopt the conservative EMF limits set by ICNIRP [6], [8]. For example, the European council recommendation 1999/519/EC has set the EMF limits based on the values pro- moted by ICNIRP [39]. However, different countries (e.g., Canada, Italy, Poland, Switzerland, China, Russia) enforce national laws that set even more stringent limits [6]. As an example, in Italy two distinct classes of limits exist: (i) general limits (which are in most of cases already lower than the ICNIRP ones), and (ii) restrictive limits (named attention levels) applied to houses (including terraces and balconies), schools, and in general to buildings where people spend long, continued periods of time. Based on a precautionary princi- ple, attention levels can be more than 10 times lower than the ICNIRP ones, as shown in Fig. 1, which illustrates the ICNIRP limits and the Italian ones, for different frequency bands. Eventually, further regulations may also introduce constraints even in the minimum distance that has to be enforced between a BS and a sensitive place (which may be, e.g., a school or a hospital) [40]. As a result, the actual network planning is subject to a wide set of ...
Context 4
... clearly emerges from the previous discussion is that it is mandatory that the planning of a 5G network accounts for the EMF exposure limits. However, this is only one aspect. In fact, the planning of cellular networks is a complex problem per se (see, e.g., [9]). In the context of 5G networks, we believe that the EMF-aware planning should take into account a variety of aspects, which are summarized as main guidelines in Fig. 11. Although these guidelines may appear pretty general at a first glance, we provide evidence that each of them is denoted by specific features related to the 5G technology, as well as to the ongoing debate about EMF ...
Context 5
... the following, we analyze the EMF exposure on the considered scenario. To this aim, we utilize the ray tracing simulator developed in [41], which requires as input: (i) the description of the scene in terms of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM); (ii) a vector file containing vertex position and height of the buildings; (iii) the characterization of the antennas in terms of location, input power, radiation diagram, and pointing angles (see Tab. 1). The simulator outputs a map of the EMF level for each antenna, by leveraging electromag- netic models, including reflection and diffraction. Clearly, the accuracy of the obtained results significantly depends on the accuracy of the considered scene models. This also includes the characterization of the electromagnetic properties of building walls in terms of complex dielectric constants [42]. However, we point out that we are here concerned with the verification of the compliance with EMF limits, rather than with coverage evaluation, where areas with low field levels are investigated. Therefore, we focus on high EMF levels, which are less affected by scene model inaccuracies, since the main involved rays experience a limited amount of reflection and diffraction events. Eventually, the 39 EMF maps are combined to obtain the total EMF level in each point on the scene. Since all the involved frequencies (ranging from 902 MHz to 2140 MHz, i.e., lower than 3 GHz) are subject to the same Italian general EMF exposure limit (i.e., the red line of Fig. 1), a simple incoherent summation of the square modulus of the results obtained by each simulation can be performed. The final EMF levels are computed by applying the root square operator on this summation. Fig. 4 reports the obtained EMF levels, where red dots and green dots mark the position of TIM and Wind Tre sites, respectively. The output map grid has a pixel size of 5?5 m 2 and the EMF levels are evaluated at 1.5 m above terrain or roof (where buildings are present). Interestingly, many zones experience EMF levels consistently higher than the limits. In particular, even discarding the areas associated to the roofs (which may be inaccessible to the inhabitants), large areas at street level experience EMF levels higher than the allowed ones. In order to better support this conclusion, Fig. 5.a highlights in red the zones where the limits are exceeded. In this situation, most of the large square located in the South of the stadium and several other areas of the scene experience EMF levels exceeding the 20 V/m ...
Context 6
... the adoption of 5G solutions Unlock 5G-based business opportunities impact at different levels. To this aim, Fig. 12 summarizes the impact at the governmental, societal, technological, and sci- entific research levels. At the governmental level, a revision of the limits for the countries adopting more stringent limits than the ones of ICNIRP may be triggered. This process may be activated if the outcome of the planning will result into the inability of placing new 5G cells in zones already hosting sites from multiple operators and/or legacy pre-5G technologies. In this context, the procedure adopted to verify if the EMFs are lower than the maximum limits may be subject to revision. Actually, the assumption of constant maximum radiated power is very conservative. National laws contemplate the possibility to compute the radiated power as an average over time, but this option needs to be considered in the light of the actual values of radiated power that will be measured by the 5G equipment. In any case, it is expected that the countries will ensure the EMF constraints by adopt- ing the best practices promoted by supranational bodies (e.g., ICNIRP, IEEE, and ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
Background Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF), particularly from telecommunications sources, is one of the most common and fastest growing anthropogenic factors on the environment. In many countries, humans are protected from excessive RF EMF exposure by safety standards that are based on guidelines by the International Co...

Citations

... In spite of the vast research efforts towards Next-G networks [10], [11], as well as on EMF exposure assessment on human health [12], research about EMF-aware network management is surprisingly scarce. Indeed, most existing works focus on the network planning stage, e.g., placing the PoAs in such a way that EMF exposure targets (or limits) are not exceeded [9], [13]. These approaches, however, fail to exploit the capability of modern virtualized, software-defined, cellfree networks. ...
Preprint
In cell-free wireless networks, multiple connectivity options and technologies are available to serve each user. Traditionally, such options are ranked and selected solely based on the network performance they yield; however, additional information such as electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure could be considered. In this work, we explore the trade-offs between network performance and EMF exposure in a typical indoor scenario, finding that it is possible to significantly reduce the latter with a minor impact on the former. We further find that surrogate models represent an efficient and effective tool to model the network behavior.
... Chiaraviglio et al. [149] aimed to clarify the location of 5G network plans that support EMF, especially 5G BS devices that comply with downstream EMF limits. The author introduced the latest technologies for EMF-enabled mobile networks and outlined how current exposure limits and EMF constraints affect 5G planning. ...
Article
Full-text available
Smart City has been an emerging research domain for Government, Businesses, and researchers in the last few years. The Indian government is also interested and investing lots of funds to develop smart cities. These cities are technology-based and require interdisciplinary research and development for successful implementation. Over the last few decades, various technological interventions have created a tendency to provide smart everyday objects to make human life more comfortable. The emergence of the smart city paradigm is a response to creating a future city that guarantees the well-being and rights of its citizens from the perspective of industrial development: industry, urban planning, environment, and sustainable development. There are several subdomains in the smart city for the research. To work with the different subdomains in a smart city, proper guidance about the background of the smart city is required. This research paper is a guide for the same. This research paper represents a systematic literature review of the smart city domain. This paper carries out a systematic review of research papers published in various well-reputed journals like IEEE, Springer, Elsevier, etc., between 2011 and 2021. This paper will help the government, businesses, and researchers aiming to enhance the smart city concept. Initially, this paper discusses the origin and emergence of this concept, followed by a few definitions and characteristics with the real roadmap and primary supporting pillars of the smart city. This paper discusses a typical architecture having different layers like Sensing, Transportation, Data Management, and Application Layers. There are various supporting technologies and platforms for the smart city; hence implementations are impossible without these technologies and media. This research paper discusses different components of the smart city. A broad literature survey is being done to observe various challenges, opportunities, and future trends in the smart city. This research paper can guide the researchers and provide the research direction in the smart city domain.
... The antennas are fed by remote radio heads (RRHs) connected to a baseband hotel via optical fiber. Considering higher frequency bands used by the 5th generation (5G) of mobile networks and the stringent electromagnetic field (EMF) limits enforced in certain countries (e.g., Canada, Italy, Poland, Switzerland, China, Russia) [7], ISDs of a few 100's of meters up to 1000 m are necessary to provide the required data capacity. While short ISDs are common in dense urban areas and are needed to provide sufficient cells for the capacity demand, the particular railway scenario does not need such a high cell density. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Modern trains act as Faraday cages making it challenging to provide high cellular data capacities to passengers. A solution is the deployment of linear cells along railway tracks, forming a cellular corridor. To provide a sufficiently high data capacity, many cell sites need to be installed at regular distances. However, such cellular corridors with high power sites in short distance intervals are not sustainable due to the infrastructure power consumption. To render railway connectivity more sustainable, we propose to deploy fewer high-power radio units with intermediate low-power support repeater nodes. We show that these repeaters consume only 5 % of the energy of a regular cell site and help to maintain the same data capacity in the trains. In a further step, we introduce a sleep mode for the repeater nodes that enables autonomous solar powering and even eases installation because no cables to the relays are needed.
... The antennas are fed by remote radio heads (RRHs) connected to a baseband hotel via optical fiber. Considering higher frequency bands used by the 5th generation (5G) of mobile networks and the stringent electromagnetic field (EMF) limits enforced in certain countries (e.g., Canada, Italy, Poland, Switzerland, China, Russia) [7], ISDs of a few 100's of meters up to 1000 m are necessary to provide the required data capacity. While short ISDs are common in dense urban areas and are needed to provide sufficient cells for the capacity demand, the particular railway scenario does not need such a high cell density. ...
... However, with the rapid rise of the data center scale, the network optimization, resource management, operation and maintenance, and data center security have become more and more complicated and challenging. What's more, the burgeoning development of 5G has spawned numerous complex, real-time, diversified, and heterogeneous service scenarios [1,2], such as enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) (e.g., ultra-high definition adaptation, augmented reality, virtual reality), ultra reliable low latency communication (uRLLC) (e.g., internet of vehicles, industrial automation, mission-critical applications), and enhanced machine-type communication (eMTC) (e.g., Internet of Things, smart grid, smart cities). The emergence of these new services poses new standards and higher requirements for data centers [3,4], such as high concurrency, low latency, and micro-burst tolerance. ...
Preprint
To support the needs of ever-growing cloud-based services, the number of servers and network devices in data centers is increasing exponentially, which in turn results in high complexities and difficulties in network optimization. To address these challenges, both academia and industry turn to artificial intelligence technology to realize network intelligence. To this end, a considerable number of novel and creative machine learning-based (ML-based) research works have been put forward in recent few years. Nevertheless, there are still enormous challenges faced by the intelligent optimization of data center networks (DCNs), especially in the scenario of online real-time dynamic processing of massive heterogeneous services and traffic data. To best of our knowledge, there is a lack of systematic and original comprehensively investigations with in-depth analysis on intelligent DCN. To this end, in this paper, we comprehensively investigate the application of machine learning to data center networking, and provide a general overview and in-depth analysis of the recent works, covering flow prediction, flow classification, load balancing, resource management, routing optimization, and congestion control. In order to provide a multi-dimensional and multi-perspective comparison of various solutions, we design a quality assessment criteria called REBEL-3S to impartially measure the strengths and weaknesses of these research works. Moreover, we also present unique insights into the technology evolution of the fusion of data center network and machine learning, together with some challenges and potential future research opportunities.
... Internationally respected agencies such as the World Health Organization(WHO), the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) [39], and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), as well as the Recommendation of the European Council [40], have used these principles to make recommendations. However, some countries (like Brussels, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, and Italy) have enacted their own, more stringent rules and regulations, that might postpone or even obstruct the implementation of 5G networks due to EMF saturation [41][42][43][44]. The Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC), as the sector's operator, has issued the "Mandatory Standard for EMF Emission from radiocommunications base stations. ...
Article
Full-text available
The fifth-generation (5G) technology offers more capacity and data rates than the previous generations. It provides ultra-low latency and ultra-high dependability, allowing for efficient services in many industries. Using radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) above 6 GHz in 5G millimeter Wave(mm-Wave) base stations has concerned many people due to the potential health risks caused by EMF exposure. This study aims to measure the maximum exposure emitted by a 5G mm-Wave base station by utilizing international standards in both its assessment methodology and exposure limits. In this study, the R&S®TSMA6 scanner, R&S®ROMES4 software, and R&S®TSME30DC down converter have been used for the measurement campaign; in addition to the user equipment device (UE), GPS, and an omnidirectional antenna. The investigation is based on a code selective method due to the radiated power fluctuations over time with data traffic. To conduct the measurement, six tests are taken based on three different time frames, antenna directions, and user equipment device (UE) to investigate the RF-EMF exposure. The maximum and average exposure from the 5G mm-Wave base station are calculated and compared with the ICNIRP standard. The maximum exposure from the 29.5 GHz base station is found to be 5.71 V/m, and the highest amount of average exposure is 2.02V/m. In this study, it was found that the maximum and average exposure (RF-EMF) produced from a single 5G mm-Wave base station are well within the allowed RF-EMF standard limit.
... The typical KPI for such works is coverage probability [36]- [38], which is shown to be almost invariant with respect to base station location geometry in case of massive deployments [39]. However, the advent of 5G and its advanced radio technology has led to a paradigm change [40]- [42] and brought up a series of new challenges, such as the usage of millimeter wave radio transceivers [43] and ultra-dense nonuniform deployment [44], [45] in which case a number of heuristic algorithms have been developed to optimize both coverage and throughput [46], [47]. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that considers localization accuracy in the network planning problem. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The roll-out phase of the next generation of mobile networks (5G) has started and operators are required to devise deployment solutions while pursuing localization accuracy maximization. Enabling location-based services is expected to be a unique selling point for service providers now able to deliver critical mobile services, e.g., autonomous driving, public safety, remote operations. In this paper, we propose a novel roll-out base station placement solution that, given a Throughput-Positioning Ratio (TPR) target, selects the location of new-generation base stations (among available candidate sites) such that the throughput and localization accuracy are jointly maximized. Moving away from the canonical position error bound (PEB) analysis, we develop a realistic framework in which each positioning measurement is affected by errors depending upon the actual wireless channel between the measuring base station and the target device. Our solution, referred to as LOKO, is a fast-converging algorithm that can be readily applied to current 5G (or future) roll-out processes. LOKO is validated by means of an exhaustive simulation campaign considering real existing deployments of a major European network operator as well as synthetic scenarios.
... D UE to the ever increasing demand of high data-rate mobile communications together with the introduction of the latest standard 5G new radio (NR), the roll-out of new base stations or the extension of existing cellular base stations is continuing with high pace worldwide. With the introduction of 5G NR, additional bandwidth and massive MIMO antennas are used, and therefore, the total radiated transmit power of base stations, which also include the legacy LTE radio technology is highly increased [1]. Since the high bandwidth of 5G NR is mainly required in areas with a high demand of capacity, e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, in-situ electromagnetic field (EMF) measurements for investigating the electromagnetic attenuation of concrete-made flat rooftops are presented for the first time. In total ten rooftop sites were chosen to measure various types with different covers and construction variants. Considering the rooftop attenuation in the EMF-assessment can reduce the compliance boundary in vertical dimension of cellular sites with 4G or 5G NR radio systems, as the public area is typically below the rooftop. For precise measurement of the rooftop attenuation a measurement methodology is presented, which uses existing mobile radio signals. The measured rooftop attenuation values range from 12 dB to 40 dB for frequencies between 816 MHz and 3654 MHz including 4G and 5G and are dependent on the concrete thickness and rooftop cover. In addition, measurements of larger openings such as dome rooflights, which can decrease the rooftop attenuation in worst-case scenarios to nearly zero dB, are presented.
... Some recent studies reported the possibility of reducing exposure by adopting the beamforming technique [25]. In [26], a scenario was considered to evaluate the impact of pencil beamforming, as a strong reduction in human exposure was observed when the tuning of traffic beams integrated localization information. When the localization uncertainty was lower, the synthesized beams were narrower, and the EMF exposure decreased. ...
Article
Full-text available
Characterizing the time variations of signals emitted by mobile terminals provides complementary information to health authorities, especially with the increase of frequency and energy of radiation towards millimeter waves. This experimental work aimed to quantify and classify the time variability of the electric field level measured at 10cm from a mobile phone connected sequentially to a 4 th and 5 th generation mobile network. Statistic analysis was performed on data from real-time spectrum analyzers, while self-similarity was computed by first recurrence plots of the radiated emissions, corresponding to five different types of mobile applications. Moreover, specificities to the communication standard and the type of application were identified.
... However, there is actually a debate about the meaningfulness of such regulations. By imposing strict regulations, in fact, the pervasive installation of base stations over the territory may be impaired [16] -which may in turn result into coverage holes without any 5G signal and/or increased exposure from the user devices. As a result, some countries (like Poland and Lithuania) have recently harmonized their previously strict exposure limits to the ones reported in the international guidelines [9]. ...
... We impose a minimum distance d MIN equal to 19 m, in order to mimic a rooftop and/or tower base station installation, which prevents access to the general public inside the exclusion zone [A4], [A5]. In addition, d MIN is tuned in order to ensure a maximum EMF of 6 V/m, which is the maximum exposure allowed in Italy for residential areas [16]. The maximum coverage distance d MAX is then taken in the interval [100, 500] m, in order to mimic different densification options. ...
Article
Full-text available
The ongoing roll-out of 5G is causing worries among a fraction of the population. One big concern is the fact that 5G requires significantly more cell towers, and this may be perceived by some as more unintentional exposure to wireless radiation. The purpose of this article is to explain, in simple terms but still leveraging quantitative arguments, what is 5G densification, how such feature impacts our understanding of exposure from cell towers, and why the supposed syllogism “more antennas means more electromagnetic pollution” is flawed.